13.0000 - Education, General (2010 Implement by Fall 2011) Consolidated

Plus Consolidated Standards

Plus I. ACADEMIC FOUNDATIONS
  Plus A. Demonstrate language arts knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary education and career opportunities.
    Plus 1. Select and employ appropriate reading and communication strategies to learn and use technical concepts and vocabulary in practice.
        a. Determine the most appropriate reading strategy for identifying the overarching purpose of a text (i.e. skimming, reading for detail, reading for meaning or critical analysis).
        b. Demonstrate use of content, technical concepts and vocabulary when analyzing information and following directions.
        c. Select the reading strategy or strategies needed to fully comprehend the content within a written document (i.e., skimming, reading for detail, reading for meaning or critical analysis).
        d. Interpret information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
        e. Transcribe information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
        f. Communicate information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
    Plus 2. Demonstrate use of the concepts, strategies, and systems for obtaining and conveying ideas and information to enhance communication in the workplace.
        a. Employ verbal skills when obtaining and conveying information.
        b. Record information needed to present a report on a given topic or problem.
        c. Write internal and external business correspondence that conveys and/or obtains information effectively.
        d. Communicate with other employees to clarify workplace objectives.
        e. Communicate effectively with customers and employees to foster positive relationships.
        f. Evaluate oral and written information for accuracy, adequacy/sufficiency, appropriateness, clarity, conclusions/solutions, fact/opinion, propaganda, relevancy, validity, and relationship of ideas.
        g. Comprehend key elements of oral and written information such as cause/effect, comparisons/contrasts, conclusions, context, purpose, charts/tables/graphs, evaluation/critiques, mood, persuasive text, sequence, summaries, and technical subject matter.
    3. Develop a plan to gather information using various research strategies (e.g., interviews, questionnaires, experiments, online surveys)
    4. Identify, evaluate, and select appropriate online sources to answer content related questions
    5. Demonstrate the ability to use library and online databases for accessing information (e.g., MEL, Proquest, Infosource, United Streaming)
    6. Distinguish between fact, opinion, point of view, and inference
    Plus 7. Evaluate information found in selected online sources on the basis of accuracy and validity
        a. Use informational texts, Internet web sites, and/or technical materials to review and apply information sources for occupational tasks.
        b. Evaluate the reliability of information from informational texts, Internet Web sites, and/or technical materials and resources.
    8. Use correct grammar, punctuation and terminology to write and edit documents.
  Plus B. Demonstrate mathematics knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary education and career opportunities.
    1. Identify whole numbers, decimals, and fractions.
    2. Demonstrate knowledge of basic arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
    3. Demonstrate use of relational expressions such as equal to, not equal, greater than, less than, etc.
    4. Apply data and measurements to solve a problem.
    5. Analyze Mathematical problem statements for missing and/or irrelevant data.
    6. Construct charts/tables/graphs from functions and data.
    7. Analyze data when interpreting operational documents.
    8. Create tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communications.
    9. Interpret tables, charts, and figures used to support written and oral communication.
  Plus C. Demonstrate science knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary and career education opportunities.
    1. Evaluate scientific constructs including conclusions, conflicting data, controls, data, inferences, limitations, questions, sources of errors, and variables.
    2. Apply scientific methods in qualitative and quantitative analysis, data gathering, direct and indirect observation, predictions, and problem identification.
  Plus D. Utilize knowledge about the history and belief systems of multiple cultural, ethnic, and racial groups to enhance learner achievement.
    Plus 1. Explain the history of multiple cultural, ethnic, and racial groups as it relates to learning.
        a. Explain history that relates to learning settings and institutions.
        b. Explain history that relates to family and community.
        c. Explain history that relates to work.
    Plus 2. Explain multiple cultural, ethnic, and racial groups’ belief systems that relate to learning.
        a. Explain achievement belief systems.
        b. Explain life goals belief systems.
  Plus E. Analyze and apply knowledge of the relationships between education and society to enhance learner achievement.
