01.0601 - Applied Horticulture and Horticulture Operations (2013)

Plus Technical

Plus I. Plant Systems
  Plus A. Apply knowledge of plant classification, plant anatomy and plant physiology to the production and management of plants.
    Plus 1. Classify agricultural plants according to taxonomy systems.
        a. Compare and contrast the hierarchical classification of agricultural plants.
        b. Identify agriculturally important plants by common names.
    Plus 2. Apply knowledge of plant anatomy and the functions of plant structures to activities associated with plant systems.
        a. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.
        b. Identify root tissues and explain the pathway of water and nutrients into and through the root tissues.
        c. Describe the processes of translocation.
        d. Explain how leaves capture light energy and allow for the exchange of gases.
        e. Identify the different types of flowers and flower forms.
        f. Identify the major types of fruit.
    Plus 3. Apply knowledge of plant physiology and energy conversion to plant systems.
        a. Explain requirements necessary for photosynthesis to occur and identify the products and byproducts of photosynthesis.
        b. Explain factors that affect cellular respiration and identify the products and byproducts of cellular respiration.
        c. Explain the process of secondary plant growth.
        d. Identify the plant responses to plant growth regulators and different forms of tropism.
  Plus B. Prepare and implement a plant management plan that addresses the influence of environmental factors, nutrients and soil on plant growth.
    Plus 1. Determine the influence of environmental factors on plant growth.
        a. Describe plant responses to light color, intensity and duration.
        b. Determine the optimal air, temperature and water conditions for plant growth.
    Plus 2. Prepare growing media for use in plant systems.
        a. Describe the physical characteristics of growing media and explain the influence they have on plant growth.
        b. Discuss how soil drainage and waterholding capacity can be improved.
    Plus 3. Develop and implement a fertilization plan for specific plants or crops.
        a. Describe nutrient deficiency symptoms and recognize environmental causes of nutrient deficiencies.
        b. Contrast pH and cation exchange capacity between mineral soil and soilless growing media.
        c. Determine the nutrient content of soil using appropriate laboratory procedures and prescribe fertilization based on results.
        d. Calculate the amount of fertilizer to be applied and calibrate equipment to apply the prescribed amount of fertilizer.
  Plus C. Propagate, culture and harvest plants.
    Plus 1. Demonstrate plant propagation techniques.
        a. Diagram the process of plant fertilization.
        b. Handle seed to overcome seed dormancy mechanisms and to maintain seed viability and vigor.
        c. Demonstrate proper procedures in budding or grafting selected materials.
        d. Demonstrate aseptic micropropagation techniques.
        e. Give examples of the risks and advantages associated with genetically modified plants.
    Plus 2. Develop and implement a plant management plan for crop production.
        a. Inspect propagation material for evidence of pests or disease.
        b. Prepare soil for planting with the addition of amendments.
        c. Apply preplant treatments required of seeds and plants and evaluate the results.
        d. Monitor the progress of plantings and determine the need to adjust environmental conditions.
        e. Demonstrate proper techniques to control and manage plant growth through mechanical, cultural or chemical means.
    Plus 3. Develop and implement a plan for integrated pest management.
        a. Identify major local weeds, insect pests and infectious and noninfectious plant diseases.
        b. Diagram the life cycles of major plant pests and diseases.
        c. Describe types of pesticide controls and formulations.
        d. Explain procedures for the safe handling, use and storage of pesticides.
    Plus 4. Apply principles and practices of sustainable agriculture to plant production.
        a. Describe sustainable agriculture practices and compare the ecological effects of traditional agricultural practices with those of sustainable agriculture.
    Plus 5. Harvest, handle and store crops.
        a. Assess the stage of growth to determine crop maturity or salability and demonstrate proper harvesting techniques.
        b. Evaluate crop yield and loss data.
        c. Explain the proper conditions to maintain the quality of plants and plant products held in storage.
        d. Demonstrate techniques for grading, handling and packaging plants and plant products for distribution.
  Plus D. Employ elements of design to enhance an environment.
    Plus 1. Create designs using plants.
        a. Explain design elements of line, form, texture and color and express the visual effect each has on the viewer.
        b. Discuss principles of design that form the basis of artistic impression.

Plus Pathway

Plus I. Plant Systems
  Plus A. Develop and implement a crop management plan for a given production goal that accounts for environmental factors.
    Plus 1. Develop a fertilization plan using the results of an analysis and evaluation of nutritional requirements and environmental conditions.
        a. Describe nutrient sources.
        b. Determine plant nutrient requirements for optimum growth.
        c. Identify function of plant nutrients in plants.
        d. Determine the environmental factors that influence and optimize plant growth.
        e. Apply nutrients to plants for economic growth.
        f. Describe nutrient application methods and appropriate practices.
    Plus 2. Evaluate soil/media nutrients using tests of appropriate materials and/or by examining data.
        a. Collect and test soil/media and/or plant tissue.
        b. Interpret tests of soil/media and/or plant tissue.
        c. Identify soil slope, structure, and type.
        d. Evaluate soil/media permeability and water-holding capacity.
        e. Determine the chemical properties of soil/media.
        f. Determine land use capability.
        g. Determine the biological functions of microorganisms of soil/media.
    Plus 3. Determine the influence of environmental factors on plants.
        a. Describe plant response to light color, intensity, and duration.
        b. Determine the optimal and allowable air and soil temperature and water conditions for plant growth.
        c. Describe the optimal and allowable characteristics of the growing media for plant growth.
    Plus 4. Manage water conditions for plant growth.
        a. Explain how soil draining and water-holding capacity can be improved.
        b. Design an irrigation schedule that makes the most efficient use of irrigation water.
        c. Identify categories of soil water.
    Plus 5. Manage characteristics of growing media.
        a. Explain the various types and components of growing media.
        b. Describe techniques to reduce soil compaction.
        c. Modify composition of growing media to better meet plant growth needs.
  Plus B. Apply the principles of classification, plant anatomy, and plant physiology to plant production and management.
    Plus 1. Examine unique plant properties to identify/describe functional differences in plant structures including roots, stems, flowers, leaves, and fruit.
        a. Identify plant structures (e.g., seeds).
        b. Describe physiological functions of plants.
        c. Describe germination process and conditions.
    Plus 2. Classify plants based on physiology for taxonomic or other classifications.
        a. Classify plants as monocots or dicots.
        b. Classify plants as annuals, biennials, or perennials.
        c. Classify plants according to growth habit.
        d. Classify plants by type.
        e. Classify plants by economic value.
        f. Classify plants by agricultural use.
        g. List the scientific names and key characteristics of agriculturally important plants.
    Plus 3. Apply knowledge of plant anatomy and plant structures to plant systems activities.
        a. Identify root types, tissues, and components.
        b. Explain active and passive transport through root systems.
        c. Identify the components of plant stems.
        d. Explain translocation.
        e. Explain how plant management techniques can impact mineral transport and translocation.
        f. Identify the different types of flowers and flower forms.
        g. Explain how flower structures impact plant breeding and production.
        h. Describe the types and components of seeds and fruits.
        i. Explain how plants are managed for the production of seeds and fruit.
    Plus 4. Apply knowledge of plant physiology and energy conservation to plant systems activities.
        a. Explain how plant management relies on understanding of light-dependent and light-independent reactions of photosynthesis.
        b. Relate plant growth, management, and harvesting strategies in response to stages of cellular respiration in plants.
        c. Use plant growth regulators to product desired responses from plants.
  Plus C. Propagate, culture, and harvest plants and plant products based on current industry standards.
    Plus 1. Develop a production plan that applies the fundamentals of plant management.
        a. Identify and select seeds and plants.
        b. Manipulate and evaluate environmental conditions (e.g., irrigation, mulch, shading) to foster plant germination, growth and development.
        c. Evaluate and demonstrate planting practices (e.g., population rate, germination/seed vigor, inoculation, seed and plant treatments).
        d. Evaluate and demonstrate transplanting practices.
        e. Prepare soil/media for planting.
        f. Control plant growth (e.g., pruning, pinching, disbudding, topping, detasseling, staking, cabling, shearing, shaping).
        g. Prepare plants and plant products for distribution.
    Plus 2. Harvest crops using methods that apply fundamentals of plant management.
        a. Determine crop maturity.
        b. Identify harvesting practices and equipment.
        c. Demonstrate common harvesting techniques.
        d. Calculate yield and loss.
        e. Identify options for crop storage.
        f. Maintain quality of plant products in storage.
        g. Prepare plants and plant products for distribution.
    Plus 3. Handle crops using methods that apply fundamentals of plant management.
        a. Demonstrate techniques for grading, handling, and packaging plants and plant products for distribution.
        b. Predict typical loss of plants or plant products in the process of handling, packaging and/or distribution.
    Plus 4. Store crops using methods that apply fundamentals of plant management.
        a. Identify methods for storing plants and plant products.
        b. Explain how cellular respiration affects plant and plant product storage.
        c. Explain the proper conditions for storage of plants and plant products.
    Plus 5. Produce crops using a plant management plan.
        a. Inspect propagation material for pests and diseases.
        b. Prepare growing media/soil for planting.
        c. Prepare a schedule for production that accommodates environmental setting (natural, greenhouse, or modified).
        d. Demonstrate proper plant procedures and post-planting care.
        e. Control growth through mechanical, cultural, or mechanical means.
    Plus 6. Develop and implement an integrated pest management plan.
        a. Identify major weeds, beneficial insects, insect pests, and plant diseases for region and crop.
        b. Diagram the life cycles of major plant pests and diseases.
        c. Explain the proper selection and use of pesticide controls and formulations.
        d. Compare the risks and benefits of chemical and non-chemical pest controls.
    Plus 7. Demonstrate plant propagation techniques.
        a. Explain pollination, cross-pollination, and self-pollination of flowering plants.
        b. Design plans to control the pollination of flowering plants.
        c. Demonstrate seed-sowing techniques that result in favorable germination, viability, and vigor.
        d. Demonstrate proper procedures in budding or grafting plant materials.
        e. Propagate plants by micropropagation.
        f. Explain the principles and processes of recombinant DNA technology in plants.
        g. Compare plant breeding and genetic modification.
    Plus 8. Apply principles and practices of sustainable agriculture to plant production.
        a. Calculate the economic, environmental, and human health costs and benefits of incorporating sustainable plant production practices.
        b. Plan the production of plants or plant products that incorporate sustainable practices.
        c. Identify the certifying options for crops and plants produced using sustainable techniques.
    Plus 9. Demonstrate the application of biotechnology to plant production.
        a. Explain the principles and processes of recombinant DNA technology in plants.
        b. List the current applications of biotechnology in plant production.
  Plus D. Apply principles of design in plant systems to enhance an environment (e.g., floral, forest, landscape, and farm).
    Plus 1. Create a design using plants that demonstrates an application of basic design elements and principles.
        a. Conduct a site evaluation for physical condition and design implications.
        b. Apply elements of design (e.g., line, form, texture, color).
        c. Incorporate principles of design (e.g., space, scale, proportion, order).
        d. Use landscape design drawing tools including Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and industry-specific software.
        e. Select hard goods, supplies, and tools used in design.
        f. Select plant(s) for design.

Plus Cluster

Plus I. Agriculture, Food & Natural Resources
  Plus A. Analyze how issues, trends, technologies, and public policies impact systems in the Agriculture, Food & Natural Resources Career Clusterâ„¢.
    Plus 1. Explain how regulations and major laws impact management of AFNR activities.
        a. Describe the major impacts of AFNR legislation.
        b. Describe the major regulations impacting the management of an individual resource.
        c. Identify situations that violate regulations.
