47.0609 - Avionics Maintenance Technology (2012)

Plus Technical Standards

Plus I. Technical Standards
  Plus A. Introductory & General Requirements - Direct Current (DC) Basic Terms
    Plus 1. Identify basic facts and define terms related to direct current to include the following:
        a. Ampere
        b. Battery
        c. Capacitor
        d. Conductor
        e. Coulomb
        f. Current
        g. Direct current
        h. Electron
        i. EMF
        j. Farad
        k. Henry
        l. Inductor
        m. Insulator
        n. Left-hand Rule
        o. Magnetic permeability
        p. Magnetism
        q. Metric prefixes
        r. Neutron
        s. Ohm
        t. Proton
        u. Resistance
        v. Scientific notation
        w. Static electricity
        x. Volt
        y. Watts
  Plus B. Introductory & General Requirements - Alternating Current (AC) Basic Terms
    Plus 1. Identify basic facts and define terms related to direct current to include the following:
        a. Alternating current
        b. Apparent power
        c. Capacitive reactance
        d. Delta wound
        e. Effective
        f. Frequency
        g. Impedance
        h. Inductive reactance
        i. Phase
        j. Polyphase
        k. Power factor
        l. Rectifier
        m. Resistance
        n. RMS
        o. Sine wave
        p. True power
        q. Wye wound
  Plus C. Introductory & General Requirements - Basic Circuit Theory of Operation
    Plus 1. Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about basic circuit theory of operation to include:
        a. Amps
        b. Bridge circuits
        c. Complex circuits
        d. Joules
        e. Kirchoff"s law
        f. Parallel circuits
        g. Power
        h. Resistance
        i. Resistors in parallel circuits
        j. Resistors in series circuits
        k. Series circuits
        l. Voltage drop
        m. Volts
        n. Watts
  Plus D. Introductory & General Requirements - Basic Circuit Troubleshooting
    Plus 1. Determine step-by-step procedures and is partially proficient (Can do most parts of the task. Only needs help on hardest parts.) in troubleshooting basic circuits.
        a. Troubleshooting theory
        b. Bridge circuits
        c. Complex circuit voltage drop
        d. Kirchoff"s law
        e. Parallel circuits
        f. Resistors in parallel circuits
        g. Resistors in series circuits
        h. Series circuits
  Plus E. Introductory & General Requirements - Basic Circuit Calculations
    Plus 1. Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about basic circuit calculations for AC:
        a. Apparent power
        b. Capacitance
        c. Capacitive reactance
        d. Effective (working) voltage
        e. Frequency
        f. Impedance
        g. Inductance
        h. Inductive reactance
        i. Peak voltage
        j. Period
        k. Phase angle
        l. Power factor
        m. Resonance
        n. True power
    Plus 2. Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about basic circuit calculations for DC:
        a. Amps
        b. Ohms
        c. Volts
        d. Watts
  Plus F. Introductory & General Requirements - DC / AC Basic Circuit Measurements
    1. Determine step-by-step procedures and is partially proficient in measuring basic circuits with ammeters.
    2. Determine step-by-step procedures and is partially proficient in measuring basic circuits with ohmmeters.
    3. Determine step-by-step procedures and is partially proficient in measuring basic circuits with oscilloscopes.
    4. Determine step-by-step procedures and is partially proficient in measuring basic circuits with a votmeter.
  Plus G. Introductory & General Requirements - Resistor / Color Codes
    1. Determine step-by-step procedures and is partially proficient in the use of color codes to identify resistor/ resistance values.
  Plus H. Introductory & General Requirements - Resistor / Fault Isolation
    Plus 1. Determine step-by-step procedures and is partially proficient in fault isolation of resistors.
        a. Improperly installed resistors
        b. Open resistors
        c. Resistors of incorrect value
        d. Shorted resistors
  Plus I. Introductory & General Requirements - Inductors
    Plus 1. Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about inductors to include theory of operation:
        a. Calculation of inductive reactance
        b. Correct operation of inductors (coils)
        c. Use of multiple inductors
    Plus 2. Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about inductors to include i:solate faulty inductors:
        a. Improperly installed inductors
        b. Open inductors
        c. Shorted inductors
  Plus J. Introductory & General Requirements - Capacitor / Theory of Operation
    Plus 1. Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about capacitors to include:
        a. Calculation of capacitive reactance
        b. Correct operation of capacitors
        c. Dielectric
        d. Electrolytic
        e. Farad
        f. Fixed capacitors
        g. Time constants
        h. Use of multiple capacitors
        i. Variable capacitors
  Plus K. Introductory & General Requirements - Capacitor / Fault Isolation
    Plus 1. Determine step-by-step procedures and is partially proficient in fault isolation of capacitors.
        a. Improperly installed capacitors
        b. Open capacitors
        c. Shorted capacitors
  Plus L. Introductory & General Requirements - Transformer / Theory of Operation
    Plus 1. Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about transformers to include:
        a. Counter EMF
        b. Eddy currents
        c. Hysteresis
        d. Primary winding
        e. Secondary winding
        f. Step-down
        g. Step-up
  Plus M. Introductory & General Requirements - Transformer / Fault Isolation
    Plus 1. Determine step-by-step procedures and is partially proficient in fault isolation of transformers.
        a. Improperly installed transformers
        b. Open or shorted primary coil
        c. Primary or secondary resistance testing
        d. Secondary coil
  Plus N. Introductory & General Requirements - Analog Circuits, Devices & Switches
    Plus 1. Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about switches to include:
        a. Derating factors
        b. DPDT
        c. DPST
        d. Micro switch
        e. Mornally closed
        f. Normally open
        g. Proximity switches
        h. Push button switch
        i. Relays
        j. Rocker
        k. Rotary
        l. Solenoids
        m. SPDT
        n. Switches
        o. Toggle
  Plus O. Introductory & General Requirements - Power Supply Circuit / Rectifiers
    Plus 1. Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about supply circuits and rectifiers to include:
        a. Diode
        b. Forward bias
        c. Full-wave rectifier
        d. Germanium
        e. Half-wave rectifier
        f. Reverse bias
        g. Ripple amplitude
        h. Silicon
        i. Solid-state
        j. Three phase rectifier
        k. Types of components used
        l. Use of power supply circuits
  Plus P. Introductory & General Requirements - Power Supply Circuit / Filters
    1. Identify basic facts and terminology related to active filters
    2. Identify basic facts and terminology related to passive filters
  Plus Q. Introductory & General Requirements - Frequency Sensitive Filter - Theory of Operation
    Plus 1. Identify basic facts and terminology related to frequency sensitive filters to include:
        a. Band-pass
        b. Band-reject
        c. Cutoff frequency
        d. Demodulation
        e. Detection
        f. Filtering
        g. High-pass
        h. Tuning circuit
        i. Use of crystals
  Plus R. Introductory & General Requirements - Wave Generation Circuits
    1. Identify basic facts and terminology related to oscillators and wave generation circuits
    Plus 2. Identify basic facts and terminology related to waveshaping circuits
        a. Crystal - controlled oscillator
        b. Hartley oscillator
        c. LC tank
        d. Oscillator
        e. Regenerative feedback path
        f. Astable multivibrator
        g. Bistable multivibrator
        h. Crystal - controlled oscillator
        i. LC tank
        j. Monostable multivibrator
        k. Oscillator
  Plus S. Introductory & General Requirements - Limiter Circuits
    Plus 1. Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about diodes
        a. Forward bias
        b. Proper use and installation
        c. Reverse bias
        d. Schematic diagram symbol
    Plus 2. Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about zener diodes
        a. Proper use and installation
        b. Schematic diagram symbol
    Plus 3. Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about transistors
        a. Base current
        b. Bipolar
        c. Collector base junction
        d. Collector current
        e. Emitter base junction
        f. Emitter current
        g. NPN
        h. PNP
        i. Polarity of connections
        j. Proper use and installation
        k. Schematic diagram symbol
  Plus T. Introductory & General Requirements - Digital Numbering Systems
    Plus 1. Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about digital numbering systems to include:
        a. Binary
        b. Conversion from / to digital and hexadecimal
        c. Digital signal
        d. One
        e. Zero
        f. Octal
        g. Conversion from / to binary and decimal
        h. Octal notation
        i. Triad
        j. Hexadecimal
        k. Base 16
        l. Decimal to hex conversion
        m. Hex to decimal conversion
  Plus U. Introductory & General Requirements - Digital Logic Functions
    Plus 1. Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about main logic gate
        a. Display of digital data
        b. Exclusive OR
        c. INVERT
        d. Logic gates
        e. NAND
        f. Normally open
        g. OR
        h. Positive and negative logic
        i. Proper use and installation
        j. Truth tables
    Plus 2. Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about flip-flops
        a. Advantages of flip-flops
        b. Asynchronous flip-flop
        c. Clock pulse
        d. Data-type latch
        e. JK flip-flop
        f. Latches
        g. RS latch
    Plus 3. Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about counters
        a. Adder and subtractor circuits
        b. Asynchronous
        c. Counter triggering method
        d. Frequency division characteristics
        e. Full-adder
        f. Half-adder
        g. Subtractor
        h. Synchronous
    Plus 4. Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about adders
        a. Adder
        b. Full-adder
        c. Half-adder
  Plus V. Common Maintnenance Practices - Hazards / Safety Practices
    Plus 1. Identify basic facts and terminology related to hazards and safety practices to include:
        a. RF energy
        b. Noise
        c. Electrical Power (Circuit protection devices and elimination / termination of circuit power)
        d. ESD protection
        e. Microwave
        f. Hazardous liquids (acetone, cleaners and caustic solutions used in electronics, how to obtain proper Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) information, MEK, solvents)
        g. First aid for electrical shock
  Plus W. Common Maintnenance Practices - Hazardous Materials Handling
    Plus 1. Identify basic facts and terminology related to hazardous material handling to include:
        a. Handling procedures
        b. Material safety data sheets
        c. Proper disposal
        d. Storage & labeling
        e. Types of hazardous materials / fluids
  Plus X. Common Maintnenance Practices -Common Maintnenance Practices -FOD Prevention
    Plus 1. Understand general principles and can do simple parts of the tasks related to the following:
        a. Foreign object elimination (FOE)
        b. Housekeeping
        c. Tool control and management
  Plus Y. Common Maintnenance Practices - Technical Publications
    1. Interpret installation manuals
    Plus 2. Interpret technical data
        a. Block diagrams
        b. Pictorial diagrams
        c. Schematic diagrams
        d. Wiring diagrams
    Plus 3. Locate & interpret avionics installation data
        a. Aircraft equipment lists
        b. Aircraft maintenance records
        c. Aircraft weight and balance
        d. Approved flight manual supplements
        e. Supplemental type certifications (STC's)
    Plus 4. Interpret wiring diagrams
        a. Interpret charts, blueprints, drawings & sketches
        b. Interpret aircraft equipment list information
  Plus Z. Fundamentals of On-Equipment Maintenance - Use Common Tools
    Plus 1. Determine step-by-step procedures and is partially proficient in the use of general-purpose tools
        a. Hammers / mallets
        b. Screwdrivers
        c. Pliers / plier type cutting tools
        d. Punches
        e. Wrenches / special wrenches
    Plus 2. Determine step-by-step procedures and is partially proficient in the use of metal cutting tools
        a. Hand snips
        b. Files
        c. Drills
        d. Twist drills
        e. Reamers
    Plus 3. Determine step-by-step procedures and is partially proficient in layout and measuring tools
        a. Scales
        b. Tapes
        c. Dividers
    4. Determine step-by-step procedures and is partially proficient in soldering iron / gun
    5. Determine step-by-step procedures and is partially proficient in using crimping tools
    6. Determine step-by-step procedures and is partially proficient in the use of stripping tools
    7. Determine step-by-step procedures and is partially proficient in the use of magnifiers
  Plus AA. Fundamentals of On-Equipment Maintenance - Handling Electrostatic Devices
    Plus 1. Identify basic facts and terminology related to ESD devices to include:
        a. Recognizing and preventing damage to electronic components due to electrostatic discharge (ESD)
  Plus AB. Fundamentals of On-Equipment Maintenance - Identify & Perform Corrosion Control
    Plus 1. Understand general principles and can do simple parts of the tasks related to the following:
        a. Exfoliation
        b. Galvanic
        c. Intergranular
        d. Pitting
  Plus AC. Fundamentals of On-Equipment Maintenance - Use Safety Devices
    1. Understand general principles and can do simple parts of the tasks related to safety wire
    Plus 2. Understand general principles and can do simple parts of the tasks related to shear wire
        a. Acceptable safety wire practices
        b. All types of safety devices
        c. Types and sizes of safety wire
  Plus AD. Fundamentals of On-Equipment Maintenance - Aircraft Wiring
    Plus 1. Identify basic facts and terminology related to aircraft wiring to include:
        a. Coaxial cable
        b. Databus (multiplex) cables
        c. Multiconductor
        d. Single conductor
        e. Twisted pair
  Plus AE. Fundamentals of On-Equipment Maintenance - Perform Wire Maintenance
    1. Demonstrate lacing / tying wire bundles
    2. Demonstrate cutting wire / cables
    3. Demonstrate splicing
    4. Demonstrate connecting terminals
    5. Demonstrate connecting terminals to terminal blocks
    6. Demonstrate bonding and grounding
    7. Demonstrate conduit
    8. Demonstrate continuity checks
    9. Demonstrate wiring inspections
  Plus AF. Fundamentals of On-Equipment Maintenance - Use Test Equipment / Special Tools
    1. Identify the steps of using a analog multimeter
    2. Identify the steps of using a continuity tester
    3. Identify the steps of using a digital multimeter
    4. Identity the steps of using an oscilloscope
  Plus AG. Aircraft Fundamentals - Aircraft Structures
    1. Identify and define fuselage
    2. Identify and define wings
    3. Identify and define empennage components
    4. Identify and define internal and external bracing for structural integrity
    5. Identify and define streamlining and drag reduction for airframes and structures
    6. Identify and define aircraft axis and controls
    7. Identify and define aerodynamis forces
    8. Identify and define theory of flight (e.g. Bernoulli's principal, newton's laws of motion, airfoils, forces that act on the aircraft in flight)
  Plus AH. Aircraft Fundamentals - Aircraft Handling and Safety
    1. Identify steps of aircraft pre and post flight inspection
    2. Identify steps of ground movement of aircraft
    3. Define EPA
    4. Define OSHA
    5. Identify the steps of storage of aircraft ( e.g. preparation for and removal from storage)
  Plus AI. NCATT FOE (Foreign Object Elimination) - Basic Facts & Principles
    Plus 1. Identify, define and explain the following basic aviation and aerospace industry FOE/FOD terms and definitions. (FO, FOD, FOE, Potential FOD, FOD Designated Area, FOD Barriers, FOD Walk/Sweep, Critical FO, Clean As You Go,Consumables/MSP, Housekeeping, Focal Point, FOD Point of Contact)
        a. FO (Foreign Object)—Sometimes referred to as Foreign Object Debris (FOD) – Any alien substance or article that invades any component of the aircraft and which causes or has potential to cause damage to aircraft, persons, equipment, or otherwise diminish safety.
