51.1000 - Health/Diagnostic Services

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Cluster Foundation revisions are forthcoming. Cluster Foundation skills have been temporarily removed to avoid duplication of the MI technical skills which are the National Health Care Skill Standards (Accountability Criteria for National Health Care Cluster Foundation Standards).

Plus Technical Standards

Plus I. Academic Foundation
  Plus A. Human Structure and Function
    1. Classify the basic structural and functional organization of the human body including chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, and system
    2. Recognize body planes, directional terms, quadrants, and cavities
    3. Analyze the interdependence of the basic structures and functions of the human body as they relate to wellness, disease, disorders, therapies, and care/rehabilitation
    4. Compare the structure and function of the human body across the lifespan
  Plus B. Diseases and Disorders
    1. Compare diseases/disorders including respective classification(s), prevention, causes, pathogenesis, diagnoses, therapies, and care/rehabilitation
    2. Investigate biomedical therapies as they relate to the prevention, pathology, and treatment of disease
    3. Discuss complementary/alternative health practices as they relate to the prevention and treatment of disease
  Plus C. Medical Mathematics
    1. Apply mathematical computations related to healthcare procedures
    2. Apply mathematical principles to conversion equations used in the healthcare delivery system
    3. Apply mathematical principles involving temperature, weights, and measures used in the healthcare delivery system
    4. Apply mathematical principles to problems involving dosage calculations and other applied mathematical concepts
    5. Analyze diagrams, charts, graphs, and tables to interpret healthcare results
Plus II. Communications
  Plus A. Concepts of Effective Communication
    1. Identify styles and types of verbal and nonverbal communication
    2. Classify communication styles based on various healthcare scenarios
    3. Recognize barriers to communication
    4. Recognize resources to assist in overcoming communication barriers
    5. Report relevant information in order of occurrence
    6. Analyze communications for appropriate response and feedback
    7. Interpret verbal and non-verbal communication
    8. Report subjective and objective information
    9. Use medical terminology to communicate information including data and observations
  Plus B. Oral Communications Skills
    1. Recognize the elements of oral communication using a sender-receiver process
    2. Apply speaking and active listening skills using reflection, restatement, and clarification techniques
  Plus C. Written Communication Skills
    1. Recognize the elements of written communication
    2. Organize technical information and summaries
Plus III. Systems
  Plus A. Healthcare Delivery Systems
    1. Understand systems theory as it relates to a healthcare delivery system model
    2. Explain the cause and effect of factors influencing various healthcare delivery systems
    3. Summarize the interdependence of healthcare professions within a given healthcare delivery system
    4. Interpret the various roles of healthcare providers and clients within the healthcare system
    5. Explain the impact of 21st century emerging issues such as technology, epidemiology, bioethics, and socioeconomics on healthcare systems
Plus IV. Employability Skills
  Plus A. Personal Traits of the Healthcare Professional
    1. Classify the personal traits or attitudes desirable in a member of the healthcare team
    2. Summarize basic professional standards of the healthcare workers as they apply to hygiene, dress, language, confidentiality and behavior (i.e. courtesy and self-introductions)
  Plus B. Key Employability Skills
    1. Apply key employability skills in a healthcare setting
    2. Exemplify professional characteristics
    3. Engage in continuous self-assessment and career goal modification for personal and professional growth
  Plus C. Career Decision-making
    1. Compare potential health science career pathways using a variety of health careers within the diagnostic services, therapeutic services, health informatics services, support services, or biotechnology research and development
    2. Recognize levels of education, credentialing requirements, employment opportunities, workplace environments, and career growth potential for a service area
  Plus D. Employability Preparation
    1. Develop components of a professional portfolio
    2. Execute work assignments and formulate solutions to problems using critical thinking skills
    3. Demonstrate respectful and empathetic interactions with diverse age, cultural, economic, ethnic, and religious groups in various settings
Plus V. Legal Responsibilities
  Plus A. Legal Implications
    1. Understand legal responsibilities and limitations
    2. Analyze implications of actions
    3. Implement problem solving techniques when confronted with legal issues
    4. Explain practices that could result in malpractice, liability, and/or negligence
    5. Apply procedures for accurate documentation and record keeping
    6. Implement established procedures based on risk management criteria
    7. Understand an incident report
    8. Summarize non-discriminatory laws
    9. Interpret healthcare facility policies and procedures
  Plus B. Legal Practices
    1. Implement mandated standards for Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
    2. Recognize common threats to confidentiality
    3. Summarize clients’ rights according to the Patients’ Bill of Rights
    4. Understand informed consent
    5. Compare licensure, certification, registration, and legislated scope of practice of a healthcare professional
    6. Explain mandated standards for harassment, labor, and employment laws
Plus VI. Ethics
  Plus A. Legal and Ethical Boundaries
    1. Differentiate between morality and ethics
    2. Differentiate between ethical and legal issues impacting healthcare including confidentiality
    3. Compare personal, professional, and organizational ethics
    4. Recognize ethical issues and their implications related to healthcare
  Plus B. Ethical Practice
    1. Apply ethical behaviors including honesty and integrity in a healthcare setting
    2. Apply procedures for reporting activities and behaviors that affect the health, safety and welfare of others
  Plus C. Cultural, Social, and Ethnic Diversity
    1. Understand religious and cultural values as they impact healthcare services
    2. Demonstrate respect for individual diversity
Plus VII. Safety Practices
  Plus A. Infection Control
    1. Apply infection control procedures including standard precautions
    2. Compare the different methods of controlling the growth of microorganisms
  Plus B. Personal Safety
    1. Apply personal safety procedures based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Center for Disease Control (CDC) regulations
    2. Apply proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE)
    3. Apply principles of body mechanics and ergonomics
  Plus C. Environmental Safety
    1. Evaluate the environment to recognize safe and unsafe working conditions
    2. Demonstrate methods of fire prevention in the healthcare setting
    3. Understand proper safety techniques to prevent accidents and to maintain a safe work environment
  Plus D. Common Safety Hazards
    1. Recognize Materials Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
    2. Comply with safety signs, symbols, and labels
    3. Understand implications of hazardous materials
    4. Apply safety principles within given environments
  Plus E. Emergency Procedures and Protocols
    1. Explain an evacuation plan for a healthcare setting
    2. Execute an emergency plan in response to a natural disaster or other emergency
Plus VIII. Teamwork
  Plus A. Healthcare Teams
    1. Understand interdisciplinary roles of team members
    2. Recognize characteristics of effective teams
    3. Classify responsibilities of various team members
  Plus B. Team Member Participation
    1. Recognize methods for building positive team relationships
    2. Respect and value the expertise and contributions of all team members
    3. Analyze the attributes and attitudes of an effective leader
    4. Recognize underlying factors and situations that may lead to conflict
    5. Apply effective techniques for handling team conflict
Plus IX. Health Maintenance Practices
  Plus A. Healthy Behaviors
    1. Apply behaviors that promote health and wellness
    2. Describe strategies for the prevention of diseases including health screenings and examinations
    3. Apply practices that promote the prevention of disease and injury
    4. Apply appropriate safety practices as related to high-risk behaviors
    5. Discuss complementary/alternative health practices as they relate to wellness and disease prevention
Plus X. Technical Skills
  Plus A. Technical Skills
    1. Apply procedures for measuring and recording vital signs including the normal ranges
    2. Apply skills to obtain training or certification in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)/Automated External Defibrillator (AED)/Foreign Body Airway Obstruction (FBAO)/First Aid
Plus XI. Information Technology Applications
  Plus A. Health Information Management
    1. Identify records and files common to the healthcare setting
    2. Execute data management using electronic healthcare records
    3. Interpret information from electronic medical documents
    4. Understand the content and diverse uses of health information
  Plus B. Information Technology
    1. Implement communications using technology (i.e. Fax, E-mail, and Internet) to access and distribute data and other information
    2. Execute the use of software, hardware, and the Internet
    3. Recognize computer applications currently being used in today's healthcare setting

Plus Pathway Standards

  Plus A. Diagnostic services professionals will communicate information within a healthcare environment. They will convey this information to the appropriate departments and other professionals in a timely manner.
    Plus 1. Use Oral Communication Skills.
        a. Adjust communication to other's ability to understand.
        b. Apply active listening skills using reflection, restatement, and clarification.
        c. Demonstrate courtesy to others, including self introduction.
        d. Interpret verbal and nonverbal behaviors to augment communication within scope of practice.
        e. Demonstrate interviewing skills.
    Plus 2. Apply Written Communication Skills.
        a. Choose correct syntax and grammar appropriate to patient.
        b. Report relevant information in a timely manner.
        c. Distinguish between subjective and objective information when reporting.
        d. Analyze communication for appropriate response and provide feedback.
        e. Organize, write and compile technical information and summaries.
        f. Use medical terminology in order to interpret, transcribe and communicate information, data and observations.
  Plus A. Diagnostic services professionals will be proficient in the processes to assess and report health status of the patient.
    Plus 1. Assess patient’s health status.
        a. Analyze available information to assess patient viability.
        b. Complete procedures for attaining information necessary that is not readily available.
        c. Evaluate and appraise appropriateness of information.
        d. Evaluate patient and other client response to treatment and/or procedure.
        e. Document results accurately and appropriately.
  Plus A. Diagnostic services professionals will apply the principles of body mechanics for positioning, transferring, and transporting of patients. These activities will be performed efficiently without injury to the patient or self.
    Plus 1. Apply techniques for patient safety.
        a. Assess the patient status.
        b. Evaluate potential hazards to patient.
        c. Choose and apply appropriate transport methods.
        d. Choose and apply appropriate transfer methods.
        e. Modify positioning to accommodate patient status.
        f. Choose and practice effective and appropriate infection control procedures.
    Plus 2. Apply Techniques for Personal Safety.
        a. Utilize principles of standard precautions.
        b. Apply principles of body mechanics and ergonomics.
        c. Prevent injury by using proper safety equipment and techniques.
        d. Choose engineering controls as appropriate.
    Plus 3. Use Equipment Safely.
        a. Evaluate equipment for possible hazards.
        b. Choose appropriate equipment for transportation.
        c. Choose appropriate equipment for transfer.
        d. Adjust equipment and modify techniques to accommodate patient status.
        e. Practice preventive measured for disease transmission during equipment use.
  Plus A. Diagnostic services professionals will accurately and effectively explain procedures and goals to the patient. A variety of strategies will be used to respond to questions and concerns of the patient.
    Plus 1. Explain Procedures and Goals.
        a. Assess ability of patient to comprehend.
        b. Adjust and modify based on assessment.
        c. Verify patient understanding.
    Plus 2. Apply Interaction Strategies.
        a. Apply active listening skills using reflection, restatement, and clarification techniques.
        b. Address patient concerns in a positive manner.
  Plus A. Diagnostic services professionals will appropriately respond to requests for procedures, interpret the requests, and plan implementation of services as well as preparation for specific procedures.
    Plus 1. Process Procedural Requests.
        a. Comprehend concept of scope of practice.
        b. Evaluate procedure requested for appropriateness.
        c. Coordinate interdisciplinary services if necessary.
    Plus 2. Implement Services.
        a. Complete plan for implementation of services requested .
        b. Initiate services based on plan.
    Plus 3. Protocol Preparation.
        a. Choose appropriate protocol based on patient assessment and request.
        b. Choose protocol based on resources.
    Plus 4. Prepare Patient.
        a. Verify patient identification.
        b. Ensure patient readiness and assess for contraindication.
        c. Obtain patient informed consent if applicable.
  Plus A. Diagnostic services professionals interpret any given procedure, are knowledgeable of the purpose for each procedure and perform the specific procedure to create diagnostic results.
    Plus 1. Procedure Performance.
        a. Cognizant of their scope of practice.
        b. Perform procedure competently within their scope of practice.
        c. Perform procedure according to protocol.
        d. Modify procedure as required within constraints of patient and personal safety.
  Plus A. Diagnostic services professionals will apply the principles of quality assurance/performance improvement as applied to the specific disciplines as well as reporting in a timely manner, utilizing appropriate communication channels
    Plus 1. Procedural Evaluation.
        a. Assess the quality of results.
        b. Analyze, construct and apply appropriate corrective measured/actions.
    Plus 2. Personal Evaluation.
        a. Evaluate quality of results.
        b. Assess problem-solving skills.
        c. Evaluate timeliness and productivity.
    Plus 3. Quality Assurance/Performance Improvement.
        a. Choose appropriate evaluation methods.
        b. Evaluate and apply appropriate tools.
    Plus 4. Reporting Methods.
        a. Use written, oral and electronic communication skills to produce reports.
        b. Deliver reports to all appropriate parties.
        c. Develop and utilize protocols that verify the parties involved receive all necessary information.

Plus Career & Employability Standards

  Plus A. Reading, English & Language Arts
    1. Read a technical manual and write a clear & logical report explaining the information using standard business English.
    2. Give a verbal report on reading from a technical manual.
    Plus 3. Read a case study and identify the details about the situation, define technical terms, jargon, or words with multiple meanings based on context, and summarize the conclusion.
        a. Relate the results of study to a similar situation in a verbal or writen report.
    4. Take a verbal and written position on a topic and use correct grammar to defend it.
  Plus B. Mathematics
    Plus 1. Approach practical and workplace problems using a variety of mathematical techniques.
        a. Problems include making conversions between the metric system and non-English systems of measurement, mixed units (such as hours and minutes), and can require serveral steps to finding a solution.
    2. Research how math is used in the workplace and make a presentation detailing the process.
  Plus C. Listening & Presentation Skills
    1. Use correct grammar to communicate verbally.
    2. Listen to a presentation and record important information. Report back identifying central themes and use key points to explain how the message applies to a similar situation.
  Plus D. Technology
    1. Apply technology to workplace or career situation. Include research and a written paper.
  Plus A. Career Planning
    1. Organize career information and labor market trends from a variety of sources.
    2. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of working for self, others, being an employee of a large or small organization.
    3. Analyze information & preferences from work-based opportunity.
    4. Interpret information from a variety of career assessments to identify career interests and abilities.
    5. Apply a decision-making model and use career assessment information to choose a career pathway.
    6. Annually review EDP and include plan for continuing education.
  Plus A. Developing and Presenting information
    1. Gather, interpret, analyze, and refine data.
    2. Analyze and synthesize information and data from multiple sources.
    3. Plan and transform ideas and requirements into a concept, service, or product.
    4. Assess the quality of the concept, service, or product using a predetermined standard.
    5. Develop a plan to market a new product, service, or concept which includes identifying of customers, a graphic presentation, product requirements, and costs.
    6. Practice and demonstrate presentation skills using a variety of media and interpretive data.
  Plus A. Problem Solving
    1. Apply a problem solving model to a workplace situation that involves setting goals, implementing and evaluating results.
    2. Identify typical problems that occur in a workplace and use a problem solving model to devise solutions, compare alternatives to past solutions, and predict their success.
  Plus A. Responsibility
    1. Demonstrate regular attendance, promptness, and staying with a task until satisfactory completion.
    2. Complete assignments with minimum supervision and meet deadlines.
    3. Use mistakes as learning opportunities; demonstrate persistence and adaptability to change.
    4. Initiate projects and extra activities for personal satisfaction.
  Plus B. Self-Management
    1. Monitor & evaluate accurately one's progress towards a goal or completion of a project.
    2. Demonstrate health and safety practices and drug-free behavior in school & workplace setting.
    3. Obtain a driver license and demonstrate driving skills and safety and/or use public transportation.
    4. Prioritize and accomplish tasks independently.
    5. Use appropriate personal expression and relate to school and work settings.
  Plus C. Ethical Behavior
    1. Demonstrate ethical behavior in school, work, and community situations.
    2. Describe employer-employee rights and responsibilities.
    3. Demonstrate appropriate behaviors necessary to maintaining employment.
    4. Demonstrate positive personal qualities as a group leader.
  Plus D. Respect for Self and Others
    1. View accomplishments or failures of self and others accurately and in a positive manner.
    2. Understand how to make improvements and ask for help from adults as needed.
    3. Offer encouragement and ideas to others as they work toward attaining their goals.
    4. Provide for customer needs and expectations in a helpful and courteous manner.
    5. Respect other points of view.
    6. Demonstrate customer service skills in an appropriate setting by listening, suggesting solutions, and communicating the issues at hand.
  Plus A. Time
    1. Determine goals and develop an action plan to accomplish them within a given time frame.
    2. Read time charts and work schedules and perform tasks within time constraints of school or the workplace.
    3. Prioritize tasks and revise schedules as needed.
  Plus B. Money
    1. Estimate costs and prepare a detailed budget for a school-based or work-based project.
    2. Report the costs of various components of a budget and adjust budget items as needed.
    3. Understand compensation practices and financial management and explain how financial resources can be used effectively and efficiently.
  Plus C. Materials
    1. Utilize materials, tools, and processes to complete a task related to a career selection.
    2. Compile a list of materials and supplies needed in advance of an assignment.
    3. Acquire resources in a timely fashion and take responsibility for their care.
    4. Identify and prepare tools, equipment, space, and facilities appropriate for a task.
    5. Work within constraints of safety precautions and available resources.
  Plus D. Human Resources
    1. Learn cooperation and leadership in a team at school or in a workplace setting.
    2. Organize and communicate with members of a team using varied methods of communications.
    3. Recognize the individual roles of team members, delegate tasks, and give feedback on performance.
    4. Acknowledge and utilize the skills, abilities, and input of all member of a team.
  Plus A. Group Participation
    1. Exhibit teamwork skills including trust and loyalty to group, and demonstrate connectedness to group members, values, and culture.
    2. Take personal responsibility for influencing and accomplishing group goals.
    3. Demonstrate understanding of how effective teams operate within organization and diverse settings.
    4. Solve a career/work-related problem as a member of a team.
  Plus B. Conflict Resolution
    1. Demonstrate leadership by listening to others and asking appropriate questions to clarify a problem or issue.
    2. Summarize a problem clearly and in appropriate detail.
    3. Suggest constructive alternatives with confidence that will help resolve a conflict.
    4. Compromise and/or build consensus within a group and summarize the decision of the group while maintaining respect for minority viewpoints.
    5. Participate in the implementation of a group's decision and evaluate the results.
    6. Show sensitivity to others' thoughts and opinions and relate them to the resolution process.
  Plus C. Diversity
    1. Understand and respect the concerns of members of cultural, gender, age, and ability groups.
    2. Be respectful of a variety of differences of people in a work/school setting.
    3. Demonstrate ability to work with others with different backgrounds, cultures, and abilities.
  Plus D. Leadership
    1. Demonstrate leadership ability in a work or school setting.
    2. Recognize and take advantage of leadership opportunities that give direction to other team members, or that encourage other members to complete tasks.
  Plus A. Negotiation Skills
    1. Using correct terminology, clarify the problem or issue to be negotiated.
    2. Identify, organize, and define ideas from various sources to logically support a position and use these ideas in debate.
    3. Demonstrate objectivity in assessing other viewpoints by considering all sides of an issue, using past experience, data and logical analysis, and showing respectful behavior towards others.
    4. Responsibly challenge existing policies and procedures and identify new solutions or policy changes.
  Plus A. Understanding Systems and Using Technology
    1. Identify trends and how they affect changes within a system.
    2. Demonstrate an understanding of business systems.
    3. Compare management systems and consider how employees function and adapt to change within them.
    4. Describe the technical systems related to a career interest area.
    5. Diagnose and make necessary corrections or improvements to a technical system in a business, industry, or simulated work place setting.
    6. Describe how changes in technology have impacted business and industry, identify current trends, and recommend how a technical system might be improved.
    7. Demonstrate the use of equipment and machines to solve practical or work-based problems.
    8. Demonstrate effective use of a variety of on-line technological resources.
    9. Determine what kind of application is needed for a given task and use effectively.
    10. Use technologies as tools for communication of technical or work-related information.
    11. Use technology effectively in solving problems in an area of career interest.
    12. Understand and demonstrate basic computer hardware and software installation and maintaining efficient machines.
    13. Demonstrate ability to adapt to different software applications, comparing and contrasting specfic functions and applying them to different projects.
  Plus A. Employability Skills
    1. Continue the EDP process which includes an annual review with student and counselor and notification of parents.
    2. Participate in work-based opportunities such as job-shadowing, mentorships, work experiences, etc.
    3. Show ability to market oneself by preparing for and completing an interview process.
    4. Accurately complete records/documents to support job applications (inquiry letters, resume, references, evaluations, follow-up letters).
    5. Use a portfolio, resume, record of attendance, certificates, and/or transcript as self-marketing tools to demonstrate interest and competence.
    6. Apply career and labor market information to seek and obtain employment and/or pursue educational goals.
    7. Research availability of educational programs, financial requirements, and resource and complete an application process as appropriate for career goals.
    8. Understand the need for lifelong learning in a rapidly changing job market.
    1. Discuss emerging technology resources (e.g., podcasting, webcasting, compressed video delivery, online file sharing, graphing calculators, global positioning software)
    2. Identify the capabilities and limitations of emerging communication resources.
    3. Understand the importance of both the predictable and unpredictable impacts of technology.
    4. Identify changes in hardware and software systems over time and discuss how these changes might affect the individual personally in his/her role as a lifelong learner.
    5. Understand the purpose, scope, and use of assistive technology.
    6. Understand that access to online learning increases educational and workplace opportunities.
    7. Be provided with the opportunity to learn in a virtual environment as a strategy to build 21st century learning skills.
    8. Understand the relationship between electronic resources, infrastructure, and connectivity.
    9. Routinely apply touch-typing techniques with advanced accuracy, speed, and efficiency.
    10. Assess and solve hardware and software problems by using online help or other user documentation and support.
    11. Identify common graphic, audio, and video file formats (e.g., jpeg, gif, bmp, mpeg, wav)
    12. Demonstrate how to import/export text, graphics, or audio files.
    13. Proofread and edit a document using an application's spelling and grammar checking functions.
    1. Identify legal and ethical issues related to use of information and communication technology.
    2. Analyze current trends in information and communication technology and assess the potential of emerging technologies for ethical and unethical uses.
    3. Discuss possible long-range effects of unethical uses of technology (e.g., virus spreading, file pirating, hacking) on cultures and society.
    4. Discuss the possible consequences and costs of unethical uses of information and computer technology.
    5. Identify ways that individuals can protect their technology systems from unethical or unscrupulous users.
    6. Demonstrate the ethical use of technology as a digital citizen and lifelong learner.
    7. Explain the differences between freeware, shareware, and commercial software.
    8. Adhere to fair use and copyright guidelines.
    9. Create appropriate citations for resources when presenting research findings.
    10. Adhere to the district acceptable use policy as well as state and federal laws.
    11. Explore career opportunities and identify their related technology skill requirements.
    12. Design and implement a personal learning plan that includes technology to support his/her lifelong learning goals.
    1. Complete at least one online credit, or non-credit, course or online learning experience.
    2. Use technology tools for managing and communicating personal information (e.g., finances, contact information, schedules, purchases, correspondence)
    3. Have access to and utilize assistive technology tools.
    4. Apply advanced software features such as an application's built-in thesaurus, templates, and styles to improve the appearance of word processing documents, spreadsheets, and presentations.
    5. Identify technology tools (e.g., authoring tools or other hardware and software resources) that could be used to create a group project.
    6. Use an online tutorial and discuss the benefits and disadvantages of this method of learning.
    7. Develop a document or file for inclusion into a web site or web page.
    8. Use a variety of applications to plan, create, and edit a multimedia product (e.g., model, webcast, presentation, publication, or other creative work)
    9. Have the opportunity to participate in real-life experiences associated with technology-related careers.
    1. Identify and describe various telecommunications or online technologies (e.g., desktop conferencing, listservs, blogs, virtual reality)
    2. Use available technologies (e.g., desktop conferencing, e-mail, groupware, instant messaging) to communicate with others on a class assignment or project.
    3. Use a variety of media and formats to design, develop, publish, and present products (e.g., presentations, newsletters, web sites) to communicate original ideas to multiple audiences.
    4. Collaborate in content-related projects that integrate a variety of media (e.g., print, audio, video, graphic, simulations, and models) with presentation, word processing. Publishing, database, graphics design, or spreadsheet applications.
    5. Plan and implement a collaborative project using telecommunications tools (e.g., groupware, interactive web sites, videoconferencing)
    1. Compare, evaluate, and select appropriate internet search engines to locate information.
    2. Formulate and use evaluation criteria (authority, accuracy, relevancy, timeliness) for information located on the internet to present research findings.
    3. Determine if online sources are authoritative, valid, reliable, relevant, and comprehensive.
    4. Distinguish between fact, opinion, point of view, and inference.
    5. Evaluate resources for stereotyping, prejudice, and misrepresentation.
    6. Develop a plan to gather information using various research strategies (e.g., interviews, questionnaires, experiments, online surveys)
    1. Use a variety of technology resources (e.g., educational software, simulations, models) for problem solving and independent learning.
    2. Describe the possible integration of two or more information and communication technology tools or resources to collaborate with peers, community members, and field experts.
    3. Formulate a research question or hypothesis, then use appropriate information and communication technology resources to collect relevant information, analyze the findings, and report the results to multiple audiences.