52.0299 - Business Administration, Management & Operations (2012 Implement by Fall 2013)

Plus Technical Standards

Plus I. Technical Standards
  Plus A. Organization and Human Resources
    Plus 1. Personnel administration
        a. Flexibility and work - life balance
        b. Compensation and benefits
        c. Retention and turnover
        d. Labor-management relations
    Plus 2. Human relations and motivation
        a. The strategic importance of HRM
        b. The legal environment of HRM
        c. Labor relations
        d. Human resource planning
        e. Recruiting human resources
        f. Selecting human resources
        g. Training and development
        h. Performance appraisal
        i. Performing feedback
        j. Determining compensation
        k. Determining benefits
        l. The meaning of diversity
        m. The impact of diversity
        n. Managing diversity in organizations
        o. How employees form unions
        p. Collective bargaining
        q. Managing knowledge workers
        r. Contingent and temporary workers
        s. The needs hierarchy approach
        t. The two-factor theory
        u. Individual human needs
        v. Expectancy theory
        w. Equity theory
        x. Goal-setting theory
        y. Kinds of reinforcement in organizations
        z. Providing reinforcement in organization
        aa. Empowerment and participation
        ab. Alternative forms of work arrangements
        ac. Merit reward systems
        ad. Incentive reward systems
    Plus 3. Training and development
        a. The need for and benefits of measurement and evaluation of training outcomes
        b. The ROI model and process
        c. Developing training objectives
        d. Develop evaluation plans and baseline data
        e. Collect data after training
        f. Isolate the effects of training
        g. Convert data to monetary values
        h. Identify the costs of training
        i. Calculate the return on investment
        j. Measuring training outcomes
        k. Gaining management support and implementing the process
    Plus 4. Performance appraisal
        a. Goal setting
        b. Determining key job responsibilities
        c. Identifying and using competencies
        d. Providing day-to0day coaching
        e. Evaluating the quality of an individual's performance
        f. Using your appraisal form
        g. Preparing for the appraisal discussion
        h. Conducting the appraisal discussion
    Plus 5. Organizational development
        a. Forces for change
        b. Planning versus relative change
        c. Steps in the changing process
        d. Understanding resistance to change
        e. Overcoming resistance to change
        f. Changing organizational structure and design
        g. Changing people, attitudes, and behaviors
        h. Changing business processes
        i. Organizational development
        j. The innovation process
        k. The failure to innovate
        l. Promoting innovation in organizations
    Plus 6. Legal concerns
        a. Human resource management legal issues
        b. Affirmative action
        c. Sexual harassment in the workplace
        d. Understanding the Americans with Disabilities Act
        e. Managing conflict in the workplace
    Plus 7. Workforce diversity
        a. The meaning of diversity
        b. The impact of diversity
        c. Managing diversity in organizations
    Plus 8. Recruiting and selecting
        a. Federal employee Unions and the human resource management function
        b. Organizational investment in employee development
        c. Staffing the bureaucracy: Employee recruitment and selection
        d. Effective job analysis methods
    Plus 9. Compensation and benefits
        a. The role of the manager in employee motivation
        b. Work management and job evaluation systems
        c. Designing and creating an effective compensation plan
        d. Merit pay mania: Transforming polarized support and opposition into a working consensus
        e. Employee benefits such as healthcare and pensions
    Plus 10. Collective bargaining
        a. The strategic level of industrial relations and structures for collective bargaining
        b. The functional level of industrial relations
        c. The workplace level of industrial relations
        d. Collective bargaining in the public sector
        e. International and comparative industrial relations
        f. The future of U.S. labor policy and industrial relations
  Plus B. Operational Aspects of Management
    Plus 1. Operations planning and control
        a. Single-use plans
        b. Standing plans
        c. Contingency planning and crisis management
        d. The importance of Operations
        e. Manufacturing and production operations
        f. The role of operations in organizational strategy
        g. Determining the product-service mix
        h. Capacity decisions
        i. Facilities decisions
        j. Manufacturing technology
        k. Service technology
        l. Operations management as control
        m. Purchasing management
        n. Inventory management
    Plus 2. Work scheduling
        a. Types of forecasting approaches
        b. Trend analysis
        c. Monthly forecasting adjustments
        d. Day-of-week forecasting
        e. Time-of-day forecasting
        f. Forecasting funnel approach
        g. Forecasting handle times
        h. Defining staff workload
        i. Skill-based scheduling techniques
    Plus 3. Quality management (e.g., TQM)
        a. The meaning of quality
        b. The importance of quality
        c. Total Quality Management
        d. TQM tools and techniques
    Plus 4. Information processing and management
        a. What is useful information?
        b. Information needs in organizations
        c. Information systems
        d. How information technology is changing organizations
        e. Managers as information processors
        f. Managers as problem solvers
        g. Types of managerial decisions
        h. Decision conditions
        i. The decision making process
        j. Issues in managerial decision making
        k. Decision errors and traps
        l. Creativity in decision making
    Plus 5. Strategic planning and analysis
        a. The components of strategy
        b. Types of strategic alternatives
        c. Evaluating an organization's strengths
        d. Evaluating an organization's weakness
        e. Evaluating an organization's opportunities and threats
        f. Porter's generic strategies
        g. Strategies based on product life cycle
        h. Formulating corporate-level strategies
        i. Single-product strategy
        j. Related diversification
        k. Unrelated diversification
        l. Competitive advantages
        m. Strategy and strategic intent
        n. The strategic management process
        o. Analysis of Mission, Values, and Objectives
        p. SWOT Analysis of organization and environment
        q. Five Forces Analysis of industry effectiveness
        r. Corporate-level strategy formulation
        s. Business-level strategy formulation
        t. Strategy implementation
    Plus 6. Productivity
        a. The meaning of productivity
        b. The importance of productivity
        c. Productivity trends
        d. Productivity as a measure of efficiency of resource use
        e. Labor productivity
        f. Types of productivity--machines, materials, energy, capital
        g. Measures of productivity; impact of changes on productivity
  Plus C. Functional Aspects of Management
    Plus 1. Planning
        a. Building effective time management skills
        b. Organizational goals
        c. Kinds of organizational plans
        d. Importance of planning
        e. The planning process
        f. Benefits of planning
        g. Planning and time management
        h. Long-range and short-range plans
        i. Strategic and tactical plans
        j. Operational plans
        k. Forecasting
        l. Contingency planning
        m. Scenario planning
        n. Benchmarking
        o. Use of self planners
        p. Goal setting
        q. Goal alignment
    Plus 2. Organizing
        a. Why organize?