    Plus 2. Describe current issues impacting AFNR activities.
        a. Identify significant issues that impact work assignment.
    Plus 3. Identify, organize alternatives, and evaluate public policy issues related to AFNR.
        a. Identify alternatives to an issue's potential solution.
        b. Evaluate alternatives for strengths and weaknesses.
        c. Recommend a solution based on research and analysis.
    Plus 4. Consider public input in decision-making for AFNR activities.
        a. Conduct a local survey of public perceptions and desires concerning AFNR issues.
    Plus 5. Explain the impact of sustainability on AFNR activities and practices.
        a. Identify significant environmental and economic issues facing AFNR.
        b. List the potential economic, environmental, and social costs and benefits of enacting sustainability initiatives in AFNR.
    Plus 6. Recognize the historical, social, cultural and potential applications of biotechnology on AFNR activities.
        a. Discuss the current applications of biotechnology in AFNR.
    Plus 7. Demonstrate the application of biotechnology to AFNR activities.
        a. Explain how biotechnology is used in specific AFNR activities.
    8. Evaluate the nature and scope of the Agriculture, Food & Natural Resources Career Clusterâ„¢ and the role agriculture, food, and natural resources (AFNR) play in society and the economy.
    Plus 9. Examine company performance and goals within AFNR organizations and the AFNR industry.
        a. Examine the role and major functions of AFNR organizations to better utilize AFNR guidelines.
        b. Explain the major guidelines used by AFNR organizations to manage and improve performance while maintaining ecosystem health.
        c. Examine economic, social, and technological changes to spotlight their impact on AFNR organizations and the industry.
        d. Explain technological changes to reveal their impact on information technology and transportation.
    Plus 10. Examine the role of AFNR in global, national, and regional economies.
        a. State the economic output of AFNR-related industries in the United States.
        b. Describe the role of global supply and demand on AFNR.
        c. Evaluate the impact of AFNR activities in your local community.
    Plus 11. Explain the types of industries, organizations, and activities part of AFNR.
        a. Provide examples of AFNR organizations in each of the AFNR pathways.
        b. Explain the relationship between agriculture, food, and natural resources.
        c. Describe the role of government, multinational companies, regional companies, small businesses, entrepreneurs, and consumers in AFNR activities.
    Plus 12. Explain the influence of AFNR on society.
        a. Identify ways in which the average person interacts with AFNR on a daily basis.
        b. Find examples of tradition, custom, or policy that result from practices in AFNR.
        c. Communicate the importance of AFNR to general public.
  Plus B. Examine and summarize importance of health, safety, and environmental management systems in AFNR organizations.
    Plus 1. Examine health risks associated with a particular skill to better form personnel safety guidelines.
        a. Define what level of possible contamination or injury is considered a risk in order to set safety priorities.
        b. Assess mental and physical stresses to determine all aspects necessary to perform well and what health risks are associated with both the mental and physical aspects.
    Plus 2. Develop response plans to handle emergencies.
        a. Identify various emergency response plan requirements for a facility.
        b. Develop an emergency response plan for natural disasters.
    Plus 3. Identify hazards and acquire first aid skills to promote environmental safety.
        a. Identify general workplace safety hazards.
        b. Apply general workplace safety precautions/procedures.
        c. Acquire and maintain first aid certification.
        d. Acquire and maintain cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) certification.
        e. Respond to medical emergencies.
        f. Explain purpose of pollution control systems.
        g. Describe procedures to comply with environmental regulations.
        h. Maintain environmental health and safety facilities.
        i. Handle chemicals and safety equipment appropriately.
        j. Explain ergonomic procedures.
        k. Assess workplace safety.
        l. Assess a safety-training plan.
        m. Observe all regulatory and safety standards.