    Plus 1. Employ fundamental knowledge of educational philosophies to enhance learner achievement.
        a. Identify major philosophers.
        b. Explain major philosophies using real-world examples.
        c. Critique major philosophies.
        d. Relate educational philosophies to contemporary issues in professional practice.
    Plus 2. Analyze structures for governing professional practices in learning settings.
        a. Identify multiple governance structures.
        b. Explain governance structures using real-world examples.
        c. Critique governance structures.
        d. Relate governance structures to contemporary issues in professional practice.
    Plus 3. Apply fundamental knowledge of economics to enhance learner achievement.
        a. Identify major economic factors affecting learning and educational practice.
        b. Explain factors using real world examples.
        c. Relate factors to local funding issues.
Plus II. COMMUNICATIONS
  Plus A. Apply verbal communication skills to enhance learning and stakeholder commitment to learning organization.
    1. Use correct grammar to communicate verbally.
    2. Interpret verbal behaviors when communicating with clients and co-workers.
    Plus 3. Interpret nonverbal behaviors when communicating with clients and co-workers.
        a. Describe intentional use of appearance, gesture, and tone of voice.
    Plus 4. Customize communication messages to fit the audience members.
        a. Describe audience characteristics.
        b. Explain alignment of communication components to audience characteristics.
        c. Explain the significance of the tone of the communication.
        d. Use concise, coherent organization.
        e. Use language, terminology, and complexity suitable to audience.
        f. Use language sensitive to culture and gender.
        g. Address multiple intelligences and modalities.
        h. Use appropriate volume, rate, and clarity of voice.
    Plus 5. Give clear verbal directions.
        a. Organize steps logically.
        b. Use language, terminology, and complexity suitable to audience.
        c. Address both content and processes.
        d. Use appropriate volume, rate, and clarity of voice.
    6. Follow verbal directions.
    Plus 7. Utilize feedback to improve communication.
        a. Interpret verbal and non-verbal feedback.
        b. Allow appropriate response time based on audience and context.
        c. Adapt communication based on feedback.
    Plus 8. Utilize discussion skills.
        a. Construct objectives for the discussion.
        b. Describe evidence that participants actively contributed.
        c. Maintain focus on discussion topic.
        d. Explain evidence that participants’ understanding of the topic advanced.
    Plus 9. Utilize questioning skills.
        a. Describe evidence that participants actively responded.
        b. Questions are suitable for audience and context in terms of Bloom’s Taxonomy of higher-order thinking.
        c. Explain evidence that participants’ understanding of the topic advanced.
  Plus B. Apply active listening skills to obtain and clarify information.
    1. Model behaviors that demonstrate active listening.
    Plus 2. Apply listening skills to enhance learning and stakeholder investment in learning organization.
        a. Explain components of active listening.
        b. Describe barriers to effective listening.
    Plus 3. Recognize and address barriers to oral communication.
        a. Address language barriers.
        b. Explain alignment of communication components to audience characteristics.
  Plus C. Use writing skills to enhance stakeholder commitment to the learning organization.
    Plus 1. Write informational correspondence to stakeholders in the learning environment.
        a. Use language, terminology, and complexity suitable to audience.
        b. Use concise, coherent organization.
        c. Explain the significance of the tone of the correspondence.
        d. Use language sensitive to culture and gender.
        e. Cite data.
        f. Synthesize multiple sources of information.
        g. Use persuasive communication.
    Plus 2. Write clear directions for learners.
        a. Organize steps logically.
        b. Use language, terminology, and complexity suitable to audience.
        c. Address both content and processes.
        d. Use concise, coherent organization.
    Plus 3. Write summative reports regarding the learning environment.
        a. Cite data.
        b. Use language, terminology, and complexity suitable to audience.
        c. Address both positive and negative aspects of the topic.
        d. Use language sensitive to culture and gender.