        b. FOD (Foreign Object Damage)—Any damage or incident attributed to a foreign object that can be expressed in physical or economic terms which may or may not degrade the product’s required safety and/or performance characteristics.
        c. FOE (Foreign Object Elimination)—A program or process used to assure a FOD-free product/system.
        d. Potential FOD – The condition where foreign object debris may cause damage, and/or failure should the product be put into use.
        e. FOD Designated Area— (Also referred to as FOD Critical (NAS 412) or FOD Sensitive)—Any area where flight hardware is in place and exposure to foreign objects would potentially cause a system or product failure due to deterioration, malfunction or damage.
        f. FOD Barriers—Devices such as edge protectors, caps, plugs, and protective covers used for hoses, cables, ducts, electronic components and other hardware exposed to potential damage.
        g. FOD Walk / Sweep—Physical inspection and removal of FO in an assigned area or a zone.
        h. Critical FO— Any material that is inadvertently left inside an assembly after close out or test and any foreign objects in areas from which migration is possible, (e.g., through tooling holes, bend relief cutouts, drain holes, intakes, etc.) which are probable to cause system or component malfunction or deterioration should the product be put into use.
        i. Clean As You Go—An ongoing process of removing work debris and keeping the work area clean while performing a task on a product.
        j. Consumables / MSP (Miscellaneous Small Parts) and PLS (Production Line Stock)—Supplies provided to workers that are expendable. Examples are:
        k. Housekeeping—Is the responsibility of employees to maintain a clean and orderly work area with necessary tools, materials, and equipment in their places of orderly arrangement.
        l. Focal Point— A FOD Focal Point should develop and implement plans and programs to prevent damage to aerospace products during associated design, manufacturing, assembly, test, acceptance, packaging, handling, storage, transporting, maintenance, flight line, and launch operations. The Focal Point assures that FOD incidents are thoroughly investigated and that incident reports are completed as applicable. The Focal Point(s) should be appointed by upper level management (e.g. the chief operating official) and have sufficient authority and organizational freedom to identify and implement FOD preventive measures whenever and wherever required. The Focal Point is described in detail in NAS 412.
        m. FOD Point of Contact (FOD POC) / Local FOD Coordinator—The FOD Point of Contact is in charge of and in direct control of FOD Designated Areas, including personnel entry, tool control logs, FOD audits, posting alerts and completing FOD Incident Reports. The Focal Point and the FOD Point of Contact work as a team. Students should understand that position titles and responsibilities tend to change from organization to organization. FOD Focal Point(s) and FOD POC tends to fall into organizational specific structure and titling differences. Typically organizations that do not identify a Focal Point and a FOD Point of Contact as separate and unique positions will blend the responsibilities of the Focal Point and the FOD Point of Contact. In at least one large aerospace manufacturing organization the FOD Point of Contact position is known as the Local FOD Coordinator. Regardless of titles and levels of responsibility the work of a FOD Focal Point / FOD Point of Contact / Local FOD Coordinator is significant. The FOD POC is not defined or addressed (as a unique position) in NAS 412 but FOD POC does appear in other FOE / FOD materials including FAA advisory circulars and FAA guidelines.
    Plus 2. Housekeeping - Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles relevant to the aviation and aerospace industry methodology (terms, tools and processes) on housekeeping.
        a. Clean As You Go Programs utilize practices to prevent FOD from migrating into aviation products. Clean As You Go Programs provide an ongoing process of removing work debris as it accumulates and keeps the work area clean while tasks are performed on products, vehicles, or assemblies in a FOD designated area.
        b. Paperwork is often a tool that technicians use to complete task or to track and account for loose parts. The technician must remember that items (paper, pens, pencils, staples, paperclips, and other office supplies) used with paperwork can sometimes become Foreign Objects themselves. Controlling loose office supplies is an important component of Clean As You Go Programs. It is important to always be conscious of personal actions around a FOD sensitive product, vehicle or assembly.
        c. All employees should ensure the work area is clean: prior to starting an operation, as an operation progresses and work debris accumulates, when an operation cannot continue, after an operation is completed and prior to inspection, & at the end of each shift
        d. FOD Cans and Containers—Foreign Object Debris cans and containers are strategically placed in FOD designated areas. FOD cans and containers are very useful tools in preventing foreign objects from migrating into aerospace products. It is everyone’s responsibility to utilize FOD cans and containers for any trash or foreign material in a FOD designated area.
        e. FOD Bags (typically worn by individuals) —A method of placing and securing any personal belongings such as change, contents of one’s pockets, jewelry (chains, necklaces, earrings, rings, watches), sun glasses, badges or any item that has the potential to become a Foreign Object. These bags are worn while visiting or working in a FOD designated area. Some FOD programs restrict the use of these bags to personal items only while other programs allow FOD bags to be used for collection of debris. FOD bags are not used for tool storage or transport (see “Tool Pouches / Tool Pockets / Tool Bags” in the Tool Accountability Standard #3).
        f. 5S—Sort, Straighten, Shine, Standardize, and Sustain, is a method that describes a Japanese concept for housekeeping and organization of the workplace. The 5S philosophy is appropriate and is used in many FOD program because good housekeeping processes and habits have a significant positive impact on FOD prevention. Some companies use 6S which includes Safety. In order to launch a 5S or 6S event all employees in the area participate to organize the area using the Sort, Straighten, Shine, Standardize, and Sustain process. Organization methods that include taping off areas, color coding and organizing tool cabinets are utilized. A map of the area is created displaying each assigned location.
        g. Permanent Tooling—At completion of any major or minor permanent tool maintenance or upgrade (may include facilities) FOD designated areas must be completely swept for all foreign objects, ensuring that all foreign objects are removed prior to area activation.
    Plus 3. Tool Accountability - Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about the following terms, definitions, methods, devices and process used to provide Tool Accountability Methods. (Tool control, Shadow Box/Board, Tether, Chit System, Tool Inventory Sheets, Tool Pouches/Tool Pockets/Tool Bags, and Tool Identification
        a. Tool Control – Any formal system designed to assure that each tool that goes onboard an aircraft is removed and accounted for.
        b. Shadow Box / Board— A toolbox or storage board with specifically, marked locations (e.g. foam cutouts) for each tool in the tool box or storage board so that a missing tool is readily noticeable. A tool box or storage board can be inventoried in 60 seconds or less. Shadow boxing with foam cutouts is very popular and is often used in conjunction with other methods.
        c. Tether—A lanyard of sufficient length and strength (wire, rope, cable, etc.) that is secured to the technician (user), structural workstand or other suitable location at one end (as appropriate) and the tool or equipment at the other end. The tether should be minimum length to preclude damage from tethered tool “free swing.” Tethering prevents dropping tools or equipment into or onto aircraft or other aerospace products. The tether itself can become FOD if it (including tether related hardware) is not regularly examined for damage and wear.
        d. Chit System— A chit is an assigned identification tag issued to a technician displaying a control number. Technicians replace any tool that they remove from a tool box with their assigned tag (chit). If another technician or area supervisor inventories the tool box, the chit system accounts for the missing tool and identifies the technician that is in possession of the tool. For this method of tool accountability to be effective tool boxes must be shadow boxed with specifically marked locations for each tool and technician must follows the one-for-one policy of removing a tool and replacing the tool with their assigned tag. If not controlled chits can become FOD themselves. It is the responsibility of every technician to control his or her chits, especially in the FOD designated areas. Chits can also be used to designate that a tool has been removed from the tool box for repair or calibration.
        e. Tool Inventory Sheets / Logs—Written Tool Inventory Sheets / Logs are a listing of tools and materials that must be checked in and out when entering or departing a FOD designated area. Completed Tool Inventory Sheets / Logs are required prior to the FOD designated area closeout.
        f. Tool Pouches / Tool Pockets / Tool Bags — A tool control pouch that contains an identified (inventoried) set of tools. The tool pouch is subject to logging in and out, or chitting.
        g. Tool Identification—Tools are marked for issue, return and accountability. Every tool that is assigned to a specific area or tool box is marked with one or more of the following methods: tags, sensors, bar codes, laser etching/engraving, and color code
        h. Consolidated Tool Kits—Also known as “CTK” are specific tool boxes with all tools inside assigned to the specific tool box. This tool box is inventoried by tool crib personnel or area supervision. The tool box has foam cutouts or magnetic storage containers, and is shadow boxed for easy inventory. Consolidated Tool Kits have replaced technician’s “personally provided” tools and tool boxes in most aerospace industry operations.
        i. Tool Condition—Assuring that a tool’s condition is clean, undamaged and free of Foreign Objects prior to use is a professional FOD prevention method. It is very important to visually inspect tools for all the conditions described herein. Tool condition inspections should be accomplished prior to and immediately after job completion. Broken or worn Tools - Visually inspect tools for broken or worn areas that can become FOD. Damaged - Any damaged tools should be repaired or replaced to prevent the damaged tool from becoming FOD. Dirty - Ensure the tools are clean and ready for use prior to each use. Flaking - (Chrome flaking) Flaking is a hidden foreign ofject and can become a serious problem if undetected.
        j. Sponge Count—A formal procedure utilizing a written record of all items entering and leaving a work area. The medical industry uses this procedure to ensure that all surgical materials that are taken into a surgical operation area are properly accounted for at the end of the surgical procedure. Thereby preventing FOD (a sponge, surgical tool, etc.) from accidentally being introduced or left inside a patient. Applying the “sponge count” methodology in aerospace industry settings ensures that foreign objects (Critical FO) are not left inside aerospace products, assemblies or vehicles.
        k. Electronic Tool Accountability System—Tools can be tracked to a user by a unique identifier such as a badge. The electronic tool accountability system utilizes electronic sensors and/or bar codes that identify each individual tool (see “Tool Identification” in this section).
    Plus 4. Hardware Accountability - Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about Hardware Accountability and describe the methods for controlling hardware.
        a. Hardware – A general term for all of the small components, such as nuts, bolts, screws, and washers used to assemble aerospace components, products and vehicles.
        b. Kitted Hardware—A kit that contains the exact amount of hardware assigned to perform a specific task. For example, to build a harness the exact amount of hardware, wire, plastic ties, and wrapping to complete the task is supplied to the technician. Use of kitted hardware ensures the technician has no spare hardware, and must use all of the hardware that is provided in the kit to successfully complete the task. If hardware becomes lost it is readily noticeable because the task will be incomplete by the amount of lost hardware. Early recognition that the hardware has been lost brings about early reporting of the lost hardware and immediate follow-up.
        c. Hardware Removal, Control and Replacement—If hardware is removed during maintenance, alteration or other task the removed hardware must be controlled and accounted for. Procedures used to control and account for removed hardware may differ from one organization to another, but established procedures must be followed. Failure to follow established procedures is often a major contributor in the creation of foreign objects.
        d. Hardware Storage— During the manufacturer, maintenance, repair or alteration of an aerospace product, assembly or vehicle it is critical to have hardware contained in a manner that does not promote migration to the product as FOD. As hardware storage moves closer to FOD designated areas, greater preventive and control features should be implemented.
        e. Tote Trays and Containers—A Tote Tray is a covered device for storing, carrying, or transporting hardware in a secure manner to prevent inadvertent droppings. Tote Trays and Containers are closed devices utilizing spring loaded lids (compared to open containers or loosely held hardware). Tote Trays and Containers are effective hardware control devices that help control and prevent accidental spillage of hardware. Hardware spillage prevention is an important element in FOD control and is extremely important when working over (above) an aerospace product, vehicle, or assembly. Dropped hardware from above tends to find its way into the most inaccessible and critical location.
    Plus 5. Lost Items - Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles of reporting lost or found items.
        a. Report Missing, Lost and Found Items—This is an integral part of having a successful FOD Program and all technicians are encouraged and responsible to report missing, lost or found items. Typically there is a documented process of steps that are to be followed, and is designed to ensure employees will report lost items before they cause damage. At most facilities there are NO repercussions for reporting a lost or missing tool or item even if the technician is at fault. Although established as a positive self reporting method, repeat offenders may face disciplinary action.
        b. If an item is lost during an assembly, manufacturing, or maintenance task, cease activity in the affected area and initiate a search for the item. Continue this search until the item is found or adequate assurances are made that the item is not contained in the aircraft, aerospace vehicle or assembly. Searching for such items may require de-paneling or nondestructive inspections, including flashlight and mirror, borescope and x-ray. If an item cannot be located after a search has been completed, annotate the applicable forms with a description of the item and the search procedure that was followed.
    Plus 6. Physical Entry & Personnel Control - Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles about physical entry into both flight hardware and FOD designated areas.
        a. General Entry—When physical entry is required into flight hardware (e.g., crew compartment, engine intake, exhaust, fuel tank areas, etc.) personnel should remove all loose objects, badges, jewelry, etc., from clothing. Pocketless or closed zippered pocket coveralls should be worn to preclude foreign objects dropping from pockets.
        b. Designated Areas—A FOD designated area is any area where flight hardware is in place and exposure to foreign objects would potentially cause a system or product failure due to deterioration, malfunction or damage.
        c. Most manufacturing companies identify FOD designated areas based on a risk assessment of the potential for FO to migrate into the final product. Requirements for entry into and working within these areas increase as the final product progresses through the factory to customer delivery.
        d. FOD designated areas whether found in manufacturing operations, repair station or general repair facilities, are selected and defined by the individual aerospace operator in accordance with their particular operational requirements. FOD designated areas are typically identified as: FOD Awareness, FOD Sensitive, FOD Critical, FOD Restricted and FOD Controlled. Entry into these areas is limited in accordance with the organization’s established FOD/FOE Program Procedures. The procedures may include training and/or certification(s) coupled to appropriate authorization.
    Plus 7. Reporting & Investigating - Identify basic facts and terms about reporting Foreign Object Damage incidents and investigation requirements.
        a. All Foreign Object Damage should be reported immediately and investigated as soon as possible. When a FOD incident occurs, operations should immediately cease and an investigation should be initiated to determine the cause. Cause and corrective action should be attained in a timely manner to preclude similar occurrences in the future - “lessons learned.” Cause may be determined by visual observation, forensic analysis or by location of the object.
        b. Follow established procedures for formally reporting FOD incidents as they may vary from company to company.
        c. All FOD incidents reports should be forward to the FOD Focal Point (see definitions) for investigation, cause and corrective action.
    Plus 8. Material Handling - Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles related to material handling.
        a. A well-established plan for material handling and parts protection can eliminate many potential FOD hazards
        b. Control Techniques
        c. Materials and accessories used in the packaging, handling, shipping and storage that have intimate contact with the part or assembly should be clean and free of contamination.
        d. Parts and assemblies should be packaged in a manner that will preclude any chance of one item making contact with another during normal handling operations.
        e. Protective and packaging materials should be chosen based on their ability to adequately resist penetration by tearing, parting or piercing from forces either external or internal during normal handling operations.
        f. Specific instructions for packaging, unpackaging, handling should be followed when provided.
        g. Protective devices/FOD Barriers (edge protectors, caps, plugs, covers, filters, rub strips) should be cleaned and secured to prevent accidental damage. *Refer to NCATT Standard #9 for additional information.
        h. Once installed, unauthorized removal of the protective devices is prohibited and should be controlled through assembly or maintenance paperwork.
        i. Consideration should be given to the visibility / detection of material used for protection so that the material itself doesn’t become FOD.
        j. Material Characteristics
        k. Materials should be compatible with the environmental and physical stresses expected to be encountered during product service.
        l. Electro-Static sensitive devices should be properly protected to avoid damage. Materials that are used to protect electro-explosive devices and sensitive electronic components should be kept clean, covered, and stored away from ordinary non-static safe materials.
        m. Condition—Visually inspect all packaging, handling, shipping and storage containers for the following:
        n. Nicks, dents, holes, abrasions, scratches, bums, etc., which may be detrimental to the function and integrity of the part or assembly.
        o. Grease, preservatives, corrosion products, weld slag, shop dirt, and other materials foreign to the item.
        p. Packaging / Containers—Packaging methods, materials and processes, including storage and shipping containers can be a source of FOD and could result in damage. In some cases there may be design considerations for FOD sensitive products, vehicles or assemblies that require the use of specific packaging and / or containers. In other applications the design considerations may forbid the use of a specific packaging or container. In all cases the proper packaging and/or containers must be used.
        q. Opening and Closing Containers—Caution must be taken when opening and closing containers. Nailing, strapping or installing screws can cause damage to hardware or provide additional internal FOD in the container.
        r. Storage—Follow the established storage procedures to prevent damage. Improper storage procedures can be a cause of Foreign Object Damage.
        s. Transportation—Follow transportation procedures to prevent damage. Transporting FOD sensitive products can be a cause of Foreign Object Damage. This consideration includes the responsibility of transportation vehicles to be free of loose debris while transporting FOD sensitive products.
    Plus 9. Parts Protections - Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles related to parts protection.
        a. FOD Barrier—A device used to protect electronic components and other hardware that are exposed to potential damage. It is a measure that prevents migration and entrapment of Foreign Object Debris in a FOD sensitive product. Devices such as edge protectors, caps, plugs, and protective covers that are used to seal-off and provide protection for hoses, cables and ducts are FOD Barriers. FOD Barriers can be a cause of Foreign Object Damage if not controlled or accounted for properly.
        b. FOD Barrier (Interior) Removal—Barriers placed inside lines to prevent FOD must be removed prior to closeout. Flags should be placed outside the line to remind personnel to remove interior barriers. Failure to remove FOD Barriers from fuel, hydraulic and vent lines has been, and continues to be, the cause of serious aviation incidents and accidents.
        c. Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)—ESD can be considered a source of Foreign Object Damage. Electrostatic discharge is the instantaneous discharge of static electricity that has built up on one surface or point and is discharged to another surface or point. It is commonly seen and felt when a person walks across a carpet or slides across a car seat and then reaches for the door handle. The zap that occurs is electrostatic discharge. Prior to coming into contact with an ESD sensitive product technicians must ensure that all potential static charge has been dissipated from their person through a grounding procedure. A recent example of ESD FOD occurred when an ungrounded maintenance technician came into contact with the open electrical terminal connection to a Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC). The FADEC was destroyed. Replacement cost of the FADEC exceeded $300,000 dollars. ESD is a complex subject with the potential for very expensive and dangerous consequences. Technician should seek additional and updated ESD training prior to handling ESD sensitive products.
    Plus 10. Hazardous Materials - Identify the basic facts and terms related to the handling, control and disposal of hazardous material.
        a. Management of hazardous materials is important in the prevention of minor and major injuries to personnel and aerospace products. Mismanagement of hazardous materials can lead to the inadvertent introduction of the material into or onto aerospace assemblies, components and vehicles resulting in Foreign Object Damage.
        b. Use and handling of hazardous materials must be performed in accordance with the specific materials Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS).
        c. Disposition of hazardous materials is dependent upon the commodity that is being discarded. Disposal must be in accordance with federal, state and local hazardous material disposal procedures.
    Plus 11. Wildlife / Environment - Identify the basic facts and terms related to wildlife and environment issues that are major causes of Foreign Object Damage.
        a. Wildlife—Can be a very dangerous source of Foreign Object Damage. For example a small animal can get into an aircraft and chew through wires causing unknown damage. Unpredictable bird strikes continue to be a major part of Foreign Object Damage to aircraft and are very difficult to manage. Another wildlife factor to consider is the potential for Foreign Object Damage from rodent droppings that introduce foreign objects into aviation and aerospace products that may or may not cause damage, but will result in an investigation that can waste time and money.
        b. Environment—Elements of weather are considered foreign objects. Snow, rain, hail, wind, and ice are foreign to the aircraft, product, or assembly and can cause damage.
    Plus 12. FOD Effects - Identify the relationship of basic facts and state general principles related to FOD effects.
        a. Costs—The aviation and aerospace industry is losing approximately 4 billion dollars annually to FOD. Insurance expenses (cost) to companies that have incidents are increasing. In the manufacturing sector manufacturers may increase contract cost, which may lead to the loss of current or future contracts. In other aerospace operations (air carrier, repair organization or general aviation) the cost can easily cause the failure of the business.
        b. Life—Foreign Object Damage can have a direct impact on human lives. The famous Concord Crash in Paris, France had a devastating impact that killed 113 people due to a foreign object. It is very important that the technician understands the effects of Foreign Object Damage.
  Plus AJ. Introduction to Aviation
    1. Identify the types of aircraft categorized as military and civil use
    2. Identify types of aircraft used in the categories
    3. Identify key events in aviation history
    4. Describe various careers paths available in aviation
    5. Be familiar with Cessna 150
    6. Identify general Aviation Safety Rules
    7. Identify general shop, classroom, and laboratory Rules
  Plus AK. Aviation Terminology
    1. Identify various types of aircraft and wing design
    2. Identify the major airframe and powerplant components of an aircraft
    3. Describe common aircraft construction methods
    4. Identify the three axes of an aircraft and the aircraft motion about each axis
  Plus AL. Theory of Flight
    1. Identify and describe the elements of the earth’s atmosphere
    2. Identify and define the basic terms related to airfoils and the theory of lift
    3. Identify the primary and secondary flight controls of an aircraft
    4. Identify the four forces of flight acting on an aircraft in flight
    5. Identify the aircraft flight track with the primary controls in various positions
  Plus AM. Standard Aircraft Systems
    1. Identify the basic components related to AC and DC electrical systems and state the general purpose of each component
    2. Identify the various types of fuel systems and fuel indicating systems used in aircraft
    3. Identify the main components an aircraft’s pitot/static system
    4. Describe the operation of the aircraft's pitot/static system
    5. Set the aircraft altimeter to the current barometric pressure and check field elevation
    6. Describe the general purpose of the various communication, navigation, flight control, and electronic surveillance systems
  Plus AN. Introduction to Aircraft Communications Systems
    1. Describe the theory of operation and identify the main components of a VHF Com system
    2. Describe the theory of operation and identify the main components of an HF Com system
    3. Describe the theory of operation and identify the main components of a Sat/Com system
    4. Describe the theory of operation and identify the main components of an ELT system
    5. Describe the theory of operation and identify the main components of a CVR/FDR system
  Plus AO. Introduction to Aircraft Navigations Systems
    1. Describe the theory of operation and identify the main components of a VOR navigation system
    2. Describe the theory of operation and identify the main components of an ILS navigation system
    3. Describe the theory of operation and identify the main components of a GPS navigation system
    4. Describe the theory of operation and identify the main components of a DME navigation system
    5. Describe the theory of operation and identify the main components of an ADF navigation system
  Plus AP. Introduction to Aircraft Electronic Surveillance Systems
    1. Describe the theory of operation and identify the main components of a transponder system
    2. Describe the theory of operation and identify the main components of a collision avoidance sys
    3. Describe the theory of operation and identify the main components of weather detection sys
    4. Describe the theory of operation and identify the main components of a terrain awareness sys
  Plus AQ. Introduction to Flight Control Systems
    1. Describe the theory of operation and identify the main components of an autopilot system
    2. Describe the theory of operation and identify the main components of a trim system
    3. Describe the theory of operation and identify the main components of a yaw damper system
    4. Describe the theory of operation and identify the main components of an auto throttle system
  Plus AR. Basic Aviation/Aircraft Fundamentals and Safety
    1. Identify the procedures and safety concerns related to towing and taxiing an aircraft
    2. Identify specific safety precautions related to hangar and ramp maintenance
    3. Identify the purpose and requirements of various inspections accomplished on aircraft
  Plus AS. Technical Publications
    1. Identify the type of information contained in various types of aircraft drawings
    2. Interpret the technical data found in aircraft drawings, schematics, and diagrams
    3. Locate and interpret the various installation data found in installation manuals
    4. Locate specific technical data related to the installation of avionics
    5. Demonstrate the proper use of Maintenance Activity Logs
  Plus AT. Basic Troubleshooting Theory
    1. Demonstrate the proper use of multimeters and continuity testers
    2. Demonstrate the proper use of an oscilloscope
    3. Demonstrate the proper use of a maintenance interface computer
    4. Interpret a troubleshooting tree, equipment fault log, and various technical publications to correctly identify a fault in a system
  Plus AU. Aircraft Hazards and Safety I
    1. Define the basic purpose and requirements of OSHA
    2. Identify hazardous materials and the proper procedures and precautions related to handling, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials
    3. Define the purpose of a FOD program and the procedures related to preventing foreign object damage
  Plus AV. Aircraft Hazards and Safety II
    1. Identify the proper safety precautions related to microwave energy
    2. Identify the proper safety precautions related to RF energy
    3. Identify the proper safety precautions related to ESD protection
    4. Identify the proper safety precautions related to electrical power and first aid for electrical shock
  Plus AW. Aircraft Hazards and Safety III
    1. Identify the proper safety precautions related to fire safety
    2. Identify the proper safety precautions related to noise protection
    3. Identify the proper safety precautions related to lifting/moving objects
    4. Identify the proper safety precautions related to fall protection
    5. Describe details related to the causes of accidents
  Plus AX. Common Tools
    1. Demonstrate the proper use of common hand tools used in aviation
    2. Identify the common tools used in aviation
    3. Demonstrate the proper use of specialty tools used in aviation

Plus Pathway Standards

Plus I. PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION
  Plus A. Develop and manage preventative maintenance plans and systems to keep facility and mobile equipment inventory in operation.
    Plus 1. Develop preventive maintenance plans and systems to meet business and equipment manufacturer requirements.
        a. Identify performance/reliability requirements for the use of facilities and equipment.
        b. Review and analyze facilities and equipment documentation to determine preventive maintenance requirements.
        c. Review safety and environmental regulations and policies to include HAZMAT to determine adequacy and compliance.
        d. Review performance/reliability and maintenance records to determine the efficacy of current systems and methods.
        e. Develop routine maintenance procedures and schedules to satisfy the performance/reliability requirements.
        f. Develop emergency maintenance procedures to satisfy the performance requirements.
        g. Determine equipment/material/supply and labor requirements for the procedures and schedules developed to satisfy performance/reliability requirements.
        h. Develop purchasing plans and inventory levels for supplies/parts needed to satisfy the developed procedures and schedules.
        i. Determine people and resources to satisfy the schedule and reliability requirements.
        j. Develop written preventative maintenance plans that satisfy the reliability requirements.
        k. Present and explain plans (e.g., business meetings).
    Plus 2. Apply strategies used to monitor and evaluate the performance of maintenance plans and systems.
        a. Monitor and maintain information on facilities and equipment use and reliability.
        b. Monitor and maintain information on the implementation and operation of preventive maintenance systems, including compliance with safety and environmental requirements (e.g., records, logs).
        c. Monitor and maintain information on the availability of parts/materials/supplies and the management of inventory levels.
        d. Evaluate maintenance plan and system performance and identify problems.
        e. Develop reports on system implementation and performance.
        f. Present and explain report (e.g., business meetings).
  Plus B. Assess, maintain, and improve system performance in order to keep facilities and equipment running at an optimum level of performance.
    Plus 1. Develop and execute repair plans based upon an assessment of the facility/ equipment inventory.
        a. Identify and describe facility and mobile equipment reliability/performance problems.
        b. Determine causes of reliability/performance problems of facilities, equipment, subsystems, and/or components including electrical/electronic, fluid power, and mechanical systems and computer control systems.
        c. Determine repair procedures and equipment, materials, parts, supplies, and labor requirements to accomplish repairs.
        d. Develop written plans (e.g., repair plan forms).
        e. Present and explain report (e.g., business meetings).
    Plus 2. Develop plans for improving facilities/equipment/system performance.
        a. Review maintenance reports on performance of current facilities, equipment, and the maintenance and reliability system.
        b. Analyze and evaluate professional literature on new products/technology/methods with higher levels of reliability and performance.
        c. Identify potential areas for improvement.
        d. Analyze costs and benefits of alternative strategies (e.g., buy new equipment, upgrade equipment, change maintenance system) for improving performance.
        e. Develop written improvement plan with recommendations.
        f. Present and explain plan. (e.g. business meetings).
    3. Execute repair plans for facilities and mobile equipment.

Plus Foundation Standards

I. ACADEMIC FOUNDATIONS: Achieve additional academic knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of career and postsecondary education opportunities within a career cluster.
II. COMMUNICATIONS: Use oral and written communication skills in creating, expressing and interpreting information and ideas including technical terminology and information.
Plus III. PROBLEM-SOLVING AND CRITICAL THINKING: Solve problems using critical thinking skills (analyze, synthesize, and evaluate) independently and in teams. Solve problems using creativity and innovation.
  Plus A. Formulate ideas, proposals and solutions to transportation, distribution and/or logistics related problems in order to ensure effective and efficient delivery of products or services to targeted consumers.
    1. Clarify the problems or issues to be addressed.
    2. Identify constraints and parameters related to the problem presented.
    3. Formulate a set of objectives for the solution that address the key issues presented.
    4. Analyze available information and statistical data related to the problem or issue.
    5. Synthesize alternative ideas, proposals, and solutions that would solve the problem.
    6. Evaluate possible outcomes from implementation of alternative solutions.
    7. Appraise the best solution based on factors such as risk involved, cost incurred, and benefits gained.
    8. Present a proposed solution to a client along with the logic and rationale for selecting the solution.
  Plus B. Analyze and evaluate ideas, proposals, and solutions to transportation, distribution and logistics related problems in order to select the best deliverable to meet business objectives.
    1. Confirm definition of problem and objectives for the proposed solution.
    2. Appraise the validity of the constraints and parameters presented in the proposal.
    3. Evaluate the accuracy of the basic assumptions outlined in the proposal.
    4. Appraise the quality of information used to support solution.
    5. Evaluate the data analysis techniques and data presented in support of the proposed solution.
    6. Evaluate the logic and reasoning used to develop the proposed solution.
    7. Assess the potential impact of the risks, costs, and benefits of testing and implementing the proposed solution.
    8. Make recommendations on supporting, changing, or not supporting the proposed solution based upon sound reasoning and data.
  Plus C. Develop, implement and evaluate solutions to transportation, distribution or logistics related performance problems using a structured problem-solving process in order to improve business functioning.
    1. Describe the performance problem completely and accurately using data, graphs and charts.
    2. Develop and represent a comprehensive mapping of potential root and indirect causes using commonly accepted mapping methods such as the a fishbone diagram and/or flowchart.
    3. Analyze the features, benefits and constraints associated with alternative solutions to the performance issue.
    4. Select best solutions for further testing based upon available data and historical information.
    5. Formulate an implementation strategy for one of the solutions that considers multiple variables such as time, costs, scope, and quality.
    6. Monitor selected solution performance through data collection and analysis.
    7. Manage implementation of the selected solution using the prescribed strategic plan.
    8. Evaluate performance of solution implemented over time based upon data collected and analyzed throughout implementation.
Plus IV. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS: Use information technology tools specific to the career cluster to access, manage, integrate, and create information.
  Plus A. Demonstrate the effective use of computer based equipment (containing embedded computers, or processors) to control electromechanical devices commonly used in conducting work within the TDL industry.
    Plus 1. Execute the steps involved in the operation of a computer driven machine to accomplish a common work tasks.
        a. Operate equipment and machine with assistance.
        b. Secure needed supplies and resources.
        c. Follow power-up and log-on procedures.
        d. Interact with/respond to system messages using console device.
        e. Run applications/jobs in accordance with processing procedures.
        f. Follow log-off and power-down procedure(s).
    Plus 2. Interpret installation and operation manuals in order to install and operate a computer driven machine/equipment.
        a. Access needed information using appropriate reference materials.
    Plus 3. Troubleshoot computer driven equipment and machines and access relevant support sources as-needed.
        a. Test system using diagnostic tools/software.
        b. Repair/replace malfunctioning hardware.
        c. Reinstall software as needed.
        d. Recover data and/or files.
        e. Restore system to normal operating standards.
        f. Complete failure/trouble reports correctly.
        g. Access in-house or external support as needed.
  Plus B. Utilize geographic information systems software common to the transportation, distribution and logistics industry to coordinate and facilitate business related tasks.
    Plus 1. Execute procedures involved in using Geographic Information System/ Global Positions System (GIS/GPS) applications to perform various work functions.
        a. Create maps.
        b. Locate people or things.
        c. Identify best route for travel.
Plus V. SYSTEMS: Understand roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment. Identify how key organizational systems affect organizational performance and the quality of products and services. Understand global context of industries and careers.
  Plus A. Analyze and summarize the various roles and major business functions involved in a TDL organization as a way to demonstrate understanding of the industry as a system.
    1. Summarize past and present trends related to the mission of TDL organizations.
    2. Compare and contrast the various roles TDL organizations take on within the overarching industry.
    3. Compare and contrast the various roles played by critical customers, suppliers, and stakeholders within a TDL organization.
    4. Summarize the major competitive challenges faced by TDL organizations in the industry today and in the future.
    5. Summarize the various major internal job functions and organizational structures found among TDL organizations.
  Plus B. Monitor, analyze and improve performance within a TDL organization using metrics common to the TDL community as a way to demonstrate understanding of how organizations manage and improve business functioning.
    1. State how metrics for financial performance such as profitability, cost reduction and asset utilization may be utilized to identify areas for improvement in improve business functioning.
    2. State how metrics for market performance such as customer and sales/service growth may be used to identify areas for improvement in business functioning.
    3. State how metrics for service and internal operations performance may be used to identify areas for improvement in business functioning (e.g., customer satisfaction, service quality, cycle time).
    4. State how metrics for organizational health, safety and environmental compliance may be used to identify areas for improvement in business functioning.
  Plus C. Demonstrate understanding of important trends influencing the TDL system by assessing and summarizing the impact of various economic, social and technological changes on a TDL organization and its role in the TDL industry.
    1. State how an economic change such as economic growth/decline, income growth, consumer confidence, interest rates, and fuel and material costs may impact a hypothetical business decision.
    2. State how a social change as indicated by a measure of consumer attitudes, consumer preferences, demographics and/or population shifts may impact a hypothetical business decision.
    3. Summarize how various technological changes, including changes in transportation and information technology, may impact business functioning today and in the future.
  Plus D. Implement and evaluate risk management strategies to prevent and reduce various risks and exposures within a TDL organization as a way to demonstrate understanding of risk management as a tool for improving performance.
    1. Summarize a rationale for implementing a risk management program within an organization.
    2. State the potential impact various loss exposures such as property, liability, personnel and net income may have on business functioning should there be a loss.
    3. Summarize various approaches for managing organizational risks.
  Plus E. Demonstrate an understanding of the impact regulations have on business functioning by analyzing and summarizing the roles and functions of government in regulating and supporting TDL organizations within the industry.
    1. Summarize the role government plays in regulating domestic transportation operations.
    2. Summarize various government policies created to regulate international transportation operations.
    3. Summarize the impact of government policy on public transportation infrastructure management.
    4. Summarize the impact of government policy on health, safety and environmental management in an organization.
  Plus F. Manage ongoing customer relationships with both internal and external TDL customer groups in order to maintain ongoing business.
    1. Generate a list of potential customer needs and requirements based upon information gathered through client interactions.
    2. Generate a list of next steps that will fulfill customer requirements and produce customer satisfaction.
    3. State how to appropriately respond to customer problems and complains in an effective and efficient manner.
  Plus G. Develop and manage plans and budgets to accomplish TDL organizational goals and objectives.
    1. Develop a work plan and budget that effectively and efficiently allocates people and resources using relevant data about the organization and/or workgroup.
    2. Develop a report that summarizes the key information about the performance and utilization of resources within an organization and/or workgroup.
    3. Based upon organization and/or workgroup data, modify a program of work and related budgets to improve alignment with a TDL organization's goals and objectives.
  Plus H. Develop plans for improving a TDL organization's performance in the areas of customer service and operations in order to achieve acceptable levels of customer satisfaction.
    1. Compare and contrast critical performance issues associated with customer service and operations.
    2. Summarize opportunities for improvement in the areas of customer service and operations.
    3. Execute the steps involved in a structured problem-solving process while developing a plan for improving customer service and operations performance.
  Plus I. Assess and implement measures to demonstrate compliance with organizational policies and government laws and regulations common to organizations in the TDL community.
    1. Interpret relevant organizational policies and government laws and regulations for specific functions within a TDL organization.
    2. Assess compliance with policies and regulations using data and information from relevant reports and sources within the organization.
    3. Recommend improvements for compliance in an area found to be deficient based upon information produced during an assessment of compliance.
Plus VI. SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL: Understand the importance of health, safety, and environmental management systems in organizations and their importance to organizational performance and regulatory compliance. Follow organizational policies and procedures and contribute to continuous improvement in performance and compliance.
  Plus A. Assess and implement measures to maintain safe and healthful working conditions in a TDL organization.
    Plus 1. Assess workplace conditions with regard to safety and health of employees using data collected through observations and experience.
        a. Identify the types of risk of injury/illness at work.
        b. Identify those who are susceptible to risk of injury/illness at work.
        c. Describe ways to positively impact occupational safety and health.
    2. Recommend improvements for issues related to the safety and health of employees based upon an assessment of the workplace conditions.
  Plus B. Complete work tasks in accordance with applicable employer rules concerning occupational safety and health common to the TDL industry in order to insure employee rights and employer obligations.
    Plus 1. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of rules and laws designed to promote safety and health in the workplace.
        a. Identify key rights of employees related to occupational safety and health.
        b. Identify the responsibilities of employers related to occupational safety and health.
        c. Explain the role of government agencies in providing a safe workplace.
  Plus C. Assess and implement methods to reduce sources of workplace hazards common in the TDL industry in order to promote a safe and accident free working environment.
    Plus 1. Demonstrate the steps involved in preventing workplace hazards.
        a. Identify and describe common hazards in the workplace.
        b. Identify and describe major sources of information about hazards in the workplace (e.g., MSDS, work procedures, exposure control plans, training materials, labels, and signage).
        c. Identify sources of combustible/flammable materials, fire and emergencies to establish a fire safe environment.
        d. Interpret safety signs and symbols.
    2. List and describe common sources of office, warehouse and worksite accidents We do not agree with adding this, we see this as a task.
  Plus D. Assess and control health hazards common to the TDL industry in order to promote a healthy working environment.
    Plus 1. Demonstrate compliance with protocols established for maintaining a healthy workplace based on an assessment of hazards.
        a. Identify procedures necessary for maintaining a safe work area.
        b. Identify methods to correct common hazards.
        c. Identify methods for disposing of hazardous materials.
        d. Demonstrate principals of safe physical movement to avoid slips, trips, and spills.
        e. Inspect and use protective equipment (PPE).
    2. List and describe common sources of group health issues in the workplace.
  Plus E. Describe the regulatory areas common to the TDL industry in order to demonstrate an understanding of key protocols for protecting health, safety and the environment.
    1. Summarize the major areas addressed in health and safety laws and regulations.
    2. Summarize the major areas addressed in environmental management laws and regulations.
  Plus F. Analyze and explain major aspects and benefits promoted by implementing health, safety and environmental management systems in a TDL organization.
    1. Describe the major components of a health, safety and environmental management system.
    2. State the role and summarize the benefits of each component in a health, safety and environmental management system.
  Plus G. Analyze and explain how government agencies promote compliance and improved health, safety and environmental performance in TDL organizations.
    1. State the major measures and types of data utilized by government agencies to measure and monitor health, safety and environmental risks and performance.
    2. Compare and contrast the various services through which government agencies provide assistance in ensuring compliance and improved performance in an organization.
  Plus H. We recommend eliminating this section. Analyze and explain the methods employed by TDL organizations to promote improved health, safety and environmental performance in order to understand how organizations individual approach improved performance in important areas.
    1. State the major metrics and types of data utilized by organizations to measure and monitor health, safety, and environmental risks and performance.
    2. Compare and contrast various methods and protocols organizations establish to improve performance in protecting the areas of health, safety and the environment.
  Plus I. Execute health, safety and environmental procedures and protocols established within the TDL organization.
    1. Identify and utilize common sources of information to maintain knowledge of organizational safety, health and environmental management policies and procedures.
    2. Execute organizational environmental policies and procedures.
    3. Educate and orient other workers regarding organizational safety, health and environmental policies and procedures using a variety of methods such as, job-aids, posters and presentations.
    4. Execute the procedures involved in a protocol for maintaining a safe, healthful and environmentally friendly work area.
    5. State common safety, health and environmental hazards to be avoided in the workplace.
    6. Perform regular audits and inspections to maintain compliance with safety, health and environmental regulations.
    7. Execute common methods and protocols for maintaining documentation on compliance with safety, health and environmental regulations.
    8. Assess and document health, safety and environmental problems using common forms and protocols.
    9. Document the steps involved in an accident/incident investigation.
  Plus J. Evaluate current practices and develop a comprehensive plan to improve health, safety, and environmental performance.
    1. Identify and describe the most critical performance problems related to health, safety and the environment.
    2. Identify opportunities for improvement of performance related to the problems found in an assessment of health, safety and environmental issues.
    3. We recommend deleting this item. Execute a structured problem-solving process to develop a plan for improving performance in protecting general health, safety and environmental concerns.
VII. LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK: Use leadership and teamwork skills in collaborating with others to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
Plus VIII. ETHICS AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES: Know and understand the importance of professional ethics and legal responsibilities.
  Plus A. Analyze and summarize the legal responsibilities associated with different roles and functions within TDL organizations as a way to demonstrate awareness of the influence laws and regulations have on ethics in the workplace.
    1. Summarize the legal responsibility an employee has regarding compliance with government laws and regulations.
    2. Summarize the major governmental laws and regulations that define legal responsibilities for different roles and functions within an organization including legislation associated with commercial operations, consumers, health, safety, environmental protection and employment practices.
  Plus B. Understanding cooperate policies in light of ethical and legal responsibilities.
    1. Compare and contrast the differences between ethical and legal responsibilities for different roles and functions within an organization.
    2. State the relationship between the employers expectations for demonstrating ethics and personal responsibility in the workplace and the various behaviors that express compliance with expectations.
    3. Compare and contrast differences in how various workplaces apply personal or professional ethics.
    4. Summarize the differences in ethical and legal responsibilities among various roles and functions within a TDL organization as a way to demonstrate awareness of how laws and regulations related to ethics are applied in workplace settings.
  Plus C. Evaluate and apply strategies for responding to unethical or illegal actions of individuals and organizations in the TDL industry in order to demonstrate how to respond to unethical situations.
    1. Compare and contrast the results achieved from implementing alternative strategies for responding to unethical or illegal actions.
    2. Recommend procedures and rationale for applying the best strategy after thorough consideration of alternatives.
Plus IX. EMPLOYABILITY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT: Know and understand the importance of employability skills. Explore, plan, and effectively manage careers. Know and understand the importance of entrepreneurship skills.
  Plus A. Evaluate and apply written organizational policies, rules and procedures in order to function ethically and effectively within the workplace.
    Plus 1. Locate appropriate information on organizational policies in handbooks and manuals.
        a. Identify the contents of various organizational publications.
        b. Select the appropriate document (s) as reference for the situation.
    Plus 2. Analyze how specific organizational policies and rules, if applied, may influence specific situations in the workplace.
        a. Locate and identify specific organizational policy, rule or procedure to assist with a given situation.
        b. Explain specific organizational policy, rule or procedure to improve a given situation.
  Plus B. Assess and evaluate career opportunities in one or more TDL career pathways to broaden awareness of careers available in the industries related to the career cluster.
    Plus 1. Research and match career opportunities based upon their fit with personal career goals.
        a. Locate and interpret career information for at least one career cluster.
        b. Identify job requirements for career pathways.
        c. Identify educational and credentialing requirements for career cluster and pathways.
    Plus 2. Match personal interests and aptitudes to careers when researching opportunities within the pathways.
        a. Identify personal interests and aptitudes.
        b. Identify job requirements and characteristics of selected careers.
        c. Compare personal interests and aptitudes with job requirements and characteristics of career selected.
        d. Modify career goals based on results of personal interests and aptitudes with career requirements and characteristics.
Plus X. TECHNICAL SKILLS: Use the technical knowledge and skills required to pursue the targeted careers for all pathways in the career cluster, including knowledge of design, operation, and maintenance of technological systems critical to the career cluster.
  Plus A. Analyze and assess the various roles and functions of necessary transportation-related technological systems used in the TDL community in order to demonstrate awareness of technical skills associated with the TDL industry.
    1. Compare and contrast key features of various supply chain or transit systems that transport people and freight.
    2. Compare and contrast key features of various systems for transportation information support systems.
    3. Evaluate the effectiveness of different features provided by various TDL information technology applications.
  Plus B. Measure, analyze and manage the output of technological systems in order to enhance performance and reliability of timing, cost projecting, and forecasting within transportation operations.
    1. Summarize the concept of reliability and its usefulness in evaluating technical system performance.
    2. Summarize how reliability and overall system performance is measured and monitored.
    3. Summarize the importance of extracting accurate data from technological systems to improve the performance and forecasting of TDL organizations.
    4. Summarize the impact a technological system with poor reliability may have on performance within a TDL organization.
    5. Summarize methods employees can use to contribute to improved reliability and performance such as, design, selection, maintenance and operation/utilization.
  Plus C. Summarize the potential impact technological systems may have on health, safety and environmental risks in order to demonstrate an understanding of the impact a technical system can have in managing compliance.
    1. Summarize the major heath, safety and environmental risks and potential impacts associated with various technological systems.
    2. Compare and contrast various processes for managing health, safety and environmental risks and impacts within an organization.
  Plus D. Evaluate and recommend a technological system for implementation in a TDL organization in order to demonstrate an understanding of the factors involved in selecting an appropriate system to manage risk and compliance.
    1. Summarize organizational requirements and selection criteria for technological systems.
    2. Assess alternative technological systems based upon a set of requirements and selection criteria.
    3. Recommend technological system that best fits the organization in light of the corporate and regulatory requirements identified.
  Plus E. Participate in efforts to improve the utilization and performance of technological systems to provide the correct data needed to make informed decisions dealing with managing risk and compliance.
    1. Summarize and prioritize reliability and performance problems based upon data collected during implementation of the technological system.
    2. Synthesize opportunities for improving performance based upon a prioritized list of reliability and performance problems associated with the technological system.
    3. Execute a structured problem-solving process to develop a plan for improving performance in prioritized areas.

Plus Essential Standards

Plus I. ACADEMIC FOUNDATIONS
  Plus A. Complete required training, education, and certification to prepare for employment in a particular career field.
    1. Identify training, education and certification requirements for occupational choice.
    2. Participate in career-related training and/or degree programs.
    3. Pass certification tests to qualify for licensure and/or certification in chosen occupational area.
  Plus B. Demonstrate language arts knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary education and career opportunities.
    1. Model behaviors that demonstrate active listening.
    2. Adapt language for audience, purpose, situation. (i.e. diction/structure, style).
    3. Organize oral and written information.
    4. Compose focused copy for a variety of written documents such as agendas, audio-visuals, bibliographies, drafts, forms/documents, notes, oral presentations, reports, and technical terminology.
    5. Edit copy to create focused written documents such as agendas, audio-visuals, bibliographies, drafts, forms/documents, notes, oral presentations, reports, and technical terminology.
    6. Comprehend key elements of oral and written information such as cause/effect, comparisons/contrasts, conclusions, context, purpose, charts/tables/graphs, evaluation/critiques, mood, persuasive text, sequence, summaries, and technical subject matter.
    7. Evaluate oral and written information for accuracy, adequacy/sufficiency, appropriateness, clarity, conclusions/solutions, fact/opinion, propaganda, relevancy, validity, and relationship of ideas.
    8. Identify assumptions, purpose, outcomes/solutions, and propaganda techniques.
    9. Predict potential outcomes and/or solutions based on oral and written information regarding trends.
    10. Present formal and informal speeches including discussion, information requests, interpretation, and persuasive arguments.
  Plus C. Demonstrate mathematics knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary education and career opportunities.
    1. Identify whole numbers, decimals, and fractions.
    2. Demonstrate knowledge of basic arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
    3. Demonstrate use of relational expressions such as equal to, not equal, greater than, less than, etc.
    4. Apply data and measurements to solve a problem.
    5. Analyze Mathematical problem statements for missing and/or irrelevant data.
    6. Construct charts/tables/graphs from functions and data.
    7. Analyze data when interpreting operational documents.
  Plus D. Demonstrate science knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary and career education opportunities.
    1. Evaluate scientific constructs including conclusions, conflicting data, controls, data, inferences, limitations, questions, sources of errors, and variables.
    2. Apply scientific methods in qualitative and quantitative analysis, data gathering, direct and indirect observation, predictions, and problem identification.
Plus II. COMMUNICATIONS
  Plus A. Select and employ appropriate reading and communication strategies to learn and use technical concepts and vocabulary in practice.
    1. Determine the most appropriate reading strategy for identifying the overarching purpose of a text (i.e. skimming, reading for detail, reading for meaning or critical analysis).
    2. Demonstrate use of content, technical concepts and vocabulary when analyzing information and following directions.
    3. Select the reading strategy or strategies needed to fully comprehend the content within a written document (i.e., skimming, reading for detail, reading for meaning or critical analysis).
    4. Interpret information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
    5. Transcribe information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
    6. Communicate information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
  Plus B. Demonstrate use of the concepts, strategies, and systems for obtaining and conveying ideas and information to enhance communication in the workplace.
    1. Employ verbal skills when obtaining and conveying information.
    2. Record information needed to present a report on a given topic or problem.
    3. Write internal and external business correspondence that conveys and/or obtains information effectively.
    4. Communicate with other employees to clarify workplace objectives.
    5. Communicate effectively with customers and employees to foster positive relationships.
  Plus C. Locate, organize and reference written information from various sources to communicate with co-workers and clients/participants.
    1. Locate written information used to communicate with co-workers and customers.
    2. Organize information to use in written and oral communications.
    3. Reference the sources of information.
  Plus D. Evaluate and use information resources to accomplish specific occupational tasks.
    1. Use informational texts, Internet web sites, and/or technical materials to review and apply information sources for occupational tasks.
    2. Evaluate the reliability of information from informational texts, Internet Web sites, and/or technical materials and resources.
  Plus E. Use correct grammar, punctuation and terminology to write and edit documents.
    1. Compose multi-paragraph documents clearly, succinctly, and accurately.
    2. Use descriptions of audience and purpose when preparing and editing written documents.
    3. Use correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization when preparing written documents.
  Plus F. Develop and deliver formal and informal presentations using appropriate media to engage and inform audiences.
    1. Prepare oral presentations to provide information for specific purposes and audiences.
    2. Identify support materials that will enhance an oral presentation.
    3. Prepare support materials that will enhance an oral presentation.
    4. Deliver an oral presentation that sustains listeners' attention and interest.
    5. Align presentation strategies to the intended audience.
    6. Implement multi-media strategies for presentations.
  Plus G. Interpret verbal and nonverbal cues/behaviors to enhance communication with co-workers and clients/participants.
    1. Interpret verbal behaviors when communicating with clients and co-workers.
    2. Interpret nonverbal behaviors when communicating with clients and co-workers.
  Plus H. Apply active listening skills to obtain and clarify information.
    1. Interpret a given verbal message/information.
    2. Respond with restatement and clarification techniques to clarify information.
  Plus I. Develop and interpret tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communications.
    1. Create tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communications.
    2. Interpret tables, charts, and figures used to support written and oral communication.
  Plus J. Listen to and speak with diverse individuals to enhance communication skills.
    1. Apply factors and strategies for communicating with a diverse workforce.
    2. Demonstrate ability to communicate and resolve conflicts within a diverse workforce.
  Plus K. Exhibit public relations skills to increase internal and external customer/client satisfaction.
    1. Communicate effectively when developing positive customer/client relationships.
Plus III. PROBLEM-SOLVING AND CRITICAL THINKING
  Plus A. Employ critical thinking skills independently and in teams to solve problems and make decisions (e.g., analyze, synthesize and evaluate).
    1. Identify common tasks that require employees to use problem-solving skills.
    2. Analyze elements of a problem to develop creative solutions.
    3. Describe the value of using problem-solving and critical thinking skills to improve a situation or process.
    4. Create ideas, proposals, and solutions to problems.
    5. Evaluate ideas, proposals, and solutions to problems.
    6. Use structured problem-solving methods when developing proposals and solutions.
    7. Generate new and creative ideas to solve problems by brainstorming possible solutions.
    8. Critically analyze information to determine value to the problem-solving task.
    9. Guide individuals through the process of recognizing concerns and making informed decisions.
    10. Identify alternatives using a variety of problem-solving and critical thinking skills.
    11. Evaluate alternatives using a variety of problem-solving and critical thinking skills.
  Plus B. Employ critical thinking and interpersonal skills to resolve conflicts with staff and/or customers.
    1. Analyze situations and behaviors that affect conflict management.
    2. Determine best options/outcomes for conflict resolution using critical thinking skills.
    3. Identify with others’ feelings, needs, and concerns.
    4. Implement stress management techniques.
    5. Resolve conflicts with/for customers using conflict resolution skills.
    6. Implement conflict resolution skills to address staff issues/problems.
  Plus C. Identify, write and monitor workplace performance goals to guide progress in assigned areas of responsibility and accountability.
    1. Write realistic performance goals, objectives and action plans.
    2. Monitor performance goals and adjust as necessary.
    3. Recognize goal achievement using appropriate rewards in the workplace.
    4. Communicate goal achievement with managers and co-workers.
  Plus D. Conduct technical research to gather information necessary for decision-making.
    1. Align the information gathered to the needs of the audience.
    2. Gather technical information and data using a variety of resources.
    3. Analyze information and data for value to the research objectives.
    4. Evaluate information and data to determine value to research objectives.
Plus IV. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS
  Plus A. Use Personal Information Management (PIM) applications to increase workplace efficiency.
    1. Manage personal schedules and contact information.
    2. Create memos and notes.
  Plus B. Employ technological tools to expedite workflow.
    1. Use information technology tools to manage and perform work responsibilities.
  Plus C. Operate electronic mail applications to communicate within a workplace.
    1. Use email to share files and documents.
    2. Identify the functions and purpose of email systems.
    3. Use email to communicate within and across organizations.
  Plus D. Operate Internet applications to perform workplace tasks.
    1. Access and navigate Internet (e.g., use a web browser).
    2. Search for information and resources.
    3. Evaluate Internet resources for reliability and validity.
  Plus E. Operate writing and publishing applications to prepare business communications.
    1. Prepare simple documents and other business communications.
    2. Prepare reports and other business communications by integrating graphics and other non-text elements.
    3. Prepare complex multi-media publications.
  Plus F. Operate presentation applications to prepare presentations.
    1. Prepare presentations for training, sales and information sharing.
    2. Deliver presentations with supporting materials.
  Plus G. Employ spreadsheet applications to organize and manipulate data.
    1. Create a spreadsheet.
    2. Perform calculations and analyses on data using a spreadsheet.
  Plus H. Employ database applications to manage data.
    1. Manipulate data elements.
    2. Manage interrelated data elements.
    3. Analyze interrelated data elements.
    4. Generate reports showing interrelated data elements.
  Plus I. Employ collaborative/groupware applications to facilitate group work.
    1. Facilitate group work through management of shared schedule and contact information.
    2. Facilitate group work through management of shared files and online information.
    3. Facilitate group work through instant messaging or virtual meetings.
  Plus J. Employ computer operations applications to manage work tasks.
    1. Manage computer operations.
    2. Manage file storage.
    3. Compress or alter files.
  Plus K. Use computer-based equipment (containing embedded computers or processors) to control devices.
    1. Operate computer driven equipment and machines.
    2. Use installation and operation manuals.
    3. Troubleshoot computer driven equipment and machines.
    4. Access support as needed to maintain operation of computer driven equipment and machines.
Plus V. SYSTEMS
  Plus A. Describe the nature and types of business organizations to build an understanding of the scope of organizations.
    1. List the types and functions of businesses.
    2. Describe the types and functions of businesses.
    3. Explain the functions and interactions of common departments within a business.
  Plus B. Implement quality control systems and practices to ensure quality products and services.
    1. Describe quality control standards and practices common to the workplace.
Plus VI. SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL
  Plus A. Implement personal and jobsite safety rules and regulations to maintain safe and healthful working conditions and environments.
    1. Assess workplace conditions with regard to safety and health.
    2. Align safety issues with appropriate safety standards to ensure a safe workplace/jobsite.
    3. Identify safety hazards common to workplaces.
    4. Identify safety precautions to maintain a safe worksite.
    5. Select appropriate personal protective equipment as needed for a safe workplace/jobsite.
    6. Inspect personal protective equipment commonly used for selected career pathway.
    7. Use personal protective equipment according to manufacturer rules and regulations.
    8. Employ a safety hierarchy and communication system within the workplace/jobsite.
    9. Implement safety precautions to maintain a safe worksite.
  Plus B. Complete work tasks in accordance with employee rights and responsibilities and employers obligations to maintain workplace safety and health.
    1. Identify rules and laws designed to promote safety and health in the workplace.
    2. State the rationale of rules and laws designed to promote safety and health.
  Plus C. Employ emergency procedures as necessary to provide aid in workplace accidents.
    1. Use knowledge of First Aid procedures as necessary.
    2. Use knowledge of CPR procedures as necessary.
    3. Use safety equipment as necessary.
  Plus D. Employ knowledge of response techniques to create a disaster and/or emergency response plan.
    1. Complete an assessment of an emergency and/or disaster situation.
    2. Create an emergency and/or disaster plan.
Plus VII. LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK
  Plus A. Employ leadership skills to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
    1. Analyze the various roles of leaders within organizations (e.g. contribute ideas; share in building an organization; act as role models to employees by adhering to company policies, procedures, and standards; promote the organization’s vision; and mentor others).
    2. Exhibit traits such as empowerment, risk, communication, focusing on results, decision-making, problem solution, and investment in individuals when leading a group in solving a problem.
    3. Exhibit traits such as compassion, service, listening, coaching, developing others, team development, and understanding and appreciating others when acting as a manager of others in the workplace.
    4. Exhibit traits such as enthusiasm, creativity, conviction, mission, courage, concept, focus, principle-centered living, and change when interacting with others in general.
    5. Consider issues related to self, team, community, diversity, environment, and global awareness when leading others.
    6. Exhibit traits such as innovation, intuition, adaptation, life-long learning and coachability to develop leadership potential over time.
    7. Analyze leadership in relation to trust, positive attitude, integrity, and willingness to accept key responsibilities in a work situation.
    8. Describe observations of outstanding leaders using effective management styles.
    9. Participate in civic and community leadership and teamwork opportunities to enhance skills.
  Plus B. Employ organizational and staff development skills to foster positive working relationships and accomplish organizational goals.
    1. Implement organizational skills when facilitating others’ work efforts.
    2. Explain how to manage a staff that satisfies work demands while adhering to budget constraints.
    3. Describe how staff growth and development to increase productivity and employee satisfaction.
    4. Organize team involvement within a group environment.
    5. Work with others to develop and gain commitment to team goals.
    6. Distribute responsibility and work load fairly.
    7. Model leadership and teamwork qualities to aid in employee morale.
    8. Identify best practices for successful team functioning.
    9. Explain best practices for successful team functioning.
  Plus C. Employ teamwork skills to achieve collective goals and use team members' talents effectively.
    1. Work with others to achieve objectives in a timely manner.
    2. Promote the full involvement and use of team member's individual talents and skills.
    3. Employ conflict-management skills to facilitate solutions.
    4. Demonstrate teamwork skills through working cooperatively with co-workers, supervisory staff, and others, both in and out of the organization, to achieve particular tasks.
    5. Demonstrate teamwork processes that provide team building, consensus, continuous improvement, respect for the opinions of others, cooperation, adaptability, and conflict resolution.
    6. Develop plans to improve team performance.
    7. Demonstrate commitment to and a positive attitude toward team goals.
    8. Take responsibility for shared group and individual work tasks.
    9. Assist team members in completing their work.
    10. Adapt effectively to changes in projects and work activities.
    11. Negotiate effectively to arrive at decisions.
  Plus D. Establish and maintain effective working relationships with all levels of personnel and other departments in order to accomplish objectives and tasks.
    1. Build effective working relationships using interpersonal skills.
    2. Use positive interpersonal skills to work cooperatively with co-workers representing different cultures, genders and backgrounds.
    3. Manage personal skills to accomplish assignments.
    4. Treat people with respect.
    5. Provide constructive praise and criticism.
    6. Demonstrate sensitivity to and value for diversity.
    7. Manage stress and control emotions.
  Plus E. Conduct and participate in meetings to accomplish work tasks.
    1. Develop meeting goals, objectives and agenda.
    2. Assign responsibilities for preparing materials and leading discussions.
    3. Prepare materials for leading discussion.
    4. Assemble and distribute meeting materials.
    5. Conduct meeting to achieve objectives within scheduled time.
    6. Demonstrate effective communication skills in meetings.
    7. Produce meeting minutes including decisions and next steps.
    8. Use parliamentary procedure, as needed, to conduct meetings.
  Plus F. Employ mentoring skills to inspire and teach others.
    1. Use motivational techniques to enhance performance in others.
    2. Provide guidance to enhance performance in others.
Plus VIII. ETHICS AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES
  Plus A. Apply ethical reasoning to a variety of workplace situations in order to make ethical decisions.
    1. Evaluate alternative responses to workplace situations based on legal responsibilities and employer policies.
    2. Evaluate alternative responses to workplace situations based on personal or professional ethical responsibilities.
    3. Identify personal and long-term workplace consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors.
    4. Explain personal and long-term workplace consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors.
    5. Determine the most appropriate response to workplace situations based on legal and ethical considerations.
    6. Explain the most appropriate response to workplace situations based on legal and ethical considerations.
  Plus B. Interpret and explain written organizational policies and procedures to help employees perform their jobs according to employer rules and expectations.
    1. Locate information on organizational policies in handbooks and manuals.
    2. Discuss how specific organizational policies and procedures influence a specific work situation.
Plus IX. EMPLOYABILITY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT
  Plus A. Identify and demonstrate positive work behaviors and personal qualities needed to be employable.
    1. Demonstrate self-discipline, self-worth, positive attitude, and integrity in a work situation.
    2. Demonstrate flexibility and willingness to learn new knowledge and skills.
    3. Exhibit commitment to the organization.
    4. Identify how work varies with regard to site, from indoor confined spaces to outdoor areas, including aerial space and a variety of climatic and physical conditions.
    5. Apply communication strategies when adapting to a culturally diverse environment.
    6. Manage resources in relation to the position (i.e. budget, supplies, computer, etc).
    7. Identify positive work-qualities typically desired in each of the career cluster's pathways.
    8. Manage work roles and responsibilities to balance them with other life roles and responsibilities.
  Plus B. Develop a personal career plan to meet career goals and objectives.
    1. Develop career goals and objectives as part of a plan for future career direction.
    2. Develop strategies to reach career objectives.
  Plus C. Demonstrate skills related to seeking and applying for employment to find and obtain a desired job.
    1. Use multiple resources to locate job opportunities.
    2. Prepare a résumé.
    3. Prepare a letter of application.
    4. Complete an employment application.
    5. Interview for employment.
    6. List the standards and qualifications that must be met in order to enter a given industry.
    7. Employ critical thinking and decision-making skills to exhibit qualifications to a potential employer.
  Plus D. Maintain a career portfolio to document knowledge, skills and experience in a career field.
    1. Select educational and work history highlights to include in a career portfolio.
    2. Produce a record of work experiences, licenses, certifications and products.
    3. Organize electronic or physical portfolio for use in demonstrating knowledge, skills and experiences.
  Plus E. Demonstrate skills in evaluating and comparing employment opportunities in order to accept employment positions that match career goals.
    1. Compare employment opportunities to individual needs and career plan objectives.
    2. Evaluate employment opportunities based upon individual needs and career plan objectives.
    3. Demonstrate appropriate methods for accepting or rejecting employment offers.
  Plus F. Identify and exhibit traits for retaining employment to maintain employment once secured.
    1. Model behaviors that demonstrate reliability and dependability.
    2. Maintain appropriate dress and behavior for the job to contribute to a safe and effective workplace/jobsite.
    3. Complete required employment forms and documentation such as I-9 form, work visa, W-4 and licensures to meet employment requirements.
    4. Summarize key activities necessary to retain a job in the industry.
    5. Identify positive work behaviors and personal qualities necessary to retain employment.
  Plus G. Identify and explore career opportunities in one or more career pathways to build an understanding of the opportunities available in the cluster.
    1. Locate and identify career opportunities that appeal to personal career goals.
    2. Match personal interest and aptitudes to selected careers.
  Plus H. Recognize and act upon requirements for career advancement to plan for continuing education and training.
    1. Identify opportunities for career advancement.
    2. Pursue education and training opportunities to acquire skills necessary for career advancement.
    3. Examine the organization and structure of various segments of the industry to prepare for career advancement.
    4. Research local and regional labor (workforce) market and job growth information to project potential for advancement.
    5. Manage employment relations to make career advancements.
  Plus I. Continue professional development to keep current on relevant trends and information within the industry.
    1. Use self assessment, organizational priorities, journals, Internet sites, professional associations, peers and other resources to develop goals that address training, education and self-improvement issues.
    2. Read trade magazines and journals, manufacturers’ catalogues, industry publications and Internet sites to keep current on industry trends.
    3. Participate in relevant conferences, workshops, mentoring activities and in-service training to stay current with recent changes in the field.
  Plus J. Examine licensing, certification and credentialing requirements at the national, state and local levels to maintain compliance with industry requirements.
    1. Examine continuing education requirements related to licensing, certification, and credentialing requirements at the local, state and national levels for chosen occupation.
    2. Examine the procedures and paperwork involved in maintaining and updating licensure, certification and credentials for chosen occupation.
    3. Align ongoing licensing, certification and credentialing requirements to career plans and goals.
  Plus K. Examine employment opportunities in entrepreneurship to consider entrepreneurship as an option for career planning.
    1. Describe the opportunities for entrepreneurship in a given industry.
Plus X. TECHNICAL SKILLS
  Plus A. Employ information management techniques and strategies in the workplace to assist in decision-making.
    1. Use information literacy skills when accessing, evaluating and disseminating information.
    2. Describe the nature and scope of information management.
    3. Maintain records to facilitate ongoing business operations.
  Plus B. Employ planning and time management skills and tools to enhance results and complete work tasks.
    1. Develop goals and objectives.
    2. Prioritize tasks to be completed.
    3. Develop timelines using time management knowledge and skills.
    4. Use project-management skills to improve workflow and minimize costs.

Plus Employment Standards

Plus I. APPLIED ACADEMIC SKILLS
  Plus A. Reading, English & Language Arts
    1. Read a technical manual and write a clear & logical report explaining the information using standared business English.
    2. Give a verbal report on reading from a technical manual.
    3. Read a case study and identify the details about the situation, define technical terms, jargon, or words with multiple meanings based on context, and summarize the conclusion.