    Plus 4. Examine required regulations to maintain/improve safety, health, and environmental management systems and sustainable business practices.
        a. Study appropriate resources to identify the major regulatory areas (e.g., personal protective equipment) and government laws and regulations.
        b. Examine the major system components to realize benefits of health, safety, and environmental management systems in AFNR organizations.
        c. Measure or estimate benefits to explain how government agencies promote compliance and improved health, safety, and environmental performance to AFNR organizations.
        d. Examine logistics, distribution, and transportation organizations to explain how AFNR organizations promote improved health, safety, and environmental performance.
    Plus 5. Enact procedures that demonstrate the importance of safety, health, and environmental responsibilities in the workplace.
        a. Establish a set of safety, health, and environmental principles to ensure a high level of performance.
        b. Develop a pollution/waste prevention plan to reduce or eliminate waste.
    Plus 6. Demonstrate methods to correct common hazards.
        a. Identify and describe common hazards in the workplace.
        b. Identify and describe major sources of information about hazards in the workplace (e.g., MSDS, work procedures, exposure control plans, training materials, labels, and signage).
        c. Identify sources of combustible/flammable materials, fire, and emergencies to establish a fire-safe environment.
        d. Interpret safety signs and symbols.
    Plus 7. Demonstrate application of personal and group health and safety practices.
        a. Identify procedures necessary for maintaining a safe work area.
        b. Identify methods to correct common hazards.
        c. Identify methods for disposing of hazardous materials.
        d. Demonstrate principals of safe physical movement to avoid slips, trips, and spills.
        e. Inspect and use protective equipment (PPE).
  Plus C. Demonstrate stewardship of natural resources in AFNR activities.
    Plus 1. Demonstrate evidence of interest and concern for natural resource stewardship.
        a. Explain how personal choices are related to natural resource sustainability.
        b. Describe strategies to help an organization create a culture of natural resource stewardship.
    Plus 2. Explain the environmental considerations of decision making in AFNR management.
        a. Predict the positive and negative impacts of given AFNR activities.
  Plus D. Describe career opportunities and means to achieve those opportunities in each of the Agriculture, Food & Natural Resources Career Pathways.
    Plus 1. Locate and identify career opportunities that appeal to personal career goals.
        a. Locate and interpret career information for at least one career cluster.
        b. Identify job requirements for career pathways.
        c. Identify educational and credentialing requirements for career cluster and pathways.
    Plus 2. Match personal interest and aptitudes to selected careers.
        a. Identify personal interests and aptitudes.
        b. Identify job requirements and characteristics of selected careers.
        c. Compare personal interests and aptitudes with job requirements and characteristics of career selected.
        d. Modify career goals based on results of personal interests and aptitudes with career requirements and characteristics.
    Plus 3. Provide examples and descriptions of various careers in each of the AFNR pathways.
        a. List examples of careers that require various levels of postsecondary education in each AFNR pathway.
        b. Explain the primary benefit of having a career in each of the AFNR pathways.
  Plus E. Analyze the interaction among ANFR systems in the production, processing and management of food, fiber, and fuel and sustainable use of natural resources.
    Plus 1. Explain foundational cycles and systems of AFNR.
        a. Explain the typical plant and animal life cycle.
        b. Explain nutrient and water cycles.
        c. Describe basic plant and animal production cycles.
    Plus 2. Explain the interconnectedness of systems within AFNR.
        a. Describe how various systems (e.g., soil, water, economic, plant, insect, livestock production) are impacted by the production practices of a give crop such as corn or alfalfa.
        b. Explain how changes in one system in AFNR can benefit and cost components of other systems (e.g., using less irrigation water and the impact on soli systems, economic systems, watersheds).

Plus Career Ready Practices

Plus I. Career Ready Practices
  Plus A. Career Ready Skills
    1. Act as a responsible and contributing citizen and employee.
    2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
    3. Attend to personal health and financial well-being.
    4. Communicate clearly, effectively and with reason.
    5. Consider the environmental, social and economic impacts of decisions.
    6. Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
    7. Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
    8. Model integrity, ethical leadership and effective management.
    9. Plan education and career path aligned to personal goals.
    10. Use technology to enhance productivity.
    11. Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
    12. Work productively in teams while using cultural/global competence.