    Plus 4. Write requests for funding, resources, and services in the learning setting.
        a. Describe required formatting and components.
        b. Include all required components.
        c. Use language and terminology suitable to audience.
        d. Cite data.
        e. Use persuasive communication.
        f. Use concise, coherent organization.
        g. Use language sensitive to culture and gender.
  Plus D. Use knowledge of reading strategies in the content area to enhance learner achievement.
    Plus 1. Model reading strategies (skimming, reading for detail, reading for meaning and critical analysis) for determining the purpose of text.
        a. Use reading strategy to achieve intended purpose.
        b. Identify complexity of text(s).
        c. Evaluate and explain relevance, accuracy and appropriateness to purpose.
    Plus 2. Understand content, technical concepts, and vocabulary to analyze information and follow directions.
        a. Identify issues and questions.
        b. Analyze information presented in a variety of formats, such as tables, lists, figures, etc.
        c. Identify key technical concepts and vocabulary.
    3. Communicate information, data, and observations that apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
Plus III. PROBLEM-SOLVING AND CRITICAL THINKING
  Plus A. Apply problem-solving and critical thinking skills in educational and training settings to enhance instruction and learner achievement.
    1. Employ critical thinking skills independently and in teams to solve problems and make decisions (e.g., analyze, synthesize and evaluate).
    Plus 2. Utilize scientific thinking to solve education and training related problems.
        a. Define the problem.
        b. Explain hypothetical solutions based on prior knowledge.
        c. Describe the collection of data.
        d. Explain analysis of data.
        e. Explain conclusions.
    Plus 3. Synthesize multiple and conflicting data and viewpoints to derive a position on educational issues.
        a. Explain similarities in data and viewpoints.
        b. Explain dissimilarities in data and viewpoints.
        c. Use inductive and deductive reasoning.
        d. Explain a position based on multiple and conflicting data and viewpoints.
    Plus 4. Utilize reflection strategies to improve instructional skills and learner achievement.
        a. Use open-ended questioning.
    5. Utilize conflict resolution strategies to resolve issues in educational contexts.
Plus IV. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS
  Plus A. Employ technological tools to expedite workflow.
    Plus 1. Use information technology tools to manage and perform work responsibilities.
        a. Maintain complete, orderly, and timely records.
    2. Use email to communicate within and across organizations.
    3. Manage personal schedules and contact information.
    4. Create memos and notes.
  Plus B. Operate Internet applications to perform workplace tasks.
    1. Access and navigate Internet (e.g., use a web browser).
    2. Search for information and resources.
    3. Evaluate Internet resources for reliability and validity.
  Plus C. Operate writing and publishing applications to prepare business communications.
    1. Prepare simple documents and other business communications.
    2. Prepare reports and other business communications by integrating graphics and other non-text elements.
    3. Prepare complex multi-media publications.
  Plus D. Employ spreadsheet applications to organize and manipulate data.
    1. Create a spreadsheet.
    2. Perform calculations and analyses on data using a spreadsheet.
  Plus E. Employ database applications to manage data.
    1. Manage interrelated data elements.
    2. Analyze interrelated data elements.
  Plus F. Employ collaborative/groupware applications to facilitate group work.
    1. Facilitate group work through management of shared schedule and contact information.
    2. Facilitate group work through management of shared files and online information.
    3. Facilitate group work through instant messaging or virtual meetings.
  Plus G. Use computer-based equipment (containing embedded computers or processors) to control devices.
    1. Operate computer driven equipment and machines.
    2. Use installation and operation manuals.
    3. Troubleshoot computer driven equipment and machines.
    4. Access support as needed to maintain operation of computer driven equipment and machines.
  Plus H. Demonstrate Digital Citizenship
    1. Identify legal and ethical issues related to the use of information and communication technologies (e.g., properly selecting and citing resources)
    2. Discuss and adhere to fair use policies and copyright guidelines
    3. Discuss and demonstrate proper netiquette in online communications
    4. Identify ways that individuals can protect their technology systems from unethical or unscrupulous users
    5. Discuss possible long-range effects of unethical uses of technology (e.g., virus spreading, file pirating, hacking) on cultures and society
    6. Create appropriate citations for resources when presenting research findings
Plus V. SYSTEMS
  Plus A. Explain models of education delivery using system theory to demonstrate understanding of key relationships in the learning system.
    1. Explain factors that affect learning systems.
    2. Explain the role of the individual in learning systems.
    3. Explain the role of organizations in learning systems.
    4. Identify systems that deliver education and training.
    5. Identify systems that fund education and training.
  Plus B. Form, sustain, and modify instructional systems to facilitate learning within educational and training settings.
    1. Explain concepts of systemic change as it applies to instructional systems.
    2. Communicate about instructional systems with stakeholders.
    3. Use instructional system resources to meet learner needs.
    4. Advocate for learning organization and learners.
    5. Monitor instructional system outcomes.
  Plus C. Implement quality control systems and practices to ensure quality products and services.
    1. Describe quality control standards and practices common to the workplace.
    Plus 2. Provide information to meet appropriate accountability standards.
        a. Follow policies on organizational reporting.
        b. Report both positive and negative outcomes.
    3. Diagnose and make necessary corrections or improvements to a technical system in a business, industry, or simulated work place setting.
Plus VI. SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL
  Plus A. Evaluate and control risks to safety, health, and the environment in learning settings.
    1. Identify rules and laws designed to promote safety and health in the workplace.
    2. State the rationale of rules and laws designed to promote safety and health.
    3. Evaluate equipment and facility safety within the learning environment.
    Plus 4. Establish and maintain a safe, healthy learning environment.
        a. Identify potential hazards related to equipment and building codes.
        b. Explain procedures for documenting and reporting hazards to appropriate authorities.
        c. Explain appropriate corrective actions for equipment and building hazards.
        d. Describe system for monitoring compliance with relevant equipment and facility safety procedures.
        e. Identify appropriate infection control procedures.
        f. Describe universal precautions for blood-borne pathogens and the procedures for responding to and reporting exposure.
        g. Explain procedures related to recognition of and responses to controlled substance risks.
        h. Describe safe body mechanics relevant to the learning setting.
        i. Describe safe ergonomics relevant to the learning setting.
        j. Explain procedures related to criminal background checks, if appropriate to the learning setting.
        k. Identify governmental regulations regarding worker and learner safety.
        l. Describe fire precautions and response procedures.
        m. Describe procedures for responding to violent and threatening behaviors, health risks, and fire emergencies.
        n. Describe procedures for documenting and reporting violent and threatening behaviors, health risks, and fire emergencies.
        o. Identify risks to psychological health in the learning setting.
  Plus B. Implement personal and jobsite safety rules and regulations to maintain safe and healthful working conditions and environments.
    1. Select appropriate personal protective equipment as needed for a safe workplace/jobsite.
    2. Use safety equipment as necessary.
    3. Employ a safety hierarchy and communication system within the workplace/jobsite.
  Plus C. Employ emergency procedures as necessary to provide aid in workplace accidents.
    1. Complete an assessment of an emergency and/or disaster situation.
    2. Use knowledge of First Aid procedures as necessary.
    3. Use knowledge of CPR procedures as necessary.
Plus VII. LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK
  Plus A. Employ project and strategic planning skills within an educational and training setting to enhance professional practice.
    Plus 1. Employ leadership skills to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
        a. Use multiple sources of data.
        b. Analyze data appropriately.
        c. Explain alignment of data and decisions made.
    2. Analyze the dynamics of change to enhance professional practice.
    Plus 3. Employ strategic planning skills to enhance professional practice.
        a. Identify measurable goals.
        b. Analyze trends, factors, and issues that influence the organization and its future success.
        c. Create an action plan with timelines and accountability measures.
    Plus 4. Employ organizational and staff development skills to foster positive working relationships and accomplish organizational goals.
        a. Describe how staff growth and development to increase productivity and employee satisfaction.
        b. Work with others to develop and gain commitment to team goals.
        c. Model leadership and teamwork qualities to aid in employee morale.
        d. Identify best practices for successful team functioning.
    5. Employ teamwork skills to achieve collective goals and use team members' talents effectively.
    6. Conduct and participate in meetings to accomplish work tasks.
  Plus B. Evaluate educational perspectives, policies and procedures using critical thinking in order to intelligently discuss educational issues.
    1. Analyze the diversity of objectives and perspectives of multiple stakeholders.
    Plus 2. Analyze public and organizational policies and procedures.
        a. Predict the impact of policies and procedures on instructional goals.
        b. Explain options for aligning policies and procedures with instructional goals.
    Plus 3. Identify, write and monitor workplace performance goals to guide progress in assigned areas of responsibility and accountability.
        a. Write realistic performance goals, objectives and action plans.
        b. Monitor performance goals and adjust as necessary.
    4. Conduct technical research to gather information necessary for decision-making.
  Plus C. Employ knowledge of group processes and skills for working collaboratively to enhance professional practice.
    Plus 1. Employ interpersonal skills to enhance professional practice.
        a. Use collaboration skills.
        b. Use compromise skills.
        c. Use conflict resolution techniques.
        d. Use consultation skills.
        e. Use mentoring skills.
        f. Use motivational strategies.
    2. Employ group processes knowledge and skills to enhance professional practice.
    3. Employ mentoring skills to inspire and teach others.
  Plus D. Respect for Self and Others
    1. Establish and maintain effective working relationships with all levels of personnel and other departments in order to accomplish objectives and tasks.
    2. Demonstrate ability to communicate and resolve conflicts within a diverse workforce.
Plus VIII. ETHICS AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES
  Plus A. Analyze and explain ethical and legal boundaries of professional practice in learning settings to enhance professionalism in education and training.
    Plus 1. Explain major laws that govern behavior within learning settings.
        a. Explain major laws affecting a variety of issues in learning settings.
        b. Explain personal and organizational liabilities associated with major laws.
        c. Identify regulatory agencies.
        d. Identify sources for updating information on legal boundaries.
        e. Identify sources for obtaining assistance in interpreting legal responsibilities.
        f. Explain consequences of non-compliance.
    Plus 2. Analyze ethical responsibilities in professional practice within learning settings.
        a. Identify sources of applicable ethical codes.
        b. Analyze applicable ethical codes.
        c. Explain personal and organizational liabilities associated with ethical codes.
        d. Identify sources for obtaining assistance in interpreting ethical responsibilities.
    3. Explain institutional policies and procedures that relate to ethical and legal behavior.
  Plus B. Explain legal rights that apply to stakeholders and practitioners within learning settings to enhance professionalism in education and training.
    Plus 1. Explain legal rights of stakeholders within learning settings.
        a. Explain rights of expression.
        b. Explain nondiscrimination rights.
        c. Explain rights to due process.
        d. Explain privacy rights.
    Plus 2. Explain legal rights of professional practitioners within learning settings.
        a. Explain rights of expression.
        b. Explain nondiscrimination rights.
        c. Explain rights to due process.
        d. Explain privacy rights.
  Plus C. Exhibit ethical and legal behavior within educational and training settings to model professional behaviors.
    Plus 1. Perform work duties according to legal boundaries.
        a. Comply with applicable law.
        b. Document, record, and report required information.
    2. Perform work duties in accordance with legal rights of stakeholders and coworkers.
    Plus 3. Perform work duties according to ethical boundaries.
        a. Explain how decision-making and actions taken are aligned with commitments to learners and the profession.
        b. Analyze ethical dilemmas.
        c. Propose responses to ethical dilemmas.
        d. Maintain confidentiality.
    4. Interpret and explain written organizational policies and procedures to help employees perform their jobs according to employer rules and expectations.
Plus IX. EMPLOYABILITY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT
  Plus A. Explore, describe, and determine career options using research skills in order to plan for a career in education and training.
    1. Use self-assessment and assessment by others to match personal characteristics to those associated with successful professional practice.
    Plus 2. Explain career trajectories in education and training.
        a. Analyze interests, aptitudes, and abilities and match them to characteristics and requirements of the profession.
        b. Identify future demographic and sociological trends that are likely to affect employment in education and training.
        c. Explain the developmental cycle of the profession.
    Plus 3. Use relationships with other professionals to explore career options.
        a. Enter into job shadowing and mentoring relationships.
    4. Construct an individual career plan.
    Plus 5. Research availability of educational programs, financial requirements, and resource and complete an application process as appropriate for career goals.
        a. Examine continuing education requirements related to licensing, certification, and credentialing requirements at the local, state and national levels for chosen occupation.
        b. Identify training, education and certification requirements for occupational choice.
        c. Participate in career-related training and/or degree programs.
        d. Pass certification tests to qualify for licensure and/or certification in chosen occupational area.
        e. Examine the procedures and paperwork involved in maintaining and updating licensure, certification and credentials for chosen occupation.
        f. Align ongoing licensing, certification and credentialing requirements to career plans and goals.
    6. Recognize and act upon requirements for career advancement to plan for continuing education and training.
    7. Continue professional development to keep current on relevant trends and information within the industry.
  Plus B. Employ group management skills to enhance professional practice with education and training settings.
    1. Explain conditions that contribute to a receptive working climate.
    2. Use environment to enhance work productivity, efficiency, and quality.
    3. Apply factors and strategies for communicating with a diverse workforce.
    Plus 4. Understand and respect the concerns of members of cultural, gender, age, and ability groups.
        a. Provide constructive praise and criticism.
        b. Demonstrate sensitivity to and value for diversity.
    5. Identify and exhibit traits for retaining employment to maintain employment once secured.
  Plus C. Complete required training, education, and certification to prepare for employment in a particular career field.
    1. List the standards and qualifications that must be met in order to enter a given industry.
    2. Maintain a career portfolio to document knowledge, skills and experience in a career field.
    3. Prepare a résumé.
    4. Prepare a letter of application.
    5. Use multiple resources to locate job opportunities.
    6. Complete an employment application.
    7. Interview for employment.
    Plus 8. Employ critical thinking and decision-making skills to exhibit qualifications to a potential employer.
        a. Select educational and work history highlights to include in a career portfolio.
        b. Produce a record of work experiences, licenses, certifications and products.
        c. Organize electronic or physical portfolio for use in demonstrating knowledge, skills and experiences.
    Plus 9. Demonstrate skills in evaluating and comparing employment opportunities in order to accept employment positions that match career goals.
        a. Compare employment opportunities to individual needs and career plan objectives.
        b. Evaluate employment opportunities based upon individual needs and career plan objectives.
        c. Demonstrate appropriate methods for accepting or rejecting employment offers.
  Plus D. Self-Management
    1. Determine goals and develop an action plan to accomplish them within a given time frame.
    2. Utilize materials, tools, and processes to complete a task related to a career selection.
    3. Demonstrate regular attendance, promptness, and staying with a task until satisfactory completion.
    4. Complete assignments with minimum supervision and meet deadlines.
    5. Use mistakes as learning opportunities, demonstrate persistence and adaptability to change.
    6. Initiate projects and extra activities for personal satisfaction.
    7. Prioritize and accomplish tasks independently.
    8. Use appropriate personal expression and relate to school and work settings.
Plus X. TECHNICAL SKILLS
  Plus A. HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
    Plus 1. Employ fundamental knowledge of human growth and development to enhance professional practice and learner achievement.
        a. List multiple and diverse characteristics of individual learners.
        b. Explain the relevance of individual characteristics to the learning process.
        c. Identify typical characteristics.
        d. Identify exceptional characteristics.
        e. Identify major theorists.
        f. Explain major theories using real-world examples.
        g. Critique major theories.
        h. Use theory to predict and explain individual and group behavior.
    2. Create developmentally appropriate activities and lesson plans to reflect various interests and developmental levels.
    3. Recognize developmental delays in children.
  Plus B. CONSTRUCT AND TEACH TO STANDARDS
    1. Use knowledge of learners to align goals with learners’ developmental level, abilities, interests, and future objectives.
    Plus 2. Adapt instructional practices based on this fundamental knowledge to support and advance learning.
        a. Address intellectual, social, career, and developmental needs.
        b. Explain the relationship of goals to the real world.
        c. Accommodate the needs of diverse learners.
    Plus 3. Use National, State, Business and Industry, or Regulatory standards to establish learner performance standards.
        a. Use standards that challenge all learners.
        b. Use standards that are applicable to contexts that are meaningful to learners.
  Plus C. TEACHING AND LEARNING THEORY
    1. Use knowledge of learners when aligning instructional strategies to learners’ backgrounds.
    2. Apply theories of learning, learning styles and motivation theory to delivery of instruction to enhance learner achievement.
    Plus 3. Employ fundamental knowledge of measurement to enhance learner achievement.
        a. Explain concepts of measurement.
        b. Measure educational outcomes appropriately.
        c. Interpret measurements appropriately.
        d. Explain concepts of non-numeric data.
        e. Collect non-numeric data appropriately.
        f. Interpret non-numeric data appropriately.
    Plus 4. Employ fundamental knowledge of the social interaction of individuals and institutions to enhance learner achievement.
        a. Identify multiple social factors and institutions that impact learning.
        b. Explain factors using real-world examples.
        c. Use social interaction of individuals and institutions to predict and explain individual and group behavior.
    Plus 5. Identify prerequisite knowledge that will provide a bridge between past and future knowledge for learners.
        a. Test learner's prerequisite knowledge as a foundation in instructional plans.
        b. Explain learner misunderstanding in terms of lack of prerequisite knowledge.
    Plus 6. Apply principles of scope and sequence while planning instruction.
        a. Order content from simple to complex.
        b. Connect various elements of content.
    Plus 7. Integrate various content to make explicit the connections to other subject matter.
        a. Integrate multiple subject matter into instructional plans.
        b. Make connections logical, accurate, and meaningful to learners.
    Plus 8. Explain connection to life and career applications when making content relevant.
        a. Integrate real-world applications into instructional plans.
        b. Make connections logical, accurate, and meaningful to learners.
    Plus 9. Develop strategies to encourage the transfer of knowledge and skills.
        a. Customize content to fit multiple learner purposes and settings.
        b. Contextualize instructional examples based on learners’ characteristics.
        c. Use assignments that apply knowledge and skills to relevant real-world purposes and settings.
  Plus D. CLIMATE TO PROMOTE LEARNING
    1. Establish respect and rapport to foster positive social and intellectual interactions.
    2. Help each child feel accepted in the group, help children learn to communicate and get along with others, and encourage feelings of empathy and mutual respect among children and adults.
    Plus 3. Arrange space, equipment, and furniture within learning settings to optimize learning.
        a. Arrange physical space, equipment, and furniture to enhance instructional plan.
        b. Adjust instructional plan to accommodate physical space, equipment, and furniture.
        c. Provide equitable access for all learners.
        d. Use physical resources optimally.
    4. Understand and discuss how assistive technologies can benefit all individuals
  Plus E. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
    Plus 1. Use learning activities and assignments to challenge and engage learners.
        a. Vary activities and assignments.
        b. Align activities and assignments with learning goals.
        c. Encourage learners to initiate and adapt activities and assignments in order to enhance learners’ understanding.
        d. Base standards of achievement on applicable National, State, and Regulatory standards.
        e. Explain standards to learners in a clear manner.
    Plus 2. Use content and knowledge of teaching/learning while delivering instruction.
        a. Provide reflection time.
        b. Include a closure process.
        c. Utilize a consistent pace of instruction.
        d. Utilize a pace of instruction that is appropriate for learners.
        e. Explain how groupings support educational goals.
        f. Allocate time realistically.
        g. Communicate positive and negative outcomes of behavior.
        h. Enlist participation of learners in determining expectations.
        i. Stay continually alert to learners’ conduct.
        j. Use appropriate intervention aimed at prevention.
        k. Use appropriate intervention aimed at correction.
    Plus 3. Employ instructional materials and resources to enhance learning.
        a. Utilize multiple materials and resources.
        b. Utilize community materials and resources.
        c. Align materials and resources with learning goals.
        d. Encourage learners to choose, adapt, and create materials and resources in order to enhance learners’ understanding.
    Plus 4. Use assessment tools when determining needs of learners and organizations.
        a. Use self-assessments.
        b. Use a variety of methods.
        c. Develop assessment tools.
    Plus 5. Employ educational technology to enhance learning.
        a. Demonstrate technological literacy and skills.
        b. Utilize multiple technologies.
        c. Align technologies with instructional goals.
        d. Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of use of technology for instruction.
        e. Evaluate technology-based instructional materials.
    Plus 6. Manage instructional transitions while employing time management skills.
        a. Utilize efficient transitions.
        b. Optimize instructional time.
    Plus 7. Employ organizational skills while managing instructional resources (i.e., tools, equipment, supplies, and materials).
        a. Implement effective resource management systems.
        b. Optimize instructional time.
    Plus 8. Perform non-instructional duties.
        a. Utilize efficient procedures.
        b. Prepare learners to expect the procedural routines.
        c. Enlist learners to participate in procedural routines.
        d. Preserve maximum amount of instructional time.
    Plus 9. Supervise learners using organizational and relationship-building skills.
        a. Prepare others to work independently.
        b. Prepare others to work productively.
    Plus 10. Apply instructional strategies to enhance learner achievement.
        a. Construct measurable goals and objectives.
        b. Align goals and objectives to course/program scope and sequence.
        c. Align actions to goals and objectives.
    Plus 11. Use questioning techniques to encourage higher-order thinking.
        a. Provide adequate time for responding to questions.
        b. Probe answers to extend thinking.
        c. Encourage learners’ questioning.
    Plus 12. Use discussion techniques to engage learners.
        a. Encourage learners to initiate topics.
        b. Permit learners to offer unsolicited contributions.
        c. Engage all learners.
    Plus 13. Use cooperative learning techniques to engage learners.
        a. Align groupings of learners and group tasks to learner needs and characteristics.
        b. Align groupings of learners and group tasks to learning goals.
        c. Encourage learners to influence groupings and tasks in order to enhance learners’ understanding.
        d. Foster productivity of learning groups.
    14. Use project-based learning techniques to extend learning.
    15. Create activities suitable for varied learning styles and needs.
  Plus F. Employ assessment/evaluation tools and data in learning settings to advance learner achievement and adjust learning plans.
    Plus 1. Select appropriate assessment/evaluation strategies using knowledge of content and teaching/learning.
        a. Assess/evaluate multiple goals.
        b. Assess/evaluate content goals.
        c. Assess/evaluate process goals.
        d. Identify clearly the criteria and standards to be used to assess/evaluate.
        e. Identify the alignment of instruction to standards.
    Plus 2. Use data to assess performance.
        a. Use multiple sources of data, including self-assessment.
        b. Use appropriate assessment tools, including reflection.
        c. Interpret data appropriately.
        d. Communicate assessment in terms that are understandable to the audience.
        e. Communicate assessment information in a timely manner.
        f. Maintain appropriate confidentiality.
    Plus 3. Use data to assess/evaluate learning.
        a. Use multiple sources of data.
        b. Interpret data correctly.
        c. Utilize learner self-assessment.
        d. Utilize authentic assessment.
        e. Utilize appropriate technology.
        f. Provide accurate feedback.
    Plus 4. Plan adjustments in instruction that reflect assessment and teaching/learning theory.
        a. Align adjustments to assessment data.
        b. Justify adjustments in terms of data-based effective practice.