        b. Basic concepts
        c. Guidelines for organizing
    Plus 3. Leading
        a. The psychological contract
        b. The person-job fit
        c. The nature of individual differences
        d. The "Big Five" personality traits
        e. Other personality traits at work
        f. Emotional intelligence
        g. Work-related attitudes
        h. Affect and mood in organizations
        i. Basic perceptual processes
        j. Perception and attributes
        k. Causes and consequences of stress
        l. Performance behaviors
        m. Withdrawal behaviors
        n. Organizational Citizenship
        o. Dysfunctional behaviors
    Plus 4. Controlling
        a. The purpose of control
        b. Types of control
        c. Steps in the control process
        d. Preliminary control
        e. Screening control
        f. Post action control
        g. Budgetary control
        h. Other tools for financial control
        i. Bureaucratic control
        j. Decentralized control
        k. Integrating strategy and control
        l. Characteristics of effective control
        m. Resistance to control
        n. Overcoming resistance to control
    Plus 5. Authority
        a. Appropriate leadership styles
        b. Getting through giving
        c. Enhancing influence
        d. Maintaining relationships
        e. Desired behaviors
        f. Types and uses of project metrics
        g. Potential problems and measurement barriers
    Plus 6. Decision making
        a. Building effective decision-making skills
        b. Decision making defined
        c. Types of decisions
        d. Decision-making conditions
        e. The classical model of decision making
        f. Steps in rational decision making
        g. The administrative model
        h. Political forces in decision making
        i. Intuition and escalation of commitment
        j. Risk propensity and decision making
        k. Ethics and decision making
        l. Forms and group and team decision making
        m. Advantages of group and team decision making
        n. Managing group and team decision making process
    Plus 7. Organization charts
        a. Viewing organizations as systems
        b. Three levels of performance: Organization, process, and job/performer
        c. Linking performance to strategy
        d. Types of organizational charts
        e. Creating an organizational chart
    Plus 8. Leadership
        a. The meaning of leadership
        b. Leadership and movement
        c. Leadership and power
        d. Leadership traits
        e. Leadership behaviors
        f. LPC Theory
        g. Path-Goal Theory
        h. Vroom's Decision Tree Approach
        i. The LMX Approach
        j. Substitutes for leadership
        k. Charismatic leadership
        l. Transformational leadership
        m. Strategic leadership
        n. Cross-cultural leadership
        o. Ethical leadership
        p. Common political behaviors
        q. Impression management
        r. Managing political behavior
    Plus 9. Organizational structure
        a. Grouping jobs - Departmentalization
        b. Establishing reporting relationships
        c. distributing authority
        d. coordinating activities
        e. The bureaucratic model of organization design
        f. Situational influences on organization design
        g. Functional (U Form) design
        h. Conglomerate (H Form) design
        i. Divisional (M Form) design
        j. Matrix design
        k. Hybrid design
        l. The team organization
        m. The virtual organization
        n. The learning organization
    Plus 10. Budgeting
        a. Creating a budget
        b. The parts of a budget
        c. Gathering production figures
        d. Creating a production budget
        e. Planning and budgeting a project
        f. Checking it twice
        g. Preparing for presentation
        h. Budgetary spending
        i. Tracking your budget
        j. Budgeting and human resources
        k. Small business money management
        l. Mastering the budget process
    Plus 11. Problem solving
        a. How problems differ from decisions
        b. A unified model for decision making and problem solving
        c. Asking the right questions
        d. How to approach system problems
        e. Key points
    Plus 12. Group dynamics and team functions
        a. Types of groups and teams
        b. Why people join groups and teams
        c. Stages of groups and team development
        d. Role structures
        e. Behavior norms
        f. Formal and informal leadership
        g. The nature of conflict
        h. Causes of conflict
        i. Stimulating conflict
        j. Controlling conflict
        k. Resolving and eliminating conflict
    Plus 13. Conflict resolution
        a. Types of conflict
        b. Sources of conflict
        c. Strategies for managing group conflicts
        d. Organizational change as a source of conflicts
    Plus 14. Communication
        a. A definition of communication
        b. Characteristics of useful information
        c. The communication process
        d. Interpersonal communication
        e. Communication in networks and work teams
        f. Organizational communication
        g. Electronic communication
        h. The grapevine
        i. Management by wondering around
        j. Nonverbal communication
        k. Barriers to communication
        l. Improving communication effectiveness
    Plus 15. Change
        a. Changing nature of work
        b. Changing nature of the worker
        c. Changing nature of the work environment: Growth of the computer
        d. Changing nature of the Manager: Need for managerial and interpersonal skills
    Plus 16. Organizational theory
        a. Organizing as a management function
        b. Traditional organization structures
        c. Organizing designs
        d. Organizational changes
        e. Organizational cultures
        f. Multicultural organizations
    Plus 17. Historical aspects
        a. Classic schools of management theory
        b. The behavioral school of management theory
        c. Production Operations Management (POM) approach
        d. The contingency approach
        e. Theory Z: The techniques of Japanese management
  Plus D. International Management and Contemporary Issues
    Plus 1. Value dimensions
        a. Customer loyalty
        b. Core values and concepts of organizations
        c. Results used to create and balance value for key stakeholders
        d. Worth of products, process, asset or function relative to cost and alternatives
        e. Defining what different stakeholder groups value
        f. Guiding pricniples and behaviors that embody organization and how its people are expected to operate
        g. Long term orientation
    Plus 2. Regional economic integration
        a. Desire to expand markets
        b. Search for natural resources
        c. Global marketing
        d. Proximity to customer
        e. Labor savings
    Plus 3. Trading alliances
        a. Exporting
        b. Foreign licensing
        c. Foreign assembly
        d. Foreign production subsidiaries
    Plus 4. Global environment
        a. The importance of organization culture
        b. Determinants of organization culture
        c. Managing organization culture
    Plus 5. Social responsibilities of business
        a. Options for doing good
        b. Increasing awareness and concern for social causes
        c. Making contributions to causes based on product sales
        d. Supporting behavior change campaigns
        e. Making a direct contribution to a cause
        f. Employees donating their time and talents
        g. Investments and support causes
    Plus 6. Ethics
        a. Laws and values as determinants of ethical behavior
        b. Alternative views of ethics
        c. Cultural issues in ethical behavior
        d. Ethical dilemmas
        e. Influences on ethical decision making
        f. Rationalizations for unethical behavior
        g. Codes of ethical conduct
        h. Whistleblower protection
    Plus 7. Systems
        a. The Systems Perspective
        b. Organizations and processes viewed as systems
        c. Viewing organizaton as a whole
        d. Alignment of core competencies, strategic objectives, action plans and work systems
    Plus 8. Environment
        a. The general environment
        b. The task environment
        c. The internal environment
        d. Individual ethics in organizations
        e. Emerging ethical issues
        f. Social responsibility in organizations
        g. Managing social responsibility
    Plus 9. Government regulation
        a. Securities regulation
        b. Intellectual property
        c. Employment law
        d. Antitrust
        e. Accountants' legal liability
        f. Consumer protection
        g. Environmental law
        h. International business law
    Plus 10. Management theories and theorists
        a. Scientific Management Theory
        b. Bureaucratic Management Theory
        c. Human relations movement
        d. Traits of progressive management development programs
        e. Contingency theory
        f. Systems theory
        g. Chaos theory
        h. Contemporary Management Issues and Challenges
    Plus 11. E-business
        a. Defining e-business
        b. Fundamental models of e-business
        c. Taxonomy for the fundamental models of e-business
        d. Preparing e-business plans
        e. Environmental forces affecting planning and practices
        f. Ethical, legal and social concerns
        g. Developing e-business models
    Plus 12. Creativity and innovation
        a. The creative individual
        b. The creative process
        c. Enhancing creativity in organizations
        d. Types of innovations
        e. The innovation process
        f. Characteristics of innovation organizations

Plus Pathway Standards

Plus I. BUSINESS LAW
  Plus A. Describe management's responsibility to know and abide by laws and regulations that affect business operations and transactions.
    Plus 1. Adhere to regulations for business expansion to meet government requirements and industry standards.
        a. Follow domestic laws governing business expansion
        b. Follow laws governing global expansion
    Plus 2. Describe how government/legal activities affect global trade.
        a. Describe customs regulations
        b. Comply with export licensing regulations
        c. Obtain releases and clearances to export products
        d. Explain the nature of legal recourse in resolving global business disputes
Plus II. COMMUNICATION SKILLS
  Plus A. Obtain and convey ideas and information to impact business decisions and report on organizational activities.
    Plus 1. Write internal and external analaytical reports (i.e., reports that examine a problem/issue and recommend an action).
        a. Write analytical reports (i.e., reports that examine a problem/issue and recommend an action)
        b. Write research reports
Plus III. ECONOMICS
  Plus A. Apply economic concepts fundamental to global business operations.
    Plus 1. Describe global trade's impact on business activities.
        a. Discuss the impact of globalization on business
        b. Explain cultural considerations that impact global business relations
        c. Describe the impact of electronic communication tools (e.g., Internet, video- and computer-conferencing, webcasts, email) on global business activities
        d. Explain the impact of major trade alliances on business activities
        e. Describe the impact of the political environment on world trade
        f. Explain the impact of geography on world trade
        g. Describe the impact of a country's history on world trade
        h. Explain the impact of a country's economic development on world trade
        i. Discuss the potential impact of emerging economies on business activities
Plus IV. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
  Plus A. Employ and manage techniques, strategies, and systems used by management to foster self-understanding and enhance business relationships.
    Plus 1. Demonstrate managerial ethics
        a. Use ethics in staff supervision
        b. Explain the nature of managerial ethics
    Plus 2. Manage internal and external inter-cultural business relationships.
        a. Explain the impact of business customs and practices on global trade
        b. Describe the nature of business customs and practices in the North American market
        c. Explain the nature of business customs and practices in Europe
        d. Explain the nature of business customs and practices in Latin America
        e. Describe the nature of business customs and practices in the Pacific Rim
        f. Discuss the nature of business customs and practices in the Middle East
Plus V. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
  Plus A. Maintain, monitor, plan, and control the use of financial resources to protect a business's fiscal well-being.
    Plus 1. Manage business risks to protect a business's financial well-being.
        a. Identify a business's risks
        b. Assess business risks
        c. Assess task risks
        d. Assess accounting risks
        e. Assess legal risks
        f. Evaluate speculative business risks
        g. Assess business's potential to expand into new markets
        h. Select risk-management strategies
        i. Develop risk-management plan
        j. Evaluate risk-management plan
    Plus 2. Manage financial resources to ensure solvency.
        a. Interpret cash-flow statements
        b. Monitor business's profitability
Plus VI. OPERATIONS
  Plus A. Plan, monitor, and control day-to-day business functions to ensure continued business operations.
    Plus 1. Manage purchasing activities to obtain the best service/product at the least cost.
        a. Maintain vendor/supplier relationships
        b. Negotiate terms with vendors
        c. Establish bid specifications
    Plus 2. Manage quality-control processes to minimize errors and to expedite workflow.
        a. Explain the nature of quality management
        b. Discuss the need for continuous improvement of the quality process
        c. Develop continuous-improvement strategies
        d. Develop a plan/program for quality achievement
Plus VII. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
  Plus A. Plan, organize, and control an organization/department to optimize overall business success.
