Language

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A     Conventions of Standard English (L1-2)
  1   Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    L.11-12.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    L.11-12.1a Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested.
    L.11-12.1b Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage, Garner’s Modern American English) as needed.
    L.9-10.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    L.9-10.1.a Use parallel structure.
    L.9-10.1.b Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.
  2   Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    L.11-12.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    L.11-12.2a Observe hyphenation conventions.
    L.11-12.2b Spell correctly.
    L.9-10.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    L.9-10.2.a Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.
    L.9-10.2.b Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
    L.9-10.2.c Spell correctly.
B     Knowledge of Language (L3)
  1   Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
    L.11-12.3 Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
    L.11-12.3a Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte’s Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.
    L.9-10.3 Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
    L.9-10.3.a Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook, Turabian’s Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.
C     Vocabulary Acquisition and Use (L4-6)
  1   Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
    L.11-12.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 11–12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
    L.11-12.4a Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    L.11-12.4b Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).
    L.11-12.4c Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.
    L.11-12.4d Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
    L.9-10.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9–10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
    L.9-10.4.a Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    L.9-10.4.b Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).
    L.9-10.4.c Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.
    L.9-10.4.d Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
  2   Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
    L.11-12.5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
    L.11-12.5a Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text.
    L.11-12.5b Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
    L.9-10.5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
    L.9-10.5.a Interpret figures of speech (e.g., satire, sarcasm) in context and analyze their role in the text.
    L.9-10.5.b Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
  3   Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge whe
    L.11-12.6 Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
    L.9-10.6 Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression