26.1201 - Biotechnology

Plus Technical

Plus I. Safety, Scientific Inquiry, Reflection and Social Implications
  Plus A. Laboratory Safety
    1. Discuss safety plan for individual facilities.
    2. Examine health risks associated with a particular skill to better form personnel safety guidelines.
    3. Apply safety/health precautions to participation in Agriscience and natural resource projects.
    4. Demonstrate recognized first aid knowledge and procedures to show how they are used by agricultural and natural resources industries.
    5. Identify and demonstrate health/safety policies and procedures for agricultural and natural resource occupations.
    6. Develop response plans to handle emergencies.
    7. Identify hazards and acquire first aid skills to promote safety.
    8. Explain important areas of safety with machinery and tools.
    9. List safety practices in laboratory work.
  Plus B. Safety and sanitation methods
    1. Read an MSDS and locate important safety information.
    2. Conduct mathematical equations to determine chemical concentrations.
    3. Determine the appropriate safety precautions for a given scenario.
  Plus C. Care and maintenance of the common laboratory facility.
    1. Practice the different methods of sanitation and know when to use them.
    2. Recognize and evaluate examples of safety hazards.
    3. Explain the importance of maintaining a clean, safe, and organized laboratory.
    4. Describe what steps must be taken to maintain a clean, safe, and organized facility.
    5. Explain what you should do when you find that a piece of equipment or some aspect of the facility needs to be repaired.
    6. Identify common safety hazards.
    7. Identify common sources of accidental injuries and what you can do to protect yourself.
    8. Explain general techniques for avoiding infection and the spread of disease.
    9. Explain what OSHA is and describe some of the general guidelines that must be followed in the practice.
  Plus D. Scientific Inquiry
    1. Generate new questions that can be investigated in the laboratory or field by conducting SAE Projects.
    2. Evaluate the uncertainties or validity of scientific conclusions using an understanding of sources of measurement error, the challenges of controlling variables, accuracy of data analysis, logic of argument, logic of experimental design, and/or the dependence on underlying assumptions. This can be done by utilizing the Michigan Agriscience Project Recognition Program.
    3. Write a hypothesis and formulate objectives for scientific research.
    4. Conduct scientific investigations using appropriate tools and techniques (e.g., selecting an instrument that measures the desired quantity—length, volume, weight, time interval, temperature, weight gain, feed efficiency, reproductive rates, germination rates—with the appropriate level of precision).
    5. Identify patterns in data and relate them to theoretical models.
    6. Describe a reason for a given conclusion using evidence from an investigation.
    7. Predict what would happen if the variables, methods, or timing of an investigation were changed.
    8. Use empirical evidence to explain and critique the reasoning used to draw a scientific conclusion or explanation.
    9. Design and conduct a systematic scientific investigation that tests a hypothesis. Draw conclusions from data presented in charts or tables.
    10. Distinguish between scientific explanations that are regarded as current scientific consensus and the emerging questions that active researchers investigate.
  Plus E. Scientific Reflection and Social Implications
    1. Critique whether or not specific questions can be answered through scientific investigations.
    2. Identify and critique arguments about personal or societal issues based on scientific evidence.
    3. Develop an understanding of a scientific concept by accessing information from multiple sources. Evaluate the scientific accuracy and significance of the information.
    4. Evaluate scientific explanations in a peer review process or discussion format or by utilizing FFA Career Development Events.
    5. Evaluate the future career and occupational prospects of Agricultural and Natural Resource fields.
    6. Critique solutions to problems, given criteria and scientific constraints.
    7. Identify scientific tradeoffs in design decisions and choose among alternative solutions.
    8. Describe the distinctions between scientific theories, laws, hypotheses, and observations and explain their distinctions in the Agricultural and Natural Resource fields.
    9. Explain the progression of ideas and explanations that leads to science theories that are part of the current scientific consensus or core knowledge.
    10. Apply science principles or scientific data to anticipate effects of technological design decisions in Agriscience or Natural resources.
    11. Analyze how Agriscience/Natural Resources and society interact from a historical, political, economic, or social perspective.
    12. Identify and critique arguments about biotechnology based on scientific evidence.
  Plus F. Bioethics and Decisions
    1. Identify the rights, interests, and responsibilities of people involved in bioethical issues.
    2. Describe the need for and function of regulatory agencies.
    3. Analyze policy-making procedures for products and techniques of biotechnology.
    4. Formulate opinions about engineered organisms and products based on scientific evidence.
Plus II. Leadership and Career Success
  Plus A. Leadership, Work-based Learning and Career Development
    1. Understand the aims, purposes, history, and structure of the FFA student organization, and know the opportunities it makes available.
    2. Manage and actively engage in a career-related, supervised agricultural experience.
    3. Know the personal qualifications, interests, aptitudes, information, and skills necessary to succeed in careers.
    4. Understand the scope of career opportunities and know the requirements for education, training, and licensure.
    5. Develop a career plan that is designed to reflect career interests, pathways, and postsecondary options.
    6. Understand the role and function of professional organizations, industry associations, and organized labor in a productive society.
    7. Understand the past, present, and future trends that affect careers, such as technological developments and societal trends, and the resulting need for lifelong learning.
    8. Know important strategies for self-promotion in the hiring process, such as job applications, résumé writing, interviewing skills, and preparation of a portfolio.
Plus III. Business Management
  Plus A. General Information Management
    1. Identify information management systems.
    2. Develop record keeping techniques and practices.
    3. Keep production and agribusiness records.
    4. Make records analysis.
    5. Make recommendations for future projects from records.
    6. Identify and explain various risk management techniques.
  Plus B. Biotechnology math skills/techniques
    1. Correctly complete basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division problems using whole numbers, fractions, and decimals.
    2. Correctly operate a calculator.
    3. Correctly complete advanced ratios dealing with dosage, dilution, and weight conversions.
    4. Correctly complete word problems dealing with percent, temperature conversion, and liquid and linear measurement.
    5. Explain why solid math skills are vital to the success of a biotechnology facility.
Plus IV. Introduction to Biotechnology
  Plus A. Fundamentals of Biotechnology
    1. Describe major historic developments in biotechnology fields such as pharmaceuticals, agriculture, diagnostics, industrial products, instrumentation and research and development.
    2. Identify the major scientific discoveries that lead to recombinant DNA technology, including those in chemistry, genetics, microbiology, and fermentation technology, and explain how those discoveries are used in industry today.
    3. Outline the steps in production and delivery of a product made through recombinant DNA technology.
    4. Use the scientific method to conduct a valid experiment, including hypothesis formation, data collection, and data analysis.
    5. Develop scientific questions, hypotheses, and experimental plans.
    6. Create data tables and graphs using Excel® for the purpose of collecting and analyzing data.
    7. Interpret and critically analyze quantitative and qualitative data.
    8. Compose a concluding statement outlining the results of an experiment with evidence, explanations, error analysis, and practical applications
    9. Organize and communicate scientific findings both orally and in written form and produce clear, concise written and oral reports.
    10. Evaluate the validity of results obtained during experimentation and product development.
    11. Evaluate scientific reports with well-supported, clearly presented opinions.
    12. Use the Internet and World Wide Web to collect and share scientific information.
    13. Use a variety of methods including literature searches, in libraries, in computer databases, and on-line, for gathering background information, making observations, and collecting/organizing data.
    14. Work effectively individually and within a team.
  Plus B. Organisms Used In Biotechnology
    1. Distinguish between prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells, and viruses.
    2. Outline the life cycle and characteristics of model organisms used in the biotechnology industry, including various bacteria (E. coli) and fungi (yeasts and Aspergillus.
    3. Use various methods to monitor the growth of cell cultures.
    4. Describe conditions that promote cell growth under aseptic conditions in the lab and workplace.
    5. Explain how environmental factors affect the growth of model organisms in the laboratory.
    6. List and describe the structure and function of cellular organelles.
    7. Discuss the structure and function of the macromolecules that compose cells, including carbohydrates, lipids, DNA, RNA, and protein molecules.
    8. Conduct indicator tests (Benedict’s, Iodine, Biuret) for the common macromolecules of the cell.
    9. Explain the basic concepts of cell growth and reproduction, DNA replication, mitosis, meiosis, and protein synthesis.
    10. Explain bacterial growth techniqes and procedures
  Plus C. Standard Laboratory Operating Procedures
    1. Set-up and maintain a legal scientific notebook that includes an account of all laboratory procedures, data, and reflections.
    2. Recognize laboratory safety hazards and avoid them. Identify the location and use of emergency equipment.
    3. Properly and safely use and monitor a variety of scientific equipment, including pH meters, microscopes, spectrophotometers, pipets, micropipets, balances, etc.
    4. Measure mass using electronic and analytical balances.
    5. Measure volume using graduated cylinders, pipets, and micropipets.
    6. Calculate how to prepare solutions based on mass/volume, % mass/volume, and molar concentrations.
    7. Prepare solutions of any volume and concentration.
    8. Prepare dilutions of concentrated solutions.
    9. Outline the steps in cell culture, sterile technique, and media preparation.
    10. Prepare and maintain plate and broth cultures of bacteria.
    11. Determine which equipment is appropriate to use for a given task and what units of measurement are used. Use laboratory apparatus, materials, and technology in an appropriate and safe manner.
    12. Follow written protocols and oral directions to perform laboratory and technical tasks.
    13. Perform a variety of biological tests and chemical assays, collect data, perform calculations and statistical analysis.
    14. Prepare and aliquot samples, reagents and buffers. Perform chemical reactions and purification procedures similar to those used in product development, testing, and manufacture.
    15. Perform specimen collection, label samples, and prepare samples for testing.
    16. Handle, transport and store samples.
Plus V. DNA and Protein Procedures
  Plus A. DNA Structure, Function, Isolation and Analysis
    1. Describe the relationship between nitrogen bases, nucleotides, and nucleic acids.
    2. Recognize nucleotides on a DNA double helix model.
    3. Explain how the structure of DNA affects its function.
    4. Describe the role of DNA, RNA, and ribosomes in protein synthesis (The Central Dogma).
    5. Explain how the structure of DNA affects its isolation from cells and solutions.
    6. Isolate genomic DNA from cells and analyze its purity and concentration.
    7. Isolate plasmid DNA from cells (mini-preparation) and analyze its purity and concentration.
    8. Explain the principles involved in agarose gel electrophoresis.
    9. Prepare, load, run, visualize, and analyze DNA samples on an agarose gel.
    10. Describe the differences in samples of eukaryotic and prokaryotic DNA samples on a gel.
  Plus B. Protein Structure, Function, Isolation and Analysis
    1. Identify eight groups of protein based on their functions, citing examples in each group.
    2. Explain the relationship between amino acids, peptides and proteins
    3. Describe primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure in proteins.
    4. Use the Internet to find information about the structure and function of specific proteins.
    5. Prepare protein solutions and dilutions at specific concentrations and pH.
    6. Use protein indicator solutions to identify the presence and concentration of protein in solution.
    7. Explain the principles involved in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
    8. Prepare, load, run, visualize, and analyze protein samples on a polyacrylamide gel.
    9. Describe the meaning in differences in peptide band seen on polyacrylamide gels
    10. Explain the function of enzymes and how their activity is affected by temperature and pH.
    11. Perform enzyme activity assays.
Plus VI. Modern Products and Applications
  Plus A. Product Development
    1. Compare and contrast pure and applied scientific research in the field of biotechnology
    2. Identify local biotechnology companies specializing in the production of pharmaceuticals, agricultural products, industrial products, and research instruments and reagents
    3. Describe the major steps is a product’s move through a company’s product pipeline.
    4. Explain how companies decide on research and development targets and potential products.
    5. Identify several products obtained through recombinant DNA technology.
  Plus B. Product Application
    1. Cite examples of plant parts or extracts used as pharmaceuticals.
    2. Use the Internet to find information about herbal remedies, traditional pharmaceuticals, and recombinant pharmaceuticals.
    3. Produce and test plant extracts for anti-microbial activity.
    4. Collect and test native bacteria for amylase production.
  Plus C. Bio-fuel production
    1. Understand biodiesel production process
    2. Understand ethanol production process
    3. Understand proper handling of caustic solutions
    4. Understand fractional distillation
    5. Explain the process of fermentation
  Plus D. Water Quality
    1. Understand waste water treatment systems
    2. Understand activated sludge treatment
    3. Understand basic testing procedures for water quality indicators
    4. Explain the need for records and protocol in a laboratory situation
Plus VII. Assays
  Plus A. Biological Assays
    1. Design an assay that shows the presence and activity of an enzyme
    2. Compare and contrast the use of different assays used in research and production.
    3. Explain how Benedict’s Solution and Lugol’s Iodine are used in glucose and starch testing.
    4. Describe how assays for reactants or products can indicate the presence/activity of enzymes.
    5. Illustrate how an ELISA assay works, the role of antibodies in an ELISA, and how it may be used in industry.
    6. Conduct and ELISA assay to test for the presence of a specific protein.
  Plus B. Interpreting Assays
    1. Identify the common parts found on visible spectrophotometers and describe their function.
    2. Elucidate the relationship between wavelength and the color of light.
    3. Cite the colors of different wavelengths of light.
    4. Outline the steps of using a visible spectrophotometer.
    5. Describe the relationship between light transmittance and light absorbance in a sample.
    6. Use a visible spectrophotometer to produce absorbance spectra.
  Plus C. Chemical Analysis
    1. Discuss the difference between acids, bases, and neutral solutions
    2. Use pH paper and pH meters to measure and adjust pH.
    3. Define the function of a buffer and give examples of buffers used in a biotechnology lab.
    4. Make several buffers at various volumes, concentrations, and pH.
    5. Describe how pH affects protein structure and function.
    6. Prepare a serial dilution of protein and measure their absorbance at a given wavelength.
    7. Use a standard curve to determine the concentration of an unknown protein solution.
    8. Using Excel®, do a linear regression to calculate protein concentration.
    9. Use statistical analysis including the standard deviation, to determine the validity of data.
Plus VIII. Genetic Engineering
  Plus A. Genetic Engineering
    1. Discuss methods to isolate DNA and specific genes for engineering purposes.
    2. Enumerate the activities and uses of restriction enzymes.
    3. Conduct a restriction digestion of a plasmid.
    4. List the steps in the production of a recombinant DNA molecule.
    5. Cite examples of vectors used in transformation, transduction, and transfection.
    6. Describe the steps in a bacterial transformation including competency, recovery, and selection.
    7. Conduct a bacterial transformation and select for transformants.
    8. Describe methods by which transformants may be selected including antibiotic resistance, GFP and GUS activity
    9. Conduct a mini-prep to retrieve plasmids from transformed cells.
Plus IX. Marketing Products
  Plus A. Production
    1. Outline the steps in product production, recovery, and purification.
    2. Describe the characteristics of proteins that allow for their purification after cloning transformed cells
    3. Compare and contrast the processes of paper, thin-layer, and column chromatography
    4. Explain how PAGE is used with column chromatography to monitor protein product
    5. Describe the steps in harvesting protein product from fermentation cell culture
    6. Test for the presence and concentration of proteins in processed samples
    7. Cite the steps in buffer exchange and dialysis as used in protein processing
  Plus B. Quality Management
    1. Compare and contrast the mechanism of gel filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography
    2. Conduct an ion exchange chromatography to isolate proteins of different charge
    3. Explain the function and use of FPLC and HPLC in research and production
    4. Confirm the results of a column chromatography using spectrophotometry and PAGE
    5. Summarize the steps in clinical testing and FDA approval for new drugs produced through genetic engineering
  Plus C. Product Distribution
    1. Inspect and verify inventory and integrity of products.
    2. Discuss techniques of product packaging and distribution.
    3. Record and report protocols, procedures, results, conclusions, manuals, reports and write memos and letters utilizing computer -processing.
    4. Interact with colleagues and supervisors and coordinate tasks.
Plus X. Plant Biotechnology
  Plus A. Plant Reproduction
    1. Diagram the events in flowering plant sexual reproduction including meiosis, pollination and fertilization.
    2. Explain how meiosis and crossing-over affect the variety seen in offspring.
    3. Describe the relationship between sexual and selective breeding.
    4. Identify the number and type of floral structures.
    5. Outline the steps in germination and plant growth.
    6. Use the Internet to find the life cycle of a diploid organism.
    7. Conduct a seed germination experiment.
    8. Describe how meiosis, crossing-over, recombination, and segregation produce variety in gametes and offspring.
  Plus B. Genetic Analysis
    1. Perform a dihybrid, heterozygous cross of a model genetic organism.
    2. Analyze the results of a cross and the significance of data using Chi-square analysis.
    3. Compare and contrast the processes of asexual and sexual reproduction in plants
    4. Compare the structure and function of different plant tissues including their role in reproduction.
    5. Conduct a successful plant tissue culture using sterile technique
    6. Elucidate the role of hormones in plant tissue culture.
  Plus C. Applications
    1. Isolate and analyze DNA samples from plant tissue.
    2. Design a protocol for maximizing DNA extraction from plant cells.
    3. Use the UV spectrophotometer to measure and calculate the concentration and purity of DNA extracts.
    4. Discuss the role of Agrobacterium and the Ti plasmid in plant genetic engineering.
    5. List reasons why Arabidopsis thaliana is a model plant of genetic research.
    6. Conduct a plant genetic engineering experiment using Agrobacterium, the Ti plasmid, and Arabidopsis thaliana.
Plus XI. DNA & PCR Synthesizing
  Plus A. DNA Synthesis
    1. Define the terms: template, primer, polymerase, dNTPS, DNA synthesis, oligonucleotides, and PCR
    2. Outline the steps of DNA replication (synthesis) as it occurs in cells
    3. Outline the steps of DNA synthesis as it occurs in test tubes (in vitro).
    4. Setup and run a PAGE gel apparatus to separate synthesis products.
    5. Prepare DNA synthesis reactions to produce oligonucleotides of varying lengths.
    6. Conduct a Southern blot of synthesis products and visualize using colorimetric enzyme visualization.
  Plus B. PCR Analysis
    1. Discuss the history behind the discovery and development of the polymerase chain reaction.
    2. Outline the steps in a PCR reaction including the use of a thermal cycler.
    3. Conduct a PCR reaction to amplify targeted sections of DNA.
    4. Use databases to analyze the frequency of alleles and genotypes found through PCR analysis
    5. Discuss the applications of PCR technology in industry, research, and society.
    6. Optimize the factors and reagents used in a PCR reaction.
    7. Discuss the effects of varying the time and temperature of PCR reactions as well as the volumes and concentrations of reactants.
Plus XII. Genomics
  Plus A. DNA Sequencing
    1. Explain the steps in dideoxynucleotide sequencing reactions.
    2. Compare and contrast sequencing done using slab gels versus those done using capillary sequencing apparatus.
    3. Read a DNA sequence on a sequencing autoradiogram or computer-generated sequence.
    4. Cite examples of how and where DNA sequencing is used during biotechnology.
  Plus B. Genomic Applications
    1. Explain how scientist used DNA sequencing to elucidate the human genome.
    2. List the milestones of The Human Genome Project.
    3. Give examples of advances made possible because of the Human Genome Project.
    4. List concerns people may have of information derived from the Human Genome Project.
    5. Discuss the causes and effects of point and chromosomal mutation.
    6. Describe how DNA is modified and introduced into cells to change traits
    7. Discuss the methods and objectives in site-specific mutagenesis.

Plus Pathway

Plus I. Animal Systems
  Plus A. Produce and/or manage animals in domesticated and/or natural environments using an application of knowledge regarding anatomy and physiology to enhance animal production.
    Plus 1. Explain basic functions of animal anatomy and physiology using classification systems.
        a. Describe functional differences in animal structures and body systems.
        b. Classify animals according to anatomy and physiology.
    Plus 2. State how body structures interact and affect animal health.
        a. Identify selected animal parts from a diagram or on a real animal.
        b. Identify ways that an animal’s health can be affected by anatomy/physiology problems.
    Plus 3. Analyze a subject animal to determine the nature of its health status.
        a. Perform simple procedures in evaluating an animal’s health status.
        b. Identify symptoms of diseases, illnesses, parasites, and other health-related problems.
        c. Diagnose animal ailments.
        d. Implement disease prevention and health improvement program.
        e. Identify and implement treatment options.
  Plus B. Recognize and interpret animal behaviors and execute protocols for safe handling to facilitate safety for both animals and humans.
    Plus 1. Develop a safety plan for working with a specific animal.
        a. Explain factors which serve to stimulate or discourage given types of animal behavior.
        b. Recognize the normality curve of animal behavior.
        c. Perform safe handling procedures when working with animals.
        d. Identify strengths and weaknesses of an animal safety handling plan.
        e. Operate animal facilities to insure safety of animals.
  Plus C. Provide proper nutrition using accepted protocols and processes to maintain animal performance.
    Plus 1. Examine animal developmental stages.
        a. Recognize the different phases of an animal’s life cycle.
        b. Select diets which provide the appropriate quantity of nutrients for each animal developmental stage.
    2. Explain why nutrient requirements are different throughout an animal's life cycle.
    Plus 3. Analyze feedstuffs and the animal nutrient requirement and determine if the ration is adequate.
        a. Identify the differences between good and poor quality feedstuffs.
        b. Create a balanced ration for a given animal.
    Plus 4. Assess whether the nutritional requirements of a given animal are being met by recording performance and comparing feed variations.
        a. Use different types of feedstuffs (e.g., roughage, concentrates) to create a feed ration containing the appropriate amounts of required nutrients.
        b. Use different forms of feedstuffs (e.g., pellets, cracked, rolled, ground) to create a diet that meets the needs of a specific animal.
  Plus D. Analyze and summarize factors that influence an animal’s reproductive cycle to demonstrate an understanding of the species response.
    Plus 1. Analyze the reproductive cycle based upon differences between male and female reproductive systems.
        a. Identify the parts of male and female reproductive tracts on example animals.
        b. Analyze the reproductive cycle of a given animal.
        c. Evaluate animal readiness for breeding.
    Plus 2. Compare and contrast differences in reproductive cycles from species to species.
        a. Discuss the pros and cons of breeding through natural cover and artificial insemination.
        b. Discuss the implications of genetic variation.
        c. Describe techniques of artificial insemination.
        d. Identify reproduction management practices (e.g., male to female ratios, age and weight for breeding, fertility and soundness for breeding, heat synchronization, flushing).
    Plus 3. Evaluate the breeding soundness of an animal.
        a. Describe the procedure for determining an animal’s breeding readiness.
        b. Identify and prevent problems associated with reproduction.
        c. Select animals based on breeding soundness.
  Plus E. Evaluate environmental factors affecting animal performance and implement procedures for enhancing performance to demonstrate an effective application of principles to optimize performance.
    Plus 1. Recognize optimum performance for a given animal species.
        a. Identify good performance for a given animal species.
        b. Identify reasons why some animals perform better than others.
    Plus 2. Create a program to develop an animal to its highest potential performance.
        a. Identify factors that can be manipulated to control a given animal’s performance.
        b. Generate ways to increase an animal’s performance.
    Plus 3. Assess an animal to determine if it has reached its optimum performance level.
        a. Make appropriate changes in an animal’s environment in order to achieve optimum performance.
        b. Use appropriate tools in manipulating animal performance.
    Plus 4. Develop efficient procedures to produce consistently high-quality animals, well-suited for their intended purpose.
        a. Identify a given species’ desirable production numbers (e.g., birth weight, rate of gain, age of maturity, age of sexual maturity).
        b. Evaluate desired traits (e.g., production) of animals.
        c. Evaluate the role that economics plays in animal production.
        d. Design facilities appropriate for the production of a given species of animal.
        e. Make decisions on using new techniques and methods in the production facility so that both profit and animal safety are maximized.
Plus II. Plant Systems
  Plus A. Produce and manage plants in both domesticated and natural environments using application of principles of anatomy and physiology to enhance plant production.
    Plus 1. Analyze nutritional requirements and environmental conditions.
        a. Describe nutrient sources.
        b. Determine plant nutrient requirements for optimum growth.
        c. Identify function of plant nutrients in plants.
        d. Determine the environmental factors that influence and optimize plant growth.
        e. Apply nutrients to plants for economic growth.
        f. Describe nutrient application methods and appropriate practices.
    Plus 2. Evaluate nutritional requirements and environmental conditions.
        a. Describe nutrient sources.
        b. Determine plant nutrient requirements for optimum growth.
        c. Identify function of plant nutrients in plants.
        d. Determine the environmental factors that influence and optimize plant growth.
        e. Apply nutrients to plants for economic growth.
        f. Describe nutrient application methods and appropriate practices.
    Plus 3. Develop a fertilization plan using the results of an analysis and evaluation of nutritional requirements and environmental conditions.
        a. Describe nutrient sources.
        b. Determine plant nutrient requirements for optimum growth.
        c. Identify function of plant nutrients in plants.
        d. Determine the environmental factors that influence and optimize plant growth.
        e. Apply nutrients to plants for economic growth.
        f. Describe nutrient application methods and appropriate practices.
    Plus 4. Implement a fertilization plan using the results of an analysis and evaluation of nutritional requirements and environmental conditions.
        a. Describe nutrient sources.
        b. Determine plant nutrient requirements for optimum growth.
        c. Identify function of plant nutrients in plants.
        d. Determine the environmental factors that influence and optimize plant growth.
        e. Apply nutrients to plants for economic growth.
        f. Describe nutrient application methods and appropriate practices.
    Plus 5. Evaluate soil/media nutrients using tests of appropriate materials and/or by examining data.
        a. Collect and test soil/media and/or plant tissue.
        b. Interpret tests of soil/media and/or plant tissue.
        c. Identify soil slope, structure and type.
        d. Evaluate soil/media permeability and water-holding capacity.
        e. Determine the chemical properties of soil/media.
        f. Determine land use capability.
        g. Determine the biological functions of microorganisms of soil/media.
    6. Manage soil/media nutrients using tests of appropriate materials and/or by examining data.
    Plus 7. Explain basic methods for reproducing and propagating plants.
        a. Determine the role of genetics in plants.
        b. Describe the components and functions of plant reproductive parts.
        c. Identify and practice methods of asexual/sexual plant propagation.
        d. Describe the principles of plant micro-propagation.
        e. Apply principles and practices of biotechnology to plant propagation.
    8. Employ basic methods for reproducing and propagating plants.
    Plus 9. Develop a plan for integrated pest management.
        a. Identify plant pests (e.g., insects, diseases, weeds, rodents).
        b. Determine pest management safety practices.
        c. Determine pest management methods.
        d. Develop pest management plans based on pest life cycles.
        e. Implement pest control plan with appropriate treatments.
        f. Evaluate pest control plan.
        g. Prevent, identify and manage pest resistance.
    10. Implement a plan for integrated pest management.
  Plus B. Examine and explain basic plant anatomy and physiology using taxonomic and other classifications to build a working understanding of functional differences among plant structures.
    Plus 1. Examine unique plant properties to identify/describe functional differences in plant structures including roots, stems, flowers, leaves and fruit.
        a. Identify plant structures (e.g., seeds).
        b. Describe physiological functions of plants.
        c. Describe germination process and conditions.
    Plus 2. Classify plants based on physiology for taxonomic or other classifications.
        a. Classify plants as monocots or dicots.
        b. Classify plants as annuals, biennials or perennials.
        c. Classify plants according to growth habit.
        d. Classify plants by type.
        e. Classify plants by economic value.
  Plus C. Examine and apply fundamentals of production and harvesting when producing plants to demonstrate plant management and production techniques.
    Plus 1. Develop a production plan that applies the fundamentals of plant management.
        a. Identify and select seeds and plants.
        b. Manipulate and evaluate environmental conditions (e.g., irrigation, mulch, shading) to foster plant germination, growth and development.
        c. Evaluate and demonstrate planting practices (e.g., population rate, germination/seed vigor, inoculation, seed and plant treatments).
        d. Evaluate and demonstrate transplanting practices.
        e. Prepare soil/media for planting.
        f. Control plant growth (e.g., pruning, pinching, disbudding, topping, detasseling, staking, cabling, shearing, shaping).
        g. Prepare plants and plant products for distribution.
    Plus 2. Harvest crops using methods that apply fundamentals of plant management.
        a. Determine crop maturity.
        b. Identify harvesting practices and equipment.
        c. Demonstrate common harvesting techniques.
        d. Calculate yield and loss.
        e. Identify options for crop storage.
        f. Maintain quality of plant products in storage.
        g. Prepare plants and plant products for distribution.
    3. Handle crops using methods that apply fundamentals of plant management.
    4. Store crops using methods that apply fundamentals of plant management.
  Plus D. Exercise elements of design common to professionals in plant systems to enhance an environment for a variety of purposes (e.g., floral, forest, landscape, farm).
    Plus 1. Create a design using plants that demonstrates an application of basic design elements and principles.
        a. Conduct a site evaluation for physical condition and design implications.
        b. Apply elements of design (e.g., line, form, texture, color).
        c. Incorporate principles of design (e.g., space, scale, proportion, order).
        d. Use landscape design drawing tools including Computer Aided Design (CAD) and industry-specific software.
        e. Select hard goods, supplies and tools used in design.
        f. Select plant(s) for design.

Plus Cluster

I. ACADEMIC FOUNDATIONS: Achieve additional academic knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of career and postsecondary education opportunities within a career cluster.
Plus II. COMMUNICATIONS: Use oral and written communication skills in creating, expressing and interpreting information and ideas including technical terminology and information.
  Plus A. Use oral and written communication skills in creating, expressing and interpreting information and ideas including technical terminology to communicate technical information within AFNR.
    Plus 1. Write clearly to communicate written ideas, results and questions to all types of people.
        a. Write with effective language to produce written communications for journals, newsletters, or other informative articles.
        b. Explain aspects of the industry to people not involved in it, and discuss its components.
    Plus 2. Model the use of strategies and techniques for enhancing the clarity and effectiveness of oral communication in order to engage in dialogue with members of an example career field.
        a. Monitor different kinds of behavior in order to improve communication.
        b. Prepare presentations to explain to both large groups and individuals issues of concern to the industry.
        c. Discuss aspects of the industry competently to an audience of both professionals and people not involved in the industry.
  Plus B. Employ the use of technical information effectively to maintain and communicate records and reporting procedures commonly used in the AFNR cluster.
    Plus 1. Document work and processes using technical communication methods and protocols.
        a. Record technical information.
        b. Compose technical reports.
        c. Communicate documentation to others.
Plus III. PROBLEM-SOLVING AND CRITICAL THINKING: Solve problems using critical thinking skills (analyze, synthesize, and evaluate) independently and in teams. Solve problems using creativity and innovation.
  Plus A. Access and utilize suitable resources to identify and study public policies, issues and regulations impacting AFNR management.
    Plus 1. Review regulations and major laws to evaluate their impact on AFNR management.
        a. Describe the major impacts of AFNR legislation.
        b. Describe the major regulations impacting the management of an individual resource.
        c. Identify situations that violate regulations.
    Plus 2. Read appropriate written material to stay abreast of current issues impacting AFNR management.
        a. Identify significant issues that impact work assignment.
    Plus 3. Gather public input for AFNR management decision-making.
        a. Conduct a local survey of public perceptions and desires concerning AFNR issues.
    Plus 4. Use critical thinking skills to identify, organize alternatives, and evaluate public policy issues related to AFNR.
        a. Identify alternatives to an issue’s potential solution.
        b. Evaluate alternatives for strengths and weaknesses.
        c. Recommend a solution based on research and analysis.
Plus IV. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS: Use information technology tools specific to the career cluster to access, manage, integrate, and create information.
  Plus A. Access, manage, integrate and create information using information technology tools specific to AFNR in order to facilitate people, machines, and logistics.
    Plus 1. Use Geographic Information System/Global Positioning System (GIS/GPS) applications.
        a. Create maps.
        b. Locate people or things.
        c. Identify best route for travel.
Plus V. SYSTEMS: Understand roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment. Identify how key organizational systems affect organizational performance and the quality of products and services. Understand global context of industries and careers.
  Plus A. Examine and summarize roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, interorganizational systems, and the larger environment to understand the nature and scope of AFNR organizations and the AFNR industry.
    Plus 1. Examine company performance and goals within AFNR organizations and the AFNR industry.
        a. Examine the role and major functions of AFNR organizations to better utilize AFNR guidelines.
        b. Explain the major guidelines used by AFNR organizations to manage and improve performance.
        c. Examine economic, social and technological changes to spotlight their impact on AFNR organizations and the industry.
        d. Explain technological changes to reveal their impact on information technology and transportation.
  Plus B. Identify how key organizational systems affect organizational performance and the quality of products and services to demonstrate an understanding of how AFNR systems are managed and improved.
    Plus 1. Manage and improve organizational systems to better serve customers.
        a. Evaluate customer needs to manage relationships with both internal and external customers.
        b. Develop and manage plans and budgets to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
        c. Develop plans to improve organizational performance including customer satisfaction and service/operations performance.
        d. Develop plans to maintain compliance with organizational policies and government laws and regulations.
    Plus 2. Summarize the components and maintenance requirements of each agricultural, natural resource, and environmental system.
        a. Develop management plans to improve the agricultural and natural resource systems.
        b. Determine goals and objectives for each system to manage organizational activities more effectively.
        c. Prepare and operate systems and technical tools to access, manage, integrate, evaluate and create information.
    Plus 3. Research geographical data to recognize the types of systems used in various geographical areas.
        a. Evaluate the effects of implementing practices to advance a system.
        b. Explore multi-area trends to explain how systems differ across geographical areas.
Plus VI. SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL: Understand the importance of health, safety, and environmental management systems in organizations and their importance to organizational performance and regulatory compliance. Follow organizational policies and procedures and contribute to continuous improvement in performance and compliance.
  Plus A. Maintain safe and healthful working conditions and environment that adhere to employee rights and responsibilities and employer obligations in order to promote well-being in the AFNR workplace.
    Plus 1. Assess workplace conditions with regard to safety and health.
        a. Identify the types of risk of injury/illness at work.
        b. Identify those who are susceptible to risk of injury/illness at work.
        c. Describe ways to positively impact occupational safety and health.
        d. Describe ways to positively impact occupational safety and health.
    Plus 2. Demonstrate application of rules and laws designed to promote safety and health.
        a. Identify key rights of employees related to occupational safety and health.
        b. Identify the responsibilities of employers related to occupational safety and health.
        c. Explain the role of government agencies in providing a safe workplace.
    Plus 3. Apply safety/health precautions to participation in natural resource projects.
        a. Wear personal protective equipment.
        b. Demonstrate how to avoid placing oneself in hazardous work situations.
    Plus 4. Demonstrate recognized first aid knowledge and procedures to show how they are used by natural resource industries.
        a. Complete recognized industry-level first aid training program.
    Plus 5. Identify health/safety policies and procedures for natural resource occupations.
        a. Participate in safety meetings.
        b. Describe the health and safety policies and procedures relevant to the worksite and assignment.
  Plus B. Assess and control types and sources of workplace hazards common to the AFNR industry in order to demonstrate a working understanding of key health and safety concerns.
    Plus 1. Demonstrate methods to correct common hazards.
        a. Identify and describe common hazards in the workplace.
        b. Identify and describe major sources of information about hazards in the workplace (e.g., MSDS, work procedures, exposure control plans, training materials, labels, and signage).
        c. Identify sources of combustible/flammable materials, fire and emergencies to establish a fire safe environment.
        d. Interpret safety signs and symbols.
    Plus 2. Demonstrate application of personal and group health and safety practices.
        a. Identify procedures necessary for maintaining a safe work area.
        b. Identify methods to correct common hazards.
        c. Identify methods for disposing of hazardous materials.
        d. Demonstrate principals of safe physical movement to avoid slips, trips, and spills.
        e. Inspect and use protective equipment (PPE).
  Plus C. Examine and summarize importance of health, safety, and environmental management systems in AFNR organizations to express their importance to organizational performance and regulatory compliance.
    Plus 1. Examine required regulations to maintain/improve safety, health and environmental management systems.
        a. Study appropriate resources to identify the major regulatory areas (e.g., personal protective equipment) and government laws and regulations.
        b. Examine the major system components to realize benefits of health, safety and environmental management systems in AFNR organizations.
        c. Measure or estimate benefits to explain how government agencies promote compliance and improved health, safety and environmental performance to AFNR organizations.
        d. Examine logistics, distribution and transportation organizations to explain how AFNR organizations promote improved health, safety and environmental performance.
    Plus 2. Develop a plan to maintain and improve health, safety and environmental compliance and performance.
        a. Make a personal commitment to safety, health and environmental policies and procedures.
        b. Develop plans to improve health, safety and environmental performance.
        c. Educate and orient other workers.
    Plus 3. State the importance of safety, health and environmental responsibilities in the workplace to provide operating guidelines.
        a. Establish a set of safety, health and environmental principles to ensure a high level of performance.
        b. Develop a pollution/waste prevention plan to contribute to the total productivity improvement.
    Plus 4. Examine health risks associated with a particular skill to better form personnel safety guidelines.
        a. Define what level of possible contamination or injury is considered a risk in order to set safety priorities.
        b. Assess mental and physical stresses to determine all aspects necessary to perform well and what health risks are associated with both the mental and physical aspects.
    Plus 5. Develop response plans to handle emergencies.
        a. Identify various emergency response plan requirements for a facility.
        b. Develop an emergency response plan for natural disasters.
    Plus 6. Identify hazards and acquire first aid skills to promote environmental safety.
        a. Identify general workplace safety hazards.
        b. Apply general workplace safety precautions/procedures.
        c. Acquire and maintain first aid certification.
        d. Acquire and maintain cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) certification.
        e. Respond to medical emergencies.
        f. Explain purpose of pollution control systems.
        g. Describe procedures to comply with environmental regulations.
        h. Maintain environmental health and safety facilities.
        i. Handle chemicals and safety equipment appropriately.
        j. Explain ergonomic procedures.
        k. Assess workplace safety.
        l. Assess a safety-training plan.
        m. Observe all regulatory and safety standards.
VII. LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK: Use leadership and teamwork skills in collaborating with others to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
Plus VIII. ETHICS AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES: Know and understand the importance of professional ethics and legal responsibilities.
  Plus A. Demonstrate workplace ethics specific to AFNR occupations in order to reflect effective stewardship of resources.
    Plus 1. Demonstrate evidence of interest and concern for natural resource stewardship and ethics.
        a. Explain how personal choices are related to natural resource sustainability.
    Plus 2. Exercise personal habits and actions to demonstrate workplace ethics.
        a. Explain how personal workplace actions can affect the resource.
Plus IX. EMPLOYABILITY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT: Know and understand the importance of employability skills. Explore, plan, and effectively manage careers. Know and understand the importance of entrepreneurship skills.
  Plus A. Explain written organizational policies, rules and procedures common the AFNR workplaces to ensure employees perform job functions effectively.
    Plus 1. Locate appropriate information on organizational policies in handbooks and manuals.
        a. Identify the contents of various organizational publications.
        b. Select the appropriate document(s) as reference for the situation.
    Plus 2. Discuss how specific organizational policies and rules influence a specific work situation.
        a. Locate and identify specific organizational policy, rule or procedure to assist with a given situation.
        b. Explain specific organizational policy, rule or procedure to improve a given situation.
  Plus B. Select, research and examine critical aspects of career opportunities in one or more AFNR career pathways in order to gain an understanding of the breadth of occupations within this cluster.
    Plus 1. Locate and identify career opportunities that appeal to personal career goals.
        a. Locate and interpret career information for at lest one career cluster.
        b. Identify job requirements for career pathways.
        c. Identify educational and credentialing requirements for career cluster and pathways.
    Plus 2. Match personal interest and aptitudes to selected careers.
        a. Identify personal interests and aptitudes.
        b. Identify job requirements and characteristics of selected careers.
        c. Compare personal interests and aptitudes with job requirements and characteristics of career selected.
        d. Modify career goals based on results of personal interests and aptitudes with career requirements and characteristics.
Plus X. TECHNICAL SKILLS: Use the technical knowledge and skills required to pursue the targeted careers for all pathways in the career cluster, including knowledge of design, operation, and maintenance of technological systems critical to the career cluster.
  Plus A. Use technological systems to accomplish objectives in transportation.
    Plus 1. Use technological systems to accomplish objectives in transportation.
        a. Evaluate transportation needs to explain the role and function of critical transportation-related technological systems.
        b. Measure and manage the reliability and performance of technological systems to establish use and maintenance guidelines.
        c. Manage major health, safety and environmental risks to minimize their potential impact on technological systems.
    Plus 2. Select and improve utilization of technological systems to improve production and products.
        a. Develop acceptable criteria to evaluate and select technological systems.
        b. Participate in efforts to improve the utilization and performance of technological systems.
    Plus 3. Identify technical skills needed to run an industry efficiently.
        a. Identify types of skills needed to succeed in a desired industry.
        b. Explore methods available to develop technical skills.
        c. Correctly operate the tools associated with a specific skill.
    Plus 4. Establish criteria to identify areas that have special needs for technical skills.
        a. Classify workplace occupations to determine what types of skills are considered technical skills.
        b. Evaluate processes and products to determine what areas most often use technical skills.
  Plus B. Use tools, equipment, machinery and technology to work in areas related to AFNR.
    Plus 1. Select the appropriate tool to perform a given task.
        a. Select tools and equipment.
        b. Identify standard tools, equipment, and safety procedures.
        c. Follow operating instructions.
        d. Set up/Adjust tools and equipment.
        e. Maintain tools.
        f. Store tools.
    Plus 2. Maintain the working order of natural resources and tools for efficient work use.
        a. Demonstrate how to check tool condition before use.
        b. Describe the characteristics of a tool in need of maintenance.
        c. Demonstrate how to replace tool parts and components as needed.
    Plus 3. Wear protective equipment and handle natural resource tools and equipment with skill to demonstrate safe use of tools and equipment.
        a. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).
        b. Demonstrate proper spacing distance from others when using tools.
        c. Check tools for safety before using.
        d. Store tools with appropriate safety precautions.
        e. Demonstrate the proper usage of a tool or piece of equipment.
        f. Describe regulations for the use of tools and equipment.
    Plus 4. Use tools and technology devices to assist in expanding human capacity for natural resource tasks.
        a. Use appropriate tools to assist in lifting and moving.
        b. Demonstrate use of knots, ropes, lines and attachments.
        c. Use geo-spatial and mapping techniques (GIS/GPS).
  Plus C. Compare and contrast issues affecting the AFNR industry including biotechnology, employment, safety, environmental and animal welfare to demonstrate an understanding of the trends and issues important to careers in this industry.
    Plus 1. Select solutions for different environmental issues.
        a. Identify issues affecting the industry.
        b. Research history and policies related to the issue.
        c. Identify conflicting points of view.
        d. Determine effects of the issue on the industry.
        e. Determine potential resolutions to the issue.
    2. Analyze solutions for different environmental issues.
    3. Present solutions for different environmental issues.
    4. Learn economic principles in order to apply them to natural resource systems (i.e., supply, demand and profit).
  Plus D. Envision emerging technology and globalization and project its influence on widespread markets to demonstrate an understanding of technologies and trends that will impact the AFNR industry.
    Plus 1. Examine new technologies to project their impact in the global market of technology.
        a. Convert drawings from US Standard to metric.
        b. Identify ways that global regulations impact system designs.
        c. Identify and discuss use of new technologies (such as lasers and robotics) and their impact on agricultural systems.
        d. Discuss the importance of new communication systems and how they impact ag systems.
    Plus 2. Discuss the relationship between the advancement of technology and the need for continuing education/ career development.
        a. Research and discuss emerging technologies and the skills they require.
        b. Discuss history of systems over the last century and discuss how emerging technology and career training will be essential to meet market demands.

Plus Career Ready Practices

Plus I. Career Ready Practices
  Plus A. Career Ready Skills
    1. Act as a responsible and contributing citizen and employee.
    2. Apply appropriate academic and technical skills.
    3. Attend to personal health and financial well-being.
    4. Communicate clearly, effectively and with reason.
    5. Consider the environmental, social and economic impacts of decisions.
    6. Demonstrate creativity and innovation.
    7. Employ valid and reliable research strategies.
    8. Model integrity, ethical leadership and effective management.
    9. Plan education and career path aligned to personal goals.
    10. Use technology to enhance productivity.
    11. Utilize critical thinking to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
    12. Work productively in teams while using cultural/global competence.