    Plus 1. Explain management's role in contributing to successful business operations.
        a. Describe factors that influence management
        b. Discuss the nature of global management
        c. Explain management theories and their applications
    Plus 2. Plan organization's/department's activities to guide and support decisions and to ensure that staff focus on priorities.
        a. Describe the strategic planning process within an organization
        b. Develop strategies for achieving company vision
        c. Determine alternative actions to take when goals are not being met
    Plus 3. Develop business plans to meet company needs.
        a. Develop company vision
        b. Determine business's overall global strategy
        c. Develop company's management plan
    Plus 4. Plan for future company growth to guide company operations.
        a. Evaluate opportunities for potential company changes
        b. Develop processes that can be used to improve business results
        c. Analyze exit plan options
    Plus 5. Determine benchmarks to use in evaluating company performance.
        a. Identify and set benchmarks for key performance indicators
    Plus 6. Design organizational structure to facilitate business activities.
        a. Describe organizational structures for managing foreign business activities
        b. Develop an organizational plan for human resources
        c. Develop an organizational strategy for foreign businesses
    Plus 7. Determine staffing needs to minimize costs while maximizing business contribution.
        a. Describe the nature of human-resources planning
        b. Explain approaches to the identification of human resources in foreign markets
        c. Determine causes of staff turnover
    Plus 8. Control organization's/department's activities to monitor business activities and to make business decisions.
        a. Discuss the importance of the coordinating/controlling role in the business environment
        b. Evaluate individual department's contribution to organizational effectiveness
        c. Apply benchmarking techniques
        d. Interpret internal information for strategic planning (e.g., financial/accounting, marketing, operations, human resources, information technology, and individual employee data)
        e. Assess company's strategic-planning processes
    9. Compare company performance with established benchmarks to determine company success.
    10. Adjust growth projections impacting facilities and equipment to foster profitable operations.
    Plus 11. Apply performance standards to evaluate employees.
        a. Identify and communicate performance standards
        b. Identify and communicate policies and procedures for reviewing performance
        c. Track performance indicators and develop performance reports
    Plus 12. Develop timely responses to employee performance evaluations.
        a. Provide feedback response on employee's performance
        b. Implement performance improvement plans
        c. Amend employee work plans to account for performance evaluation results
        d. Provide strategies for rewarding employee performance
  Plus B. Implement strategic plans to manage business growth, profit, and goals.
    1. Analyze strategic plan.
    Plus 2. Devise the operational roll-out of strategic initiatives.
        a. Adhere to organization's policies for technology use

Plus Foundation Standards

Plus I. ACADEMIC FOUNDATIONS: Achieve additional academic knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of career and postsecondary education opportunities within a career cluster.
  Plus A. Solve mathematical problems and use the information to make business decisions and enhance business management duties.
    Plus 1. Solve mathematical problems using numbers and operations.
        a. Recognize relationships among numbers
        b. Employ mathematical operations
        c. Perform computations successfully
        d. Predict reasonable estimations
    Plus 2. Apply algebraic skills to make business decisions.
        a. Recognize patterns and mathematical relations
        b. Use algebraic symbols to represent, solve, and analyze mathematical problems
        c. Create mathematical models from real-life situations
        d. Represent changes in quantities mathematically
        e. Determine rate of change mathematically
        f. Interpret graphical and numerical data
    Plus 3. Employ measurement skills to make business decisions.
        a. Recognize measurable attributes of objects
        b. Take measurements correctly
    Plus 4. Perform data analysis to make business decisions.
        a. Formulate questions effectively
        b. Collect relevant data
        c. Organize useful data
        d. Answer questions appropriately
        e. Employ appropriate statistical methods in data analysis
        f. Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions
        g. Apply basic concepts of probability
    Plus 5. Evaluate the accuracy of mathematical responses using problem-solving techniques.
        a. Identify problem-solving techniques
        b. Apply a variety of problem-solving strategies
        c. Adjust problem-solving strategies, when needed
  Plus B. Examine and employ business and economic principles and concepts in making informed business decisions to continue business operations.
    Plus 1. Identify fundamental economic concepts necessary for employment in business.
        a. Distinguish between economic goods and services
        b. Explain the concept of economic resources
        c. Describe the concepts of economics and economic activities
        d. Determine economic utilities created by business activities
        e. Explain the principles of supply and demand
        f. Describe the functions of prices in markets
    Plus 2. Describe the nature of business and its contribution to society.
        a. Explain the role of business in society
        b. Describe types of business activities
        c. Explain the organizational design of businesses
        d. Discuss the global environment in which businesses operate
        e. Describe factors that affect the business environment
        f. Explain how organizations adapt to today's markets
    Plus 3. Recognize how economic systems influence environments in which businesses function.
        a. Explain the types of economic systems
        b. Explain the concept of private enterprise
        c. Identify factors affecting a business's profit
        d. Determine factors affecting business risk
        e. Explain the concept of competition
        f. Describe market structures
    Plus 4. Use knowledge regarding the impact government has on businesses to make informed economic decisions.
        a. Determine the relationship between government and business
        b. Describe the nature of taxes
        c. Discuss the nature of monetary policy
        d. Discuss the supply and demand for money
        e. Explain the role of the Federal Reserve System
        f. Explain the concept of fiscal policies
        g. Describe the effects of fiscal and monetary policies
    Plus 5. Analyze cost/profit relationships to guide business decision-making.
        a. Explain the concept of productivity
        b. Analyze impact of specialization/division of labor on productivity
        c. Explain the concept of organized labor and business
        d. Explain the impact of the law of diminishing returns
        e. Describe the concept of economies of scale
    Plus 6. Use economic indicators to detect economic trends and conditions.
        a. Describe the concept of price stability as an economic measure
        b. Discuss the measure of consumer spending as an economic indicator
        c. Discuss the impact of a nation's unemployment rates
        d. Explain the concept of Gross Domestic Product
        e. Describe the economic impact of inflation on business
        f. Explain unemployment and inflation tradeoffs
        g. Explain the economic impact of interest-rate fluctuations
        h. Determine the impact of business cycles on business activities
    Plus 7. Determine global trade’s impact on business decision-making.
        a. Explain the nature of global trade
        b. Describe the determinants of exchange rates and their effects on the domestic economy
        c. Discuss the impact of cultural and social environments on global trade
        d. Explain labor issues associated with global trade
II. COMMUNICATIONS: Use oral and written communication skills in creating, expressing and interpreting information and ideas including technical terminology and information.
III. PROBLEM-SOLVING AND CRITICAL THINKING: Solve problems using critical thinking skills (analyze, synthesize, and evaluate) independently and in teams. Solve problems using creativity and innovation.
IV. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS: Use information technology tools specific to the career cluster to access, manage, integrate, and create information.
Plus V. SYSTEMS: Understand roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment. Identify how key organizational systems affect organizational performance and the quality of products and services. Understand global context of industries and careers.
  Plus A. Identify new ideas, opportunities, and methods to create or start a new project or venture.
    Plus 1. Employ entrepreneurial discovery strategies to generate feasible ideas for business ventures.
        a. Explain the need for entrepreneurial discovery
        b. Discuss entrepreneurial discovery processes
        c. Assess global trends and opportunities
        d. Determine opportunities for venture creation
        e. Assess opportunities for venture creation
        f. Describe idea-generation methods
        g. Generate venture ideas
        h. Determine feasibility of venture ideas
    Plus 2. Develop a concept for a new business venture.
        a. Describe entrepreneurial planning considerations
        b. Explain tools used by entrepreneurs for venture planning
        c. Assess start-up requirements
        d. Assess risks associated with venture
        e. Describe external resources useful to entrepreneurs during concept development
        f. Assess the need to use external resources for concept development
        g. Describe strategies to protect intellectual property
        h. Use components of business plan to define venture idea
    3. Evaluate a new business venture concept's potential for success.
    Plus 4. Determine the resources needed for start-up viability of a business venture.
        a. Describe processes used to acquire adequate financial resources for venture creation/start-up
        b. Select sources to finance venture creation/start-up
        c. Explain factors to consider in determining a venture's human-resource needs
        d. Explain considerations in making the decision to hire staff
        e. Describe considerations in selecting capital resources
        f. Identify capital resources needed for the venture
        g. Assess the costs/benefits associated with resources
    Plus 5. Actualize a new business venture to generate profit and/or meet objectives.
        a. Use external resources to supplement entrepreneur's expertise
        b. Explain the complexity of business operations
        c. Evaluate risk-taking opportunities
        d. Explain the need for business systems and procedures
        e. Describe the use of operating procedures
        f. Explain methods/processes for organizing workflow
        g. Develop and/or provide product/service
        h. Use creative problem-solving in business activities/decisions
        i. Explain the impact of resource productivity on venture success
        j. Create processes for ongoing opportunity recognition
        k. Develop plan to invest resources into improving current products or creating new ones
        l. Adapt to changes in business environment
    Plus 6. Select a harvesting strategy that matches the entrepreneur's desired goals regarding the business venture.
        a. Explain the need for continuation planning
        b. Describe methods of venture harvesting
        c. Evaluate options for continued venture involvement
        d. Develop exit strategies
  Plus B. Analyze accounting systems' contribution to the fiscal stability of a business.
    Plus 1. Develop a foundational knowledge of accounting to understand its nature and scope.
        a. Explain the concept of accounting
        b. Explain the need for accounting standards (GAAP)
        c. Discuss the role of ethics in accounting
        d. Explain the use of technology in accounting
        e. Explain legal considerations for accounting
    Plus 2. Demonstrate accounting procedures used to track money flow and to determine financial status.
        a. Describe the nature of cash flow statements
        b. Prepare cash flow statements
        c. Explain the nature of balance sheets
        d. Describe the nature of income statements
  Plus C. Understand tools, strategies, and systems used to maintain, monitor, control, and plan the use of financial resources.