    4. Take a verbal and written position on a topic and use correct grammar to defend it.
  Plus B. Mathematics
    1. Approach practical and workplace problems using a variety of mathematical techniques.
    2. Research how math is used in the workplace and make a presentation detailing the process.
  Plus C. Listening & Presentation Skills
    1. Use correct grammar to communicate verbally.
    2. Listen to a presentation and record important information. Report back identifying central themes and use key points to explain how the message applies to a similar situation.
  Plus D. Technology
    1. Apply technology to workplace or career situation. Include research and a written paper.
Plus II. CAREER PLANNING
  Plus A. Career Planning
    1. Organize career information and labor market trends from a variety of sources.
    2. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of working for self, others, being an employee of a large or small organization.
    3. Analyze information & preferences from work-based opportunity.
    4. Interpret information from a variety of career assessments to identify career interests and abilities.
    5. Apply a decision-making model and use career assessment information to choose a career pathway.
    6. Annually review EDP and include plan for continuing education.
Plus III. DEVELOPING AND PRESENTING INFORMATION
  Plus A. Developing and Presenting information
    1. Gather, interpret, analyze, and refine data.
    2. Analyze and synthesize information and data from muiltiple sources.
    3. Plan and transform ideas and requirements into a concept, service, or product.
    4. Assess the quality of the concept, service, or product using a predetermined standard.
    5. Develop a plan to market a new product, service, or concept which includes identifying of customers, a graphic presentation, product requirements, and costs.
    6. Practice and demonstrate presentation skils using a variety of media and interpretive data.
Plus IV. PROBLEM SOLVING
  Plus A. Problem Solving
    1. Apply a problem solving model to a workplace situation that involves setting goals, implementing and evaluating results.
    2. Identify typical problems that occur in a workplace and use a problem solving model to devise solutions, compare alternatives to past solutions, and predict their success.
Plus V. PERSONAL MANAGEMENT
  Plus A. Responsibility
    1. Demonstrate regular attendance, promptness, and staying with a task until satisfacotry completion.
    2. Complete assignments with minimum supervision and meet deadlines.
    3. Use mistakes as learning opportunities, demonstrate persistence and adaptability to change.
    4. Initiate projects and extra activities for personal satisfaction.
  Plus B. Self-Management
    1. Monitor & evaluate accurately one's progress towards a goal or completion of a project.
    2. Demonstrate health and safety practices and drug-free behavior in school & workplace setting.
    3. Obtain a driver license and demonstrate driving skills and safety and/or use public transportation.
    4. Prioritize and accomplish tasks independently.
    5. Use appropriate personal expression and relate to school and work settings.
  Plus C. Ethical Behavior
    1. Demonstrate etlhical behavior in school, work, and community situations.
    2. Describe employer-employee rights and responsibilities.
    3. Demonstrate appropriate behaviors necessary to maintaining employment.
    4. Demonstrate positive personal qualities as a group leader.
  Plus D. Respect for Self and Others
    1. View accomplishments or failures of self and others accurately and in a positive manner.
    2. Understand how to make improvements and ask for help from adults as needed.
    3. Offer encouragement and ideas to others as they work toward attaining their goals.
    4. Provide for customer needs and expectations in a helpful and courteous manner.
    5. Respect other points of view.
    6. Demonstrate customer service skills in an appropriate setting by listening, suggesting solutions, and communicating the issues at hand.
Plus VI. ORGANIZING SKILLS
  Plus A. Time
    1. Determine goals and develop an action plan to accomplish them within a given time frame.
    2. Read time charts and work schedules and perform tasks within time constraints of school or the workplace.
    3. Prioritize tasks and revise schedules as needed.
  Plus B. Money
    1. Estimate costs and prepare a detailed budget for a school-based or work-based project.
    2. Report the costs of various components of a budget and adjust budget items as needed.
    3. Understand compensation practices and financial management and explain how financial resources can be used effectively and efficiently.
  Plus C. Materials
    1. Utilize materials, tools, and processes to complete a task related to a career selection.
    2. Compile a list of materials and supplies needed in advance of an assignment.
    3. Acquire resources in a timely fashion and take responsibility for their care.
    4. Identify and prepare tools, equipment, space, and facilities appropriate for a task.
    5. Work within constraints of safety precautions and available resources.
  Plus D. Human Resources
    1. Learn cooperation and leadership in a team at school or in a workplace setting.
    2. Organize and communicate with members of a team using varied methods of communications.
    3. Recognize the individual roles of team members, delegate tasks, and give feedback on performance.
    4. Acknowledge and utilize the skills, abilities, and input of all member of a team.
Plus VII. TEAMWORK
  Plus A. Group Participation
    1. Exhibit teamwork skills including trust and loyalty to group, and demonstrate connectedness to group members, values, and culture.
    2. Take personal responsibility for influencing and accomplishing group goals.
    3. Demonstrate understanding of how effective teams operate within organization and diverse settings.
    4. Solve a career/work-related problem as a member of a team.
  Plus B. Conflict Resolution
    1. Demonstrate leadership by listening to others and asking appropriate questions to clarify a problem or issue.
    2. Summarize a problem clearly and in appropriate detail.
    3. Suggest constructive alternatives with confidence that will help resolve a conflict.
    4. Compromise and/or build consensus within a group and summarize the decision of the group while maintaining respect for minortiy viewpoints.
    5. Participate in the implementation of a group's decision and evaluate the results.
    6. Show sensitivity to others' thoughts and opinions and relate them to the resolution process.
  Plus C. Diversity
    1. Understand and respect the concerns of members of cultural, gender, age, and ability groups.
    2. Be respectful of a variety of differences of people in a work/school setting.
    3. Demonstrate ability to work with others with different backgrounds, cultures, and abilities.
  Plus D. Leadership
    1. Demonstrate leadership ability in a work or school setting.
    2. Recognize and take advantage of leadership opportunities that give direction to other team members, or that encourage other members to complete tasks.
Plus VIII. NEGOTIATION SKILL
  Plus A. Negotiation Skills
    1. Using correct terminology, clarify the problem or issue to be negotiated.
    2. Identify, organize, and define ideas from various sources to logically support a position and use these ideas in debate.
    3. Demonstrate objectivity in assessing other viewpoints by considering all sides of an issue, using past experience, data and logical analysis, and showing respectful behavior towards others.
    4. Responsibily challenge existing policies and procedures and identify new solutions or policy changes.
Plus IX. UNDERSTANDING SYSTEMS AND USING TECHNOLOGY
  Plus A. Understanding Systems and Using Technology
    1. Identify trends and how they affect changes within a system.
    2. Demonstrate an understanding of business systems.
    3. Compare management systems and consider how employees function and adapt to change within them.
    4. Describe the technical systems related to a career interest area.
    5. Diagnose and make necessary corrections or improvements to a technical system in a business, industry, or simulated work place setting.
    6. Describe how changes in technology have impacted business and industry, identify current trends, and recommend how a technical system might be improved.
    7. Demonstrate the use of equipment and machines to solve practical or work-based problems.
    8. Demonstrate effective use of a variety of on-line technological resources.
    9. Determine what kind of application is needed for a given task and use effectively.
    10. Use technologies as tools for communication of technical or work-related information.
    11. Use technology effectively in solving problems in an area of career interest.
    12. Understand and demonstrate basic computer hardware and software installation and maintaining efficient machines.
    13. Demonstrate ability to adapt to different software applications, comparing and contrasting specfic functions and applying them to different projects.
Plus X. EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS
  Plus A. Employability Skills
    1. Continue the EDP process which includes an annual review with student and counselor and notification of parents.
    2. Participate in work-based opportunities such as job-shadowing, mentorships, work experiences, etc.
    3. Show ability to market oneself by preparing for and completing an interview process.
    4. Accurately complete records/documents to support job applications (inquiry letters, resume, references, evaluations, follow-up letters).
    5. Use a portfolio, resume, record of attendance, certifricates, and/or transcript as self-marketing tools to demonstrate interest and competence.
    6. Apply career and labormarket information to seek and obtain employment and/or pursue educational goals.
    7. Research availability of educational programs, financial requirements, and resource and complete an application process as appropriate for career goals.
    8. Understand the need for lifelong learning in a rapidly changing job market.
Plus XI. MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS
  Plus A. Creativity and Innovation – By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Apply advanced software features (e.g. built-in thesaurus, templates, styles) to redesign the appearance of word processing documents, spreadsheets, and presentations
    2. Create a web page (e.g., Dreamweaver, iGoogle, Kompozer)
    3. Use a variety of media and formats to design, develop, publish, and present projects (e.g., newsletters, web sites, presentations, photo galleries)
  Plus B. Communication and Collaboration - By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Identify various collaboration technologies and describe their use (e.g., desktop conferencing, listserv, blog, wiki)
    2. Use available technologies (e.g., desktop conferencing, e-mail, videoconferencing, instant messaging) to communicate with others on a class assignment or project
    3. Collaborate in content-related projects that integrate a variety of media (e.g., print, audio, video, graphic, simulations, and models)
    4. Plan and implement a collaborative project using telecommunications tools (e.g., ePals, discussion boards, online groups, interactive web sites, videoconferencing)
    5. Describe the potential risks and dangers associated with online communications
    6. Use technology tools for managing and communicating personal information (e.g., finances, contact information, schedules, purchases, correspondence)
  Plus C. Research and Information Fluency – By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Develop a plan to gather information using various research strategies (e.g., interviews, questionnaires, experiments, online surveys)
    2. Identify, evaluate, and select appropriate online sources to answer content related questions
    3. Demonstrate the ability to use library and online databases for accessing information (e.g., MEL, Proquest, Infosource, United Streaming)
    4. Distinguish between fact, opinion, point of view, and inference
    5. Evaluate information found in selected online sources on the basis of accuracy and validity
    6. Evalate resources for stereotyping, prejudice, and misrepresentation
    7. Understand that using information from a single internet source might result in the reporting of erroneous facts and that multiple sources must always be researched
    8. Research examples of inappropriate use of technologies and participate in related classroom activities (e.g., debates, reports, mock trials, presentations)
  Plus D. Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making - By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Use digital resources (e.g., educational software, simulations, models) for problem solving and independent learning
    2. Analyze the capabilities and limitations of digital resources and evaluate their potential to address personal, social, lifelong learning, and career needs
    3. Devise a research question or hypothesis using information and communication technology resources, analyze the findings to make a decision based on the findings, and report the results
  Plus E. Demonstrate Digital Citizenship
    1. Identify legal and ethical issues related to the use of information and communication technologies (e.g., properly selecting and citing resources)
    2. Discuss possible long-range effects of unethical uses of technology (e.g., virus spreading, file pirating, hacking) on cultures and society
    3. Discuss and demonstrate proper netiquette in online communications
    4. Identify ways that individuals can protect their technology systems from unethical or unscrupulous users
    5. Create appropriate citations for resources when presenting research findings
    6. Discuss and adhere to fair use policies and copyright guidelines
  Plus F. Technology Operations and Concepts - By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Complete at least one online credit, or non-credit, course or online learning experience
    2. Use an online tutorial and discuss the benefits and disadvantages of this method of learning
    3. Explore career opportunities, especially those related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics and identify their related technology skill requirements
    4. Describe uses of various existing or emerging technology resources (e.g., podcasting, webcasting, videoconferencing, online file sharing, global positioning software)
    5. Identify an example of an assistive technology and describe its potential purpose and use
    6. Participate in a virtual environment as a strategy to build 21st century learning skills
    7. Assess and solve hardware and software problems by using online help or other user documentation
    8. Explain the differences between freeware, shareware, open source, and commercial software
    9. Participate in experiences associated with technology-related careers
    10. Identify common graphic, audio, and video file formats (e.g., jpeg, gif, bmp, mpeg, wav, wmv, mp3, flv, avi, pdf)
    11. Understand and discuss how assistive technologies can benefit all individuals
    12. Demonstrate how to import/export text, graphics, or audio files
    13. Proofread and edit a document using an application’s spelling and grammar checking functions