13.0000 - Education, General (2010 Implement by Fall 2011)

Plus Technical Standards

Plus I. MI Standards
  Plus A. HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
    1. Employ fundamental knowledge of human growth and development to enhance professional practice and learner achievement.
    2. Apply theories of learning, learning styles and motivation theory to delivery of instruction to enhance learner achievement.
    3. Adapt instructional practices based on this fundamental knowledge to support and advance learning.
    4. Create developmentally appropriate activities and lesson plans to reflect various interests and developmental levels.
    5. Implement developmentally appropriate activities and lesson plans to reflect various interests and developmental levels.
    6. Evaluate child’s strengths and needs.
    7. Recognize developmental delays in children.
  Plus B. CONSTRUCT AND TEACH TO STANDARDS
    1. Use knowledge of learners to align goals with learners’ developmental level, abilities, interests, and future objectives.
  Plus C. TEACHING AND LEARNING THEORY
    1. Use knowledge of learners when aligning instructional strategies to learners’ backgrounds.
    2. Apply teaching/learning theory while selecting learning activities.
    3. Employ organizational skills while designing a coherent structure of instructional strategies.
    4. Develop strategies to encourage the transfer of knowledge and skills.
  Plus D. CLIMATE TO PROMOTE LEARNING
    1. Establish respect and rapport to foster positive social and intellectual interactions.
    2. Support emotional development and provide positive guidance.
    3. Establish and maintain a safe, healthy learning environment.
  Plus E. EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS
    1. Provide a safe environment to prevent injuries.
  Plus F. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES
    1. Use learning activities and assignments to challenge and engage learners.
    2. Use content and knowledge of teaching/learning while delivering instruction.
    3. Employ instructional materials and resources to enhance learning.
    4. Use questioning techniques to encourage higher-order thinking.
    5. Use discussion techniques to engage learners.
    6. Use cooperative learning techniques to engage learners.
    7. Use project-based learning techniques to extend learning.
    8. Create activities suitable for varied learning styles and needs.
    9. Provide activities and opportunities that encourage curiosity, exploration, and problem-solving appropriate to the development levels and learning styles of children.
    10. Help each child feel accepted in the group, help children learn to communicate and get along with others, and encourage feelings of empathy and mutual respect among children and adults.
    11. Provide opportunities that stimulate children to play with sound, rhythm, language, materials, space, and ideas in individual ways and to express their creative abilities.

Plus Pathway Standards

Plus I. PLANNING/PREPARING
  Plus A. Use fundamental knowledge of subject matter to plan/prepare effective instruction.
    Plus 1. Use resources and professional development to update knowledge and skills on an ongoing basis.
        a. Reference multiple sources of information.
        b. Reference multiple learning methods.
        c. Identify sources of National, State, or Regulatory standards.
        d. Explain major concepts, assumptions, debates, principles, and theories central to the subject matter.
        e. Test hypotheses and uses methods of inquiry and standards of evidence appropriate for the subject matter in order to generate knowledge and skills.
        f. Define knowledge as an evolving construct.
        g. Express a commitment to lifelong learning.
    Plus 2. Identify prerequisite knowledge that will provide a bridge between past and future knowledge for learners.
        a. Test learner's prerequisite knowledge as a foundation in instructional plans.
        b. Explain learner misunderstanding in terms of lack of prerequisite knowledge.
    Plus 3. Apply principles of scope and sequence while planning instruction.
        a. Order content from simple to complex.
        b. Connect various elements of content.
    Plus 4. Integrate various content to make explicit the connections to other subject matter.
        a. Integrate multiple subject matter into instructional plans.
        b. Make connections logical, accurate, and meaningful to learners.
    Plus 5. Explain connection to life and career applications when making content relevant.
        a. Integrate real-world applications into instructional plans.
        b. Make connections logical, accurate, and meaningful to learners.
  Plus B. Meet the needs of learners and organizations to design courses/programs.
    Plus 1. Analyze standards, organization goals, and learners when selecting content.
        a. Align content as appropriate to National, State, Business and Industry, and Regulatory standards.
        b. Customize content to organization goals.
        c. Customize content to learners’ abilities, interests, and future objectives.
    Plus 2. Use assessment tools when determining needs of learners and organizations.
        a. Use self-assessments.
        b. Use a variety of methods.
        c. Develop assessment tools.
    Plus 3. Employ analytical skills while evaluating instructional resources and program materials.
        a. Evaluate alignment to instructional goals.
        b. Evaluate alignment to learner characteristics.
        c. Evaluate comprehensiveness, accuracy, and literacy characteristics.
  Plus C. Employ knowledge of learning and developmental theory to describe individual learners.
    Plus 1. Locate theory-based information to describe individual learners.
        a. List multiple and diverse characteristics of individual learners.
        b. Identify resources for locating information.
    Plus 2. Apply learning and developmental theory to relate individual characteristics to the learning process.
        a. Explain the relevance of individual characteristics to the learning process.
        b. Identify typical characteristics.
        c. Identify exceptional characteristics.
  Plus D. Use content knowledge and instructional skills to construct standards based educational goals.
    Plus 1. Use knowledge of learners to align goals with learners’ developmental level, abilities, interests, and future objectives.
        a. Address intellectual, social, career, and developmental needs.
        b. Explain the relationship of goals to the real world.
        c. Accommodate the needs of diverse learners.
    Plus 2. Use National, State, Business and Industry, or Regulatory standards to establish learner performance standards.
        a. Use standards that challenge all learners.
        b. Use standards that are applicable to contexts that are meaningful to learners.
    Plus 3. Identify learning goals that establish performance standards for learners.
        a. Describe learning indicators rather than learner activities.
        b. Identify goals that are measurable.
        c. Identify short- and long-term goals.
    Plus 4. Identify multiple learning goals to establish performance standards for learners.
        a. Explain learning goals for multiple content areas or multiple strands of a content area.
        b. Explain knowledge goals.
        c. Explain skill mastery goals.
        d. Explain thinking process goals.
  Plus E. Examine and apply teaching/learning theory and instructional skills to plan appropriate educational strategies.
    Plus 1. Use knowledge of learners when aligning instructional strategies to learners’ backgrounds.
        a. Vary strategies according to learner characteristics.
        b. Align strategies to learners’ existing skills.
        c. Align strategies to learners’ prior knowledge.
        d. Align strategies to learners’ interests.
        e. Align strategies to learners’ cultural experiences.
        f. Align strategies to learners’ role experiences.
        g. Align strategies to learners’ developmental level.
    Plus 2. Apply teaching/learning theory while selecting learning activities.
        a. Identify multiple activities.
        b. Align activities with learning goals.
        c. Align activities with the nature of the content.
        d. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the activities.
        e. Incorporate technologies appropriate to the subject matter.
        f. Vary the role of the educator.
    Plus 3. Employ multiple methods for grouping learners.
        a. Explain how groupings support educational goals.
        b. Permit learners to participate in selecting patterns of instructional groups.
    Plus 4. Employ organizational skills while designing a coherent structure of instructional strategies.
        a. Relate all elements of instruction to each other and to instructional goals.
        b. Allocate time realistically.
        c. Identify different learning pathways based on learner needs.
    Plus 5. Develop strategies to encourage the transfer of knowledge and skills.
        a. Customize content to fit multiple learner purposes and settings.
        b. Contextualize instructional examples based on learners’ characteristics.
        c. Use assignments that apply knowledge and skills to relevant real-world purposes and settings.
  Plus F. Identify and locate materials/resources needed to support instructional plans.
    Plus 1. Identify materials and resources needed to enhance instruction.
        a. Identify personal and organizational resources.
        b. Identify community resources.
        c. Describe access to resources.
        d. Explain how identified materials and resources support educational goals.
    Plus 2. Identify resources to aid learners in learning.
        a. Identify personal and organizational resources.
        b. Identify community resources.
        c. Describe access to resources.
        d. Explain how identified materials and resources support educational goals.
  Plus G. Use knowledge of content, teaching/learning, and assessment to plan assessment/evaluation strategies.
    Plus 1. Select appropriate assessment/evaluation strategies while applying assessment theory.
        a. Identify the purpose of the assessment.
        b. Explain the alignment of selected assessment strategies to educational goals.
        c. Identify multiple strategies.
        d. Describe learner self-assessment strategies.
    Plus 2. Select appropriate assessment/evaluation strategies using knowledge of content and teaching/learning.
        a. Assess/evaluate multiple goals.
        b. Assess/evaluate content goals.
        c. Assess/evaluate process goals.
        d. Identify clearly the criteria and standards to be used to assess/evaluate.
        e. Identify the alignment of instruction to standards.
Plus II. LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
  Plus A. Establish a positive climate to promote learning.
    Plus 1. Establish respect and rapport to foster positive social and intellectual interactions.
        a. Encourage respectful interactions between instructor and learners.
        b. Encourage respectful interactions among learners.
        c. Demonstrate fairness.
        d. Give recognition to learners’ cultural backgrounds.
    Plus 2. Explain the importance of content to promote interest in learning.
        a. Demonstrate enthusiasm for content.
        b. Identify real-world connections.
        c. Encourage lifelong learning.
    Plus 3. Establish challenging expectations for each learner.
        a. Base standards of achievement on applicable National, State, and Regulatory standards.
        b. Explain standards to learners in a clear manner.
        c. Expect high performance on a consistent basis.
        d. Encourage learner responsibility for learning.
  Plus B. Employ motivational, social, and psychological theory and effective practices to guide learners’ personal conduct.
    Plus 1. Document standards of conduct and expectations clearly.
        a. Communicate positive and negative outcomes of behavior.
        b. Enlist participation of learners in determining expectations.
        c. Utilize principles of conflict resolution.
        d. Utilize principles of democracy.
    Plus 2. Monitor learners' personal conduct using a variety of strategies.
        a. Stay continually alert to learners’ conduct.
        b. Use appropriate intervention aimed at prevention.
        c. Use appropriate intervention aimed at correction.
    Plus 3. Respond to learners' personal conduct by providing appropriate feedback.
        a. Provide consistent responses.
        b. Provide respectful responses.
        c. Provide responses reflective of learners’ needs.
        d. Utilize positive and negative outcomes of behavior fairly and consistently.
  Plus C. Use organizational and relationship-building skills to manage instructional activities and related procedures.
    Plus 1. Utilize engagement of learners to optimize benefits of instructional groups.
        a. Engage learners consistently.
        b. Vary the participants and structure of groupings.
        c. Utilize meaningful group tasks.
    Plus 2. Manage instructional transitions while employing time management skills.
        a. Utilize efficient transitions.
        b. Optimize instructional time.
    Plus 3. Employ organizational skills while managing instructional resources (i.e., tools, equipment, supplies, and materials).
        a. Implement effective resource management systems.
        b. Optimize instructional time.
    Plus 4. Perform non-instructional duties.
        a. Utilize efficient procedures.
        b. Prepare learners to expect the procedural routines.
        c. Enlist learners to participate in procedural routines.
        d. Preserve maximum amount of instructional time.
    Plus 5. Supervise learners using organizational and relationship-building skills.
        a. Prepare others to work independently.
        b. Prepare others to work productively.
  Plus D. Consider physical elements in an educational or training setting to optimize learning.
    Plus 1. Arrange space, equipment, and furniture within learning settings to optimize learning.
        a. Arrange physical space, equipment, and furniture to enhance instructional plan.
        b. Adjust instructional plan to accommodate physical space, equipment, and furniture.
    Plus 2. Use physical access and spacing requirements within learning settings.
        a. Provide equitable access for all learners.
        b. Use physical resources optimally.
Plus III. INSTRUCTION
  Plus A. Employ instructional strategies in a learning setting to advance learning.
    Plus 1. Use appropriate representations to make content meaningful to learners.
        a. Vary representations.
        b. Utilize clear and accurate representations.
        c. Utilize representations that encourage critical thinking and problem-solving.
        d. Link representations to learners’ prior knowledge and experience.
        e. Solicit additional representations from learners.
    Plus 2. Use learning activities and assignments to challenge and engage learners.
        a. Vary activities and assignments.
        b. Align activities and assignments with learning goals.
        c. Encourage learners to initiate and adapt activities and assignments in order to enhance learners’ understanding.
    Plus 3. Use content and knowledge of teaching/learning while delivering instruction.
        a. Provide reflection time.
        b. Include a closure process.
        c. Utilize a consistent pace of instruction.
        d. Utilize a pace of instruction that is appropriate for learners.
    Plus 4. Employ instructional materials and resources to enhance learning.
        a. Utilize multiple materials and resources.
        b. Utilize community materials and resources.
        c. Align materials and resources with learning goals.
        d. Encourage learners to choose, adapt, and create materials and resources in order to enhance learners’ understanding.
    Plus 5. Use questioning techniques to encourage higher-order thinking.
        a. Provide adequate time for responding to questions.
        b. Probe answers to extend thinking.
        c. Encourage learners’ questioning.
    Plus 6. Use discussion techniques to engage learners.
        a. Encourage learners to initiate topics.
        b. Permit learners to offer unsolicited contributions.
        c. Engage all learners.
    Plus 7. Employ educational technology to enhance learning.
        a. Demonstrate technological literacy and skills.
        b. Utilize multiple technologies.
        c. Align technologies with instructional goals.
        d. Explain standards for determining the credibility of information.
        e. Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of use of technology for instruction.
        f. Evaluate technology-based instructional materials.
    Plus 8. Use cooperative learning techniques to engage learners.
        a. Align groupings of learners and group tasks to learner needs and characteristics.
        b. Align groupings of learners and group tasks to learning goals.
        c. Encourage learners to influence groupings and tasks in order to enhance learners’ understanding.
        d. Foster productivity of learning groups.
    Plus 9. Use work-based learning techniques to extend learning.
        a. Apply knowledge and skills in real-world settings.
        b. Coach worksite applications of knowledge and skills.
    Plus 10. Use project-based learning techniques to extend learning.
        a. Apply cross-curricular knowledge and skills to real-world settings.
        b. Apply research and problem-solving skills.
        c. Apply work, community, and home applications of knowledge and skills.
    Plus 11. Provide support for learning organizations and activities to extend learning opportunities.
        a. Give awards and recognition.
        b. Sponsor and advises organizations and activities.
  Plus B. Use learner response to plan appropriate in-process adaptations in instructional plans in order to advance learning.
    Plus 1. Identify needed adjustments in instructional plans using an analysis of learner performance.
        a. Accept responsibility for learner performance.
        b. Seek new approaches to help struggling learners.
    Plus 2. Incorporate learner questions and interests to make instruction relevant and responsive to learners.
        a. Maintain coherent instruction.
        b. Maintain alignment of instruction to appropriate educational goals.
    Plus 3. Use spontaneous events to enhance learning.
        a. Incorporate events into instruction.
        b. Maintain alignment of instruction to appropriate educational goals.
  Plus C. Employ assessment/evaluation tools and data in learning settings to advance learner achievement and adjust learning plans.
    Plus 1. Use