    Plus 1. Acquire a foundational knowledge of finance to understand its nature and scope.
        a. Explain the role of finance in business
        b. Discuss the role of ethics in finance
        c. Explain legal considerations for finance
  Plus D. Understand the methods that businesses use to recruit, train and develop human resources.
    Plus 1. Describe the role and function of human resources management.
        a. Discuss the nature of human resources management
        b. Explain the role of ethics in human resources management
        c. Describe the use of technology in human resources management
Plus VI. SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL: Understand the importance of health, safety, and environmental management systems in organizations and their importance to organizational performance and regulatory compliance. Follow organizational policies and procedures and contribute to continuous improvement in performance and compliance.
  Plus A. Implement safety, health, and environmental controls to enhance business productivity.
    Plus 1. Adhere to health and safety regulations to support a safe work environment.
        a. Describe health and safety regulations in business
        b. Report noncompliance with business health and safety regulations
    Plus 2. Implement safety procedures to minimize loss.
        a. Follow instructions for use of equipment, tools, and machinery
        b. Follow safety precautions
        c. Maintain a safe work environment
        d. Explain procedures for handling accidents
        e. Handle and report emergency situations
    Plus 3. Assess needed safety policies/procedures to ensure protection of employees.
        a. Identify potential safety issues
        b. Establish safety policies and procedures
    Plus 4. Implement security policies/procedures to minimize chance for loss.
        a. Explain routine security precautions
        b. Follow established security procedures/policies
        c. Protect company information and intangibles
    Plus 5. Develop policies/procedures to protect workplace security.
        a. Identify potential security issues
        b. Establish policies to protect company information and intangibles
        c. Establish policies to maintain a non-hostile work environment
        d. Establish policies and procedures to maintain physical security of the work environment
VII. LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK: Use leadership and teamwork skills in collaborating with others to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
Plus VIII. ETHICS AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES: Know and understand the importance of professional ethics and legal responsibilities.
  Plus A. Describe business's responsibility to know and abide by laws and regulations that affect business operations.
    Plus 1. Obtain and provide information in a business setting.
        a. Respect the privacy of others
        b. Explain ethical considerations in providing information
        c. Protect confidential information
        d. Determine information appropriate to obtain from a client or another employee
    Plus 2. Demonstrate ethical behaviors in the workplace.
        a. Explain the nature of business ethics
        b. Demonstrate responsible behavior
        c. Demonstrate honesty and integrity
        d. Demonstrate ethical work habits
    Plus 3. Manage internal and external business relationships to foster positive interactions.
        a. Treat others fairly at work
        b. Describe ethics in human resources issues
    Plus 4. Describe the nature and scope of business laws and regulations.
        a. Discuss the nature of law and sources of law in the United States
        b. Describe the US Judicial system hierarchy for legal appeals
        c. Describe legal issues affecting businesses
    Plus 5. Describe the elements of a business contract.
        a. Identify the basic torts relating to business enterprises
        b. Describe the nature of legally binding contracts
    Plus 6. Describe the current regulatory environment of United States’ businesses.
        a. Describe the nature of legal procedure
        b. Discuss the nature of debtor-creditor relationships
        c. Explain the nature of agency relationships
        d. Discuss the nature of environmental law
        e. Discuss the role of administrative law
    Plus 7. Describe current human resources laws and regulations.
        a. Explain the nature of human resources regulations
        b. Explain the nature of workplace regulations (including OSHA, ADA)
        c. Discuss employment relationships
    Plus 8. Select business structure for immediate and long-term operations.
        a. Explain types of business ownership
        b. Select form of business ownership
    Plus 9. Describe applicable commerce laws and regulations.
        a. Explain the nature of trade regulations
        b. Describe the impact of anti-trust legislation
    Plus 10. Explain applicable tax laws and regulations to comply with government requirements.
        a. Explain the nature of tax regulations on business
        b. Explain the nature of businesses' reporting requirements
        c. Develop strategies for legal/government compliance
Plus IX. EMPLOYABILITY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT: Know and understand the importance of employability skills. Explore, plan, and effectively manage careers. Know and understand the importance of entrepreneurship skills.
  Plus A. Explore, obtain, and develop strategies for ensuring a successful business career.
    Plus 1. Develop self-understanding to recognize the impact of personal actions on others.
        a. Describe the nature of emotional intelligence
        b. Explain the concept of self-esteem
        c. Recognize personal biases and stereotypes
        d. Assess personal strengths and weaknesses
    Plus 2. Develop personal traits and behaviors to foster career advancement.
        a. Identify desirable personality traits important to business
        b. Exhibit a positive attitude
        c. Exhibit self-confidence
        d. Demonstrate interest and enthusiasm
        e. Demonstrate initiative
        f. Foster positive working relationships
    Plus 3. Participate in career-planning to enhance job-success potential.
        a. Assess personal interests and skills needed for success in business
        b. Analyze employer expectations in the business environment
        c. Explain the rights of workers
        d. Identify sources of career information
        e. Identify tentative occupational interest
        f. Explain employment opportunities in business
    Plus 4. Implement job-seeking skills to obtain employment.
        a. Utilize job-search strategies
        b. Complete a job application
        c. Interview for a job
        d. Write a follow-up letter after job interviews
        e. Write a letter of application
        f. Prepare a résumé
        g. Use networking techniques to identify employment opportunities
    Plus 5. Utilize career-advancement activities to enhance professional development.
        a. Describe techniques for obtaining work experience (e.g., volunteer activities, internships)
        b. Explain the need for ongoing education as a worker
        c. Explain possible advancement patterns for jobs
        d. Identify skills needed to enhance career progression
        e. Utilize resources that can contribute to professional development (e.g., trade journals/periodicals, professional/trade associations, classes/seminars, trade shows, and mentors)
Plus X. TECHNICAL SKILLS: Use the technical knowledge and skills required to pursue the targeted careers for all pathways in the career cluster, including knowledge of design, operation, and maintenance of technological systems critical to the career cluster.
  Plus A. Access, process, maintain, evaluate, and disseminate information to assist in business decision-making.
    Plus 1. Use information literacy skills to increase workplace efficiency and effectiveness.
        a. Assess information needs
        b. Obtain needed information efficiently
        c. Evaluate quality and source of information
        d. Apply information to accomplish a task
        e. Store information for future use
    Plus 2. Acquire a foundational knowledge of information management to understand its nature and scope.
        a. Discuss the nature of information management
        b. Explain the role of ethics in information management
        c. Explain legal issues associated with information management
    Plus 3. Maintain business records to facilitate business operations.
        a. Describe the nature of business records
        b. Maintain customer records
    Plus 4. Acquire information to guide business decision-making.
        a. Describe current business trends
        b. Monitor internal records for business information
        c. Conduct an environmental scan to obtain business information
        d. Interpret statistical findings
    Plus 5. Utilize project-management skills to improve workflow and minimize costs.
        a. Explain the nature of project management
        b. Identify resources needed for project
        c. Develop project plan
        d. Apply project-management tools to monitor project progress
        e. Evaluate project results
  Plus B. Establish, maintain, control, and plan the use of financial resources to protect solvency.
    Plus 1. Describe the fundamental principles of money needed to make financial exchanges.
        a. Explain forms of financial exchange (cash, credit, debit, electronic funds transfer, etc.)
        b. Identify types of currency (paper money, coins, banknotes, government bonds, treasury notes, etc.)
        c. Describe functions of money (medium of exchange, unit of measure, store of value)
        d. Describe sources of income (wages/salaries, interest, rent, dividends, transfer payments, etc.)
        e. Explain the time value of money
        f. Explain the purposes and importance of credit
        g. Explain legal responsibilities associated with financial exchanges
    Plus 2. Analyze financial needs and goals to determine financial requirements.
        a. Explain the nature of financial needs (e.g., college, retirement, wills, insurance, etc.)
        b. Set financial goals
        c. Develop personal budget
    Plus 3. Manage personal finances to achieve financial goals.
        a. Explain the nature of tax liabilities
        b. Interpret a pay stub
        c. Read and reconcile bank statements
        d. Maintain financial records
        e. Demonstrate the wise use of credit
        f. Validate credit history
        g. Protect against identity theft
        h. Prepare personal income tax forms (i.e., 1040 EZ)
    Plus 4. Explain the use of financial-services providers to aid in financial-goal achievement.
        a. Describe types of financial-services providers
        b. Discuss considerations in selecting a financial-services provider
    Plus 5. Use investment strategies to ensure financial well-being.
        a. Explain types of investments
        b. Explain the nature of capital investment
        c. Establish investment goals and objectives
    Plus 6. Identify potential business threats and opportunities for protecting a business’s financial well-being.
        a. Describe the concept of insurance
        b. Obtain insurance coverage
        c. Settle insurance losses
        d. Identify speculative business risks
        e. Explain the nature of risk management
    Plus 7. Obtain business credit and establish financial controls.
        a. Explain the purposes and importance of obtaining business credit
        b. Analyze critical banking relationships
        c. Make critical decisions regarding acceptance of bank cards
        d. Determine financing needed for business operations
        e. Identify risks associated with obtaining business credit
        f. Explain sources of financial assistance
        g. Explain loan evaluation criteria used by lending institutions
        h. Complete loan application package
    Plus 8. Manage financial resources to maintain business solvency.
        a. Describe the nature of budgets
        b. Explain the nature of operating budgets
        c. Describe the nature of cost/benefit analysis
        d. Determine relationships among total revenue, marginal revenue, output, and profit
        e. Develop company's/department's budget
        f. Forecast sales
        g. Calculate financial ratios
        h. Interpret financial statements
  Plus C. Employ tools and strategies to influence, plan, control, and organize an organization/department.
    Plus 1. Explain the role that business management has in contributing to business success.
        a. Explain the concept of management
        b. Explain the nature of managerial ethics
    Plus 2. Utilize planning tools to guide organization’s/ department’s activities.
        a. Explain the nature of business plans
        b. Develop company goals/objectives
        c. Define business mission
        d. Conduct an organizational SWOT
        e. Explain external planning considerations
        f. Identify and benchmark key performance indicators (e.g., dashboards, scorecards, etc.)
        g. Develop action plans
        h. Develop business plan
    Plus 3. Implement control activities that promote growth and development of the organization/department.
        a. Describe the nature of managerial control (control process, types of control, what is controlled)
        b. Analyze operating results in relation to budget/industry
        c. Track performance of business plan
  Plus D. Identify, understand and implement processes and systems used to monitor, plan, and control day-to-day business activities.
    Plus 1. Implement expense-control strategies to enhance a business’s financial well-being.
        a. Explain the nature of overhead/operating costs
        b. Explain employee's role in expense control
        c. Control use of supplies
        d. Conduct breakeven analysis
        e. Negotiate service and maintenance contracts
        f. Negotiate lease or purchase of facility
        g. Develop expense control plans
        h. Use budgets to control operations
    Plus 2. Maintain property and equipment necessary for ongoing business activities.
        a. Identify routine activities for maintaining business facilities and equipment
        b. Plan maintenance program
  Plus E. Create, communicate, and deliver value to customers while managing customer relationships.
    Plus 1. Perform customer service activities to support customer relationships and encourage repeat business.
        a. Process customer orders
        b. Process customer returns
    Plus 2. Utilize technology to facilitate customer relationship management.
        a. Explain the use of databases in customer relationship management (CRM)
        b. Use CRM technology
  Plus F. Employ systems, strategies, and techniques used to collect, organize, analyze, and share information in an organization.
    Plus 1. Explain the nature and scope of knowledge management practices within a business.
        a. Explain the nature of knowledge management
        b. Discuss the role of ethics in knowledge management
        c. Explain the use of technology in knowledge management
        d. Explain legal considerations for knowledge management
    Plus 2. Use knowledge management strategies to improve the performance and competitive advantage of an organization.
        a. Identify techniques that can be used to capture and transfer knowledge in an organization
        b. Determine factors causing loss of organizational knowledge
        c. Implement knowledge-management strategies
  Plus G. Plan, implement, monitor, and evaluate business projects.
    Plus 1. Utilize project management skills to start, run, and complete projects.
        a. Explain the nature of a project life cycle
        b. Explain standard project-management processes
        c. Coordinate schedules and activities
        d. Track project progress and results
  Plus H. Implement, monitor and evaluate quality standards in order to ensure high quality.
    Plus 1. Explain the nature and scope of quality management practices within a business.
        a. Explain the nature of quality management
        b. Describe the nature of quality management frameworks (e.g., Six Sigma, ITIL, CMMI)
        c. Discuss the need for continuous improvement of the quality process
  Plus I. Examine and employ risk management strategies and techniques in order to minimize potential business loss.
    Plus 1. Explain the nature and scope of risk management practices within a business.
        a. Explain the role of ethics in risk management
        b. Describe the use of technology in risk management
        c. Discuss legal considerations affecting risk management

Plus Essential Standards

Plus I. ACADEMIC FOUNDATIONS
  Plus A. Complete required training, education, and certification to prepare for employment in a particular career field.
    1. Identify training, education and certification requirements for occupational choice.
    2. Participate in career-related training and/or degree programs.
    3. Pass certification tests to qualify for licensure and/or certification in chosen occupational area.
  Plus B. Demonstrate language arts knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary education and career opportunities.
    1. Model behaviors that demonstrate active listening.
    2. Adapt language for audience, purpose, situation. (i.e. diction/structure, style).
    3. Organize oral and written information.
    4. Compose focused copy for a variety of written documents such as agendas, audio-visuals, bibliographies, drafts, forms/documents, notes, oral presentations, reports, and technical terminology.
    5. Edit copy to create focused written documents such as agendas, audio-visuals, bibliographies, drafts, forms/documents, notes, oral presentations, reports, and technical terminology.
    6. Comprehend key elements of oral and written information such as cause/effect, comparisons/contrasts, conclusions, context, purpose, charts/tables/graphs, evaluation/critiques, mood, persuasive text, sequence, summaries, and technical subject matter.
    7. Evaluate oral and written information for accuracy, adequacy/sufficiency, appropriateness, clarity, conclusions/solutions, fact/opinion, propaganda, relevancy, validity, and relationship of ideas.
    8. Identify assumptions, purpose, outcomes/solutions, and propaganda techniques.
    9. Predict potential outcomes and/or solutions based on oral and written information regarding trends.
    10. Present formal and informal speeches including discussion, information requests, interpretation, and persuasive arguments.
  Plus C. Demonstrate mathematics knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary education and career opportunities.
    1. Identify whole numbers, decimals, and fractions.
    2. Demonstrate knowledge of basic arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
    3. Demonstrate use of relational expressions such as equal to, not equal, greater than, less than, etc.
    4. Apply data and measurements to solve a problem.
    5. Analyze Mathematical problem statements for missing and/or irrelevant data.
    6. Construct charts/tables/graphs from functions and data.
    7. Analyze data when interpreting operational documents.
  Plus D. Demonstrate science knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary and career education opportunities.
    1. Evaluate scientific constructs including conclusions, conflicting data, controls, data, inferences, limitations, questions, sources of errors, and variables.
    2. Apply scientific methods in qualitative and quantitative analysis, data gathering, direct and indirect observation, predictions, and problem identification.
Plus II. COMMUNICATIONS
  Plus A. Select and employ appropriate reading and communication strategies to learn and use technical concepts and vocabulary in practice.
    1. Determine the most appropriate reading strategy for identifying the overarching purpose of a text (i.e. skimming, reading for detail, reading for meaning or critical analysis).
    2. Demonstrate use of content, technical concepts and vocabulary when analyzing information and following directions.
    3. Select the reading strategy or strategies needed to fully comprehend the content within a written document (i.e., skimming, reading for detail, reading for meaning or critical analysis).
    4. Interpret information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
    5. Transcribe information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
    6. Communicate information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
  Plus B. Demonstrate use of the concepts, strategies, and systems for obtaining and conveying ideas and information to enhance communication in the workplace.
    1. Employ verbal skills when obtaining and conveying information.
    2. Record information needed to present a report on a given topic or problem.
    3. Write internal and external business correspondence that conveys and/or obtains information effectively.
    4. Communicate with other employees to clarify workplace objectives.
    5. Communicate effectively with customers and employees to foster positive relationships.
  Plus C. Locate, organize and reference written information from various sources to communicate with co-workers and clients/participants.
    1. Locate written information used to communicate with co-workers and customers.
    2. Organize information to use in written and oral communications.
    3. Reference the sources of information.
  Plus D. Evaluate and use information resources to accomplish specific occupational tasks.
    1. Use informational texts, Internet web sites, and/or technical materials to review and apply information sources for occupational tasks.
    2. Evaluate the reliability of information from informational texts, Internet Web sites, and/or technical materials and resources.
  Plus E. Use correct grammar, punctuation and terminology to write and edit documents.
    1. Compose multi-paragraph documents clearly, succinctly, and accurately.
    2. Use descriptions of audience and purpose when preparing and editing written documents.
    3. Use correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization when preparing written documents.
  Plus F. Develop and deliver formal and informal presentations using appropriate media to engage and inform audiences.
    1. Prepare oral presentations to provide information for specific purposes and audiences.
    2. Identify support materials that will enhance an oral presentation.
    3. Prepare support materials that will enhance an oral presentation.
    4. Deliver an oral presentation that sustains listeners' attention and interest.
    5. Align presentation strategies to the intended audience.
    6. Implement multi-media strategies for presentations.
  Plus G. Interpret verbal and nonverbal cues/behaviors to enhance communication with co-workers and clients/participants.
    1. Interpret verbal behaviors when communicating with clients and co-workers.
    2. Interpret nonverbal behaviors when communicating with clients and co-workers.
  Plus H. Apply active listening skills to obtain and clarify information.
    1. Interpret a given verbal message/information.
    2. Respond with restatement and clarification techniques to clarify information.
  Plus I. Develop and interpret tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communications.
    1. Create tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communications.
    2. Interpret tables, charts, and figures used to support written and oral communication.
  Plus J. Listen to and speak with diverse individuals to enhance communication skills.
    1. Apply factors and strategies for communicating with a diverse workforce.
    2. Demonstrate ability to communicate and resolve conflicts within a diverse workforce.
  Plus K. Exhibit public relations skills to increase internal and external customer/client satisfaction.
    1. Communicate effectively when developing positive customer/client relationships.
Plus III. PROBLEM-SOLVING AND CRITICAL THINKING
  Plus A. Employ critical thinking skills independently and in teams to solve problems and make decisions (e.g., analyze, synthesize and evaluate).
    1. Identify common tasks that require employees to use problem-solving skills.
    2. Analyze elements of a problem to develop creative solutions.
    3. Describe the value of using problem-solving and critical thinking skills to improve a situation or process.
    4. Create ideas, proposals, and solutions to problems.
    5. Evaluate ideas, proposals, and solutions to problems.
    6. Use structured problem-solving methods when developing proposals and solutions.
    7. Generate new and creative ideas to solve problems by brainstorming possible solutions.
    8. Critically analyze information to determine value to the problem-solving task.
    9. Guide individuals through the process of recognizing concerns and making informed decisions.
    10. Identify alternatives using a variety of problem-solving and critical thinking skills.
    11. Evaluate alternatives using a variety of problem-solving and critical thinking skills.
  Plus B. Employ critical thinking and interpersonal skills to resolve conflicts with staff and/or customers.
    1. Analyze situations and behaviors that affect conflict management.
    2. Determine best options/outcomes for conflict resolution using critical thinking skills.
    3. Identify with others’ feelings, needs, and concerns.
    4. Implement stress management techniques.
    5. Resolve conflicts with/for customers using conflict resolution skills.
    6. Implement conflict resolution skills to address staff issues/problems.
  Plus C. Identify, write and monitor workplace performance goals to guide progress in assigned areas of responsibility and accountability.
    1. Write realistic performance goals, objectives and action plans.
    2. Monitor performance goals and adjust as necessary.
    3. Recognize goal achievement using appropriate rewards in the workplace.
    4. Communicate goal achievement with managers and co-workers.
  Plus D. Conduct technical research to gather information necessary for decision-making.
    1. Align the information gathered to the needs of the audience.
    2. Gather technical information and data using a variety of resources.
    3. Analyze information and data for value to the research objectives.
    4. Evaluate information and data to determine value to research objectives.
Plus IV. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS
  Plus A. Use Personal Information Management (PIM) applications to increase workplace efficiency.
    1. Manage personal schedules and contact information.
    2. Create memos and notes.
  Plus B. Employ technological tools to expedite workflow.
    1. Use information technology tools to manage and perform work responsibilities.
  Plus C. Operate electronic mail applications to communicate within a workplace.
    1. Use email to share files and documents.
    2. Identify the functions and purpose of email systems.
    3. Use email to communicate within and across organizations.
  Plus D. Operate Internet applications to perform workplace tasks.
    1. Access and navigate Internet (e.g., use a web browser).
    2. Search for information and resources.
    3. Evaluate Internet resources for reliability and validity.
  Plus E. Operate writing and publishing applications to prepare business communications.
    1. Prepare simple documents and other business communications.
    2. Prepare reports and other business communications by integrating graphics and other non-text elements.
    3. Prepare complex multi-media publications.
  Plus F. Operate presentation applications to prepare presentations.
    1. Prepare presentations for training, sales and information sharing.
    2. Deliver presentations with supporting materials.
  Plus G. Employ spreadsheet applications to organize and manipulate data.
    1. Create a spreadsheet.
    2. Perform calculations and analyses on data using a spreadsheet.
  Plus H. Employ database applications to manage data.
    1. Manipulate data elements.
    2. Manage interrelated data elements.
    3. Analyze interrelated data elements.
    4. Generate reports showing interrelated data elements.
  Plus I. Employ collaborative/groupware applications to facilitate group work.
    1. Facilitate group work through management of shared schedule and contact information.
    2. Facilitate group work through management of shared files and online information.
    3. Facilitate group work through instant messaging or virtual meetings.
  Plus J. Employ computer operations applications to manage work tasks.
    1. Manage computer operations.
    2. Manage file storage.
    3. Compress or alter files.
  Plus K. Use computer-based equipment (containing embedded computers or processors) to control devices.
    1. Operate computer driven equipment and machines.
    2. Use installation and operation manuals.
    3. Troubleshoot computer driven equipment and machines.
    4. Access support as needed to maintain operation of computer driven equipment and machines.
Plus V. SYSTEMS
  Plus A. Describe the nature and types of business organizations to build an understanding of the scope of organizations.
    1. List the types and functions of businesses.
    2. Describe the types and functions of businesses.
    3. Explain the functions and interactions of common departments within a business.
  Plus B. Implement quality control systems and practices to ensure quality products and services.
    1. Describe quality control standards and practices common to the workplace.
Plus VI. SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL
  Plus A. Implement personal and jobsite safety rules and regulations to maintain safe and healthful working conditions and environments.
    1. Assess workplace conditions with regard to safety and health.
    2. Align safety issues with appropriate safety standards to ensure a safe workplace/jobsite.
    3. Identify safety hazards common to workplaces.
    4. Identify safety precautions to maintain a safe worksite.
    5. Select appropriate personal protective equipment as needed for a safe workplace/jobsite.
    6. Inspect personal protective equipment commonly used for selected career pathway.
    7. Use personal protective equipment according to manufacturer rules and regulations.
    8. Employ a safety hierarchy and communication system within the workplace/jobsite.
    9. Implement safety precautions to maintain a safe worksite.
  Plus B. Complete work tasks in accordance with employee rights and responsibilities and employers obligations to maintain workplace safety and health.
    1. Identify rules and laws designed to promote safety and health in the workplace.
    2. State the rationale of rules and laws designed to promote safety and health.
  Plus C. Employ emergency procedures as necessary to provide aid in workplace accidents.
    1. Use knowledge of First Aid procedures as necessary.
    2. Use knowledge of CPR procedures as necessary.
    3. Use safety equipment as necessary.
  Plus D. Employ knowledge of response techniques to create a disaster and/or emergency response plan.
    1. Complete an assessment of an emergency and/or disaster situation.
    2. Create an emergency and/or disaster plan.
Plus VII. LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK
  Plus A. Employ leadership skills to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
    1. Analyze the various roles of leaders within organizations (e.g. contribute ideas; share in building an organization; act as role models to employees by adhering to company policies, procedures, and standards; promote the organization’s vision; and mentor others).
    2. Exhibit traits such as empowerment, risk, communication, focusing on results, decision-making, problem solution, and investment in individuals when leading a group in solving a problem.
    3. Exhibit traits such as compassion, service, listening, coaching, developing others, team development, and understanding and appreciating others when acting as a manager of others in the workplace.
    4. Exhibit traits such as enthusiasm, creativity, conviction, mission, courage, concept, focus, principle-centered living, and change when interacting with others in general.
    5. Consider issues related to self, team, community, diversity, environment, and global awareness when leading others.
    6. Exhibit traits such as innovation, intuition, adaptation, life-long learning and coachability to develop leadership potential over time.
    7. Analyze leadership in relation to trust, positive attitude, integrity, and willingness to accept key responsibilities in a work situation.
    8. Describe observations of outstanding leaders using effective management styles.
    9. Participate in civic and community leadership and teamwork opportunities to enhance skills.
  Plus B. Employ organizational and staff development skills to foster positive working relationships and accomplish organizational goals.
    1. Implement organizational skills when facilitating others’ work efforts.
    2. Explain how to manage a staff that satisfies work demands while adhering to budget constraints.
    3. Describe how staff growth and development to increase productivity and employee satisfaction.
    4. Organize team involvement within a group environment.
    5. Work with others to develop and gain commitment to team goals.
    6. Distribute responsibility and work load fairly.
    7. Model leadership and teamwork qualities to aid in employee morale.
    8. Identify best practices for successful team functioning.
    9. Explain best practices for successful team functioning.
  Plus C. Employ teamwork skills to achieve collective goals and use team members' talents effectively.
    1. Work with others to achieve objectives in a timely manner.
    2. Promote the full involvement and use of team member's individual talents and skills.
    3. Employ conflict-management skills to facilitate solutions.
    4. Demonstrate teamwork skills through working cooperatively with co-workers, supervisory staff, and others, both in and out of the organization, to achieve particular tasks.
    5. Demonstrate teamwork processes that provide team building, consensus, continuous improvement, respect for the opinions of others, cooperation, adaptability, and conflict resolution.
    6. Develop plans to improve team performance.
    7. Demonstrate commitment to and a positive attitude toward team goals.
    8. Take responsibility for shared group and individual work tasks.
    9. Assist team members in completing their work.
    10. Adapt effectively to changes in projects and work activities.
    11. Negotiate effectively to arrive at decisions.
  Plus D. Establish and maintain effective working relationships with all levels of personnel and other departments in order to accomplish objectives and tasks.
    1. Build effective working relationships using interpersonal skills.
    2. Use positive interpersonal skills to work cooperatively with co-workers representing different cultures, genders and backgrounds.
    3. Manage personal skills to accomplish assignments.
    4. Treat people with respect.
    5. Provide constructive praise and criticism.
    6. Demonstrate sensitivity to and value for diversity.
    7. Manage stress and control emotions.
  Plus E. Conduct and participate in meetings to accomplish work tasks.
    1. Develop meeting goals, objectives and agenda.
    2. Assign responsibilities for preparing materials and leading discussions.
    3. Prepare materials for leading discussion.
    4. Assemble and distribute meeting materials.
    5. Conduct meeting to achieve objectives within scheduled time.
    6. Demonstrate effective communication skills in meetings.
    7. Produce meeting minutes including decisions and next steps.
    8. Use parliamentary procedure, as needed, to conduct meetings.
  Plus F. Employ mentoring skills to inspire and teach others.
    1. Use motivational techniques to enhance performance in others.
    2. Provide guidance to enhance performance in others.
Plus VIII. ETHICS AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES
  Plus A. Apply ethical reasoning to a variety of workplace situations in order to make ethical decisions.
    1. Evaluate alternative responses to workplace situations based on legal responsibilities and employer policies.
    2. Evaluate alternative responses to workplace situations based on personal or professional ethical responsibilities.
    3. Identify personal and long-term workplace consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors.
    4. Explain personal and long-term workplace consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors.
    5. Determine the most appropriate response to workplace situations based on legal and ethical considerations.
    6. Explain the most appropriate response to workplace situations based on legal and ethical considerations.
  Plus B. Interpret and explain written organizational policies and procedures to help employees perform their jobs according to employer rules and expectations.
    1. Locate information on organizational policies in handbooks and manuals.
    2. Discuss how specific organizational policies and procedures influence a specific work situation.
Plus IX. EMPLOYABILITY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT
  Plus A. Identify and demonstrate positive work behaviors and personal qualities needed to be employable.
    1. Demonstrate self-discipline, self-worth, positive attitude, and integrity in a work situation.
    2. Demonstrate flexibility and willingness to learn new knowledge and skills.
    3. Exhibit commitment to the organization.
    4. Identify how work varies with regard to site, from indoor confined spaces to outdoor areas, including aerial space and a variety of climatic and physical conditions.
    5. Apply communication strategies when adapting to a culturally diverse environment.
    6. Manage resources in relation to the position (i.e. budget, supplies, computer, etc).
    7. Identify positive work-qualities typically desired in each of the career cluster's pathways.
    8. Manage work roles and responsibilities to balance them with other life roles and responsibilities.
  Plus B. Develop a personal career plan to meet career goals and objectives.
    1. Develop career goals and objectives as part of a plan for future career direction.
    2. Develop strategies to reach career objectives.
  Plus C. Demonstrate skills related to seeking and applying for employment to find and obtain a desired job.
    1. Use multiple resources to locate job opportunities.
    2. Prepare a résumé.
    3. Prepare a letter of application.
    4. Complete an employment application.
    5. Interview for employment.
    6. List the standards and qualifications that must be met in order to enter a given industry.
    7. Employ critical thinking and decision-making skills to exhibit qualifications to a potential employer.
  Plus D. Maintain a career portfolio to document knowledge, skills and experience in a career field.
    1. Select educational and work history highlights to include in a career portfolio.
    2. Produce a record of work experiences, licenses, certifications and products.
    3. Organize electronic or physical portfolio for use in demonstrating knowledge, skills and experiences.
  Plus E. Demonstrate skills in evaluating and comparing employment opportunities in order to accept employment positions that match career goals.
    1. Compare employment opportunities to individual needs and career plan objectives.
    2. Evaluate employment opportunities based upon individual needs and career plan objectives.
    3. Demonstrate appropriate methods for accepting or rejecting employment offers.
  Plus F. Identify and exhibit traits for retaining employment to maintain employment once secured.
    1. Model behaviors that demonstrate reliability and dependability.
    2. Maintain appropriate dress and behavior for the job to contribute to a safe and effective workplace/jobsite.
    3. Complete required employment forms and documentation such as I-9 form, work visa, W-4 and licensures to meet employment requirements.
    4. Summarize key activities necessary to retain a job in the industry.
    5. Identify positive work behaviors and personal qualities necessary to retain employment.
  Plus G. Identify and explore career opportunities in one or more career pathways to build an understanding of the opportunities available in the cluster.
    1. Locate and identify career opportunities that appeal to personal career goals.
    2. Match personal interest and aptitudes to selected careers.
  Plus H. Recognize and act upon requirements for career advancement to plan for continuing education and training.
    1. Identify opportunities for career advancement.
    2. Pursue education and training opportunities to acquire skills necessary for career advancement.
    3. Examine the organization and structure of various segments of the industry to prepare for career advancement.
    4. Research local and regional labor (workforce) market and job growth information to project potential for advancement.
    5. Manage employment relations to make career advancements.
  Plus I. Continue professional development to keep current on relevant trends and information within the industry.
    1. Use self assessment, organizational priorities, journals, Internet sites, professional associations, peers and other resources to develop goals that address training, education and self-improvement issues.
    2. Read trade magazines and journals, manufacturers’ catalogues, industry publications and Internet sites to keep current on industry trends.
    3. Participate in relevant conferences, workshops, mentoring activities and in-service training to stay current with recent changes in the field.
  Plus J. Examine licensing, certification and credentialing requirements at the national, state and local levels to maintain compliance with industry requirements.
    1. Examine continuing education requirements related to licensing, certification, and credentialing requirements at the local, state and national levels for chosen occupation.
    2. Examine the procedures and paperwork involved in maintaining and updating licensure, certification and credentials for chosen occupation.
    3. Align ongoing licensing, certification and credentialing requirements to career plans and goals.
  Plus K. Examine employment opportunities in entrepreneurship to consider entrepreneurship as an option for career planning.
    1. Describe the opportunities for entrepreneurship in a given industry.
Plus X. TECHNICAL SKILLS
  Plus A. Employ information management techniques and strategies in the workplace to assist in decision-making.
    1. Use information literacy skills when accessing, evaluating and disseminating information.
    2. Describe the nature and scope of information management.
    3. Maintain records to facilitate ongoing business operations.
  Plus B. Employ planning and time management skills and tools to enhance results and complete work tasks.
    1. Develop goals and objectives.
    2. Prioritize tasks to be completed.
    3. Develop timelines using time management knowledge and skills.
    4. Use project-management skills to improve workflow and minimize costs.

Plus Employment Standards

Plus I. APPLIED ACADEMIC SKILLS
  Plus A. Reading, English & Language Arts
    1. Read a technical manual and write a clear & logical report explaining the information using standared business English.
    2. Give a verbal report on reading from a technical manual.
    3. Read a case study and identify the details about the situation, define technical terms, jargon, or words with multiple meanings based on context, and summarize the conclusion.
    4. Take a verbal and written position on a topic and use correct grammar to defend it.
  Plus B. Mathematics
    1. Approach practical and workplace problems using a variety of mathematical techniques.
    2. Research how math is used in the workplace and make a presentation detailing the process.
  Plus C. Listening & Presentation Skills
    1. Use correct grammar to communicate verbally.
    2. Listen to a presentation and record important information. Report back identifying central themes and use key points to explain how the message applies to a similar situation.
  Plus D. Technology
    1. Apply technology to workplace or career situation. Include research and a written paper.
Plus II. CAREER PLANNING
  Plus A. Career Planning
    1. Organize career information and labor market trends from a variety of sources.
    2. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of working for self, others, being an employee of a large or small organization.
    3. Analyze information & preferences from work-based opportunity.
    4. Interpret information from a variety of career assessments to identify career interests and abilities.
    5. Apply a decision-making model and use career assessment information to choose a career pathway.
    6. Annually review EDP and include plan for continuing education.
Plus III. DEVELOPING AND PRESENTING INFORMATION
  Plus A. Developing and Presenting information
    1. Gather, interpret, analyze, and refine data.
    2. Analyze and synthesize information and data from muiltiple sources.
    3. Plan and transform ideas and requirements into a concept, service, or product.
    4. Assess the quality of the concept, service, or product using a predetermined standard.
    5. Develop a plan to market a new product, service, or concept which includes identifying of customers, a graphic presentation, product requirements, and costs.
    6. Practice and demonstrate presentation skils using a variety of media and interpretive data.
Plus IV. PROBLEM SOLVING
  Plus A. Problem Solving
    1. Apply a problem solving model to a workplace situation that involves setting goals, implementing and evaluating results.
    2. Identify typical problems that occur in a workplace and use a problem solving model to devise solutions, compare alternatives to past solutions, and predict their success.
Plus V. PERSONAL MANAGEMENT
  Plus A. Responsibility
    1. Demonstrate regular attendance, promptness, and staying with a task until satisfacotry completion.
    2. Complete assignments with minimum supervision and meet deadlines.
    3. Use mistakes as learning opportunities, demonstrate persistence and adaptability to change.
    4. Initiate projects and extra activities for personal satisfaction.
  Plus B. Self-Management
    1. Monitor & evaluate accurately one's progress towards a goal or completion of a project.
    2. Demonstrate health and safety practices and drug-free behavior in school & workplace setting.
    3. Obtain a driver license and demonstrate driving skills and safety and/or use public transportation.
    4. Prioritize and accomplish tasks independently.
    5. Use appropriate personal expression and relate to school and work settings.
  Plus C. Ethical Behavior
    1. Demonstrate etlhical behavior in school, work, and community situations.
    2. Describe employer-employee rights and responsibilities.
    3. Demonstrate appropriate behaviors necessary to maintaining employment.
    4. Demonstrate positive personal qualities as a group leader.
  Plus D. Respect for Self and Others
    1. View accomplishments or failures of self and others accurately and in a positive manner.
    2. Understand how to make improvements and ask for help from adults as needed.
    3. Offer encouragement and ideas to others as they work toward attaining their goals.
    4. Provide for customer needs and expectations in a helpful and courteous manner.
    5. Respect other points of view.
    6. Demonstrate customer service skills in an appropriate setting by listening, suggesting solutions, and communicating the issues at hand.
Plus VI. ORGANIZING SKILLS
  Plus A. Time
    1. Determine goals and develop an action plan to accomplish them within a given time frame.
    2. Read time charts and work schedules and perform tasks within time constraints of school or the workplace.
    3. Prioritize tasks and revise schedules as needed.
  Plus B. Money
    1. Estimate costs and prepare a detailed budget for a school-based or work-based project.
    2. Report the costs of various components of a budget and adjust budget items as needed.
    3. Understand compensation practices and financial management and explain how financial resources can be used effectively and efficiently.
  Plus C. Materials
    1. Utilize materials, tools, and processes to complete a task related to a career selection.
    2. Compile a list of materials and supplies needed in advance of an assignment.
    3. Acquire resources in a timely fashion and take responsibility for their care.
    4. Identify and prepare tools, equipment, space, and facilities appropriate for a task.
    5. Work within constraints of safety precautions and available resources.
  Plus D. Human Resources
    1. Learn cooperation and leadership in a team at school or in a workplace setting.
    2. Organize and communicate with members of a team using varied methods of communications.
    3. Recognize the individual roles of team members, delegate tasks, and give feedback on performance.
    4. Acknowledge and utilize the skills, abilities, and input of all member of a team.
Plus VII. TEAMWORK
  Plus A. Group Participation
    1. Exhibit teamwork skills including trust and loyalty to group, and demonstrate connectedness to group members, values, and culture.
    2. Take personal responsibility for influencing and accomplishing group goals.
    3. Demonstrate understanding of how effective teams operate within organization and diverse settings.
    4. Solve a career/work-related problem as a member of a team.
  Plus B. Conflict Resolution
    1. Demonstrate leadership by listening to others and asking appropriate questions to clarify a problem or issue.
    2. Summarize a problem clearly and in appropriate detail.
    3. Suggest constructive alternatives with confidence that will help resolve a conflict.
    4. Compromise and/or build consensus within a group and summarize the decision of the group while maintaining respect for minortiy viewpoints.
    5. Participate in the implementation of a group's decision and evaluate the results.
    6. Show sensitivity to others' thoughts and opinions and relate them to the resolution process.
  Plus C. Diversity
    1. Understand and respect the concerns of members of cultural, gender, age, and ability groups.
    2. Be respectful of a variety of differences of people in a work/school setting.
    3. Demonstrate ability to work with others with different backgrounds, cultures, and abilities.
  Plus D. Leadership
    1. Demonstrate leadership ability in a work or school setting.
    2. Recognize and take advantage of leadership opportunities that give direction to other team members, or that encourage other members to complete tasks.
Plus VIII. NEGOTIATION SKILL
  Plus A. Negotiation Skills
    1. Using correct terminology, clarify the problem or issue to be negotiated.
    2. Identify, organize, and define ideas from various sources to logically support a position and use these ideas in debate.
    3. Demonstrate objectivity in assessing other viewpoints by considering all sides of an issue, using past experience, data and logical analysis, and showing respectful behavior towards others.
    4. Responsibily challenge existing policies and procedures and identify new solutions or policy changes.
Plus IX. UNDERSTANDING SYSTEMS AND USING TECHNOLOGY
  Plus A. Understanding Systems and Using Technology
    1. Identify trends and how they affect changes within a system.
    2. Demonstrate an understanding of business systems.
    3. Compare management systems and consider how employees function and adapt to change within them.
    4. Describe the technical systems related to a career interest area.
    5. Diagnose and make necessary corrections or improvements to a technical system in a business, industry, or simulated work place setting.
    6. Describe how changes in technology have impacted business and industry, identify current trends, and recommend how a technical system might be improved.
    7. Demonstrate the use of equipment and machines to solve practical or work-based problems.
    8. Demonstrate effective use of a variety of on-line technological resources.
    9. Determine what kind of application is needed for a given task and use effectively.
    10. Use technologies as tools for communication of technical or work-related information.
    11. Use technology effectively in solving problems in an area of career interest.
    12. Understand and demonstrate basic computer hardware and software installation and maintaining efficient machines.
    13. Demonstrate ability to adapt to different software applications, comparing and contrasting specfic functions and applying them to different projects.
Plus X. EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS
  Plus A. Employability Skills
    1. Continue the EDP process which includes an annual review with student and counselor and notification of parents.
    2. Participate in work-based opportunities such as job-shadowing, mentorships, work experiences, etc.
    3. Show ability to market oneself by preparing for and completing an interview process.
    4. Accurately complete records/documents to support job applications (inquiry letters, resume, references, evaluations, follow-up letters).
    5. Use a portfolio, resume, record of attendance, certifricates, and/or transcript as self-marketing tools to demonstrate interest and competence.
    6. Apply career and labormarket information to seek and obtain employment and/or pursue educational goals.
    7. Research availability of educational programs, financial requirements, and resource and complete an application process as appropriate for career goals.
    8. Understand the need for lifelong learning in a rapidly changing job market.
Plus XI. MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS
  Plus A. Creativity and Innovation – By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Apply advanced software features (e.g. built-in thesaurus, templates, styles) to redesign the appearance of word processing documents, spreadsheets, and presentations
    2. Create a web page (e.g., Dreamweaver, iGoogle, Kompozer)
    3. Use a variety of media and formats to design, develop, publish, and present projects (e.g., newsletters, web sites, presentations, photo galleries)
  Plus B. Communication and Collaboration - By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Identify various collaboration technologies and describe their use (e.g., desktop conferencing, listserv, blog, wiki)
    2. Use available technologies (e.g., desktop conferencing, e-mail, videoconferencing, instant messaging) to communicate with others on a class assignment or project
    3. Collaborate in content-related projects that integrate a variety of media (e.g., print, audio, video, graphic, simulations, and models)
    4. Plan and implement a collaborative project using telecommunications tools (e.g., ePals, discussion boards, online groups, interactive web sites, videoconferencing)
    5. Describe the potential risks and dangers associated with online communications
    6. Use technology tools for managing and communicating personal information (e.g., finances, contact information, schedules, purchases, correspondence)
  Plus C. Research and Information Fluency – By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Develop a plan to gather information using various research strategies (e.g., interviews, questionnaires, experiments, online surveys)
    2. Identify, evaluate, and select appropriate online sources to answer content related questions
    3. Demonstrate the ability to use library and online databases for accessing information (e.g., MEL, Proquest, Infosource, United Streaming)
    4. Distinguish between fact, opinion, point of view, and inference
    5. Evaluate information found in selected online sources on the basis of accuracy and validity
    6. Evalate resources for stereotyping, prejudice, and misrepresentation
    7. Understand that using information from a single internet source might result in the reporting of erroneous facts and that multiple sources must always be researched
    8. Research examples of inappropriate use of technologies and participate in related classroom activities (e.g., debates, reports, mock trials, presentations)
  Plus D. Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making - By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Use digital resources (e.g., educational software, simulations, models) for problem solving and independent learning
    2. Analyze the capabilities and limitations of digital resources and evaluate their potential to address personal, social, lifelong learning, and career needs
    3. Devise a research question or hypothesis using information and communication technology resources, analyze the findings to make a decision based on the findings, and report the results
  Plus E. Demonstrate Digital Citizenship
    1. Identify legal and ethical issues related to the use of information and communication technologies (e.g., properly selecting and citing resources)
    2. Discuss possible long-range effects of unethical uses of technology (e.g., virus spreading, file pirating, hacking) on cultures and society
    3. Discuss and demonstrate proper netiquette in online communications
    4. Identify ways that individuals can protect their technology systems from unethical or unscrupulous users
    5. Create appropriate citations for resources when presenting research findings
    6. Discuss and adhere to fair use policies and copyright guidelines
  Plus F. Technology Operations and Concepts - By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Complete at least one online credit, or non-credit, course or online learning experience
    2. Use an online tutorial and discuss the benefits and disadvantages of this method of learning
    3. Explore career opportunities, especially those related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics and identify their related technology skill requirements
    4. Describe uses of various existing or emerging technology resources (e.g., podcasting, webcasting, videoconferencing, online file sharing, global positioning software)
    5. Identify an example of an assistive technology and describe its potential purpose and use
    6. Participate in a virtual environment as a strategy to build 21st century learning skills
    7. Assess and solve hardware and software problems by using online help or other user documentation
    8. Explain the differences between freeware, shareware, open source, and commercial software
    9. Participate in experiences associated with technology-related careers
    10. Identify common graphic, audio, and video file formats (e.g., jpeg, gif, bmp, mpeg, wav, wmv, mp3, flv, avi, pdf)
    11. Understand and discuss how assistive technologies can benefit all individuals
    12. Demonstrate how to import/export text, graphics, or audio files
    13. Proofread and edit a document using an application’s spelling and grammar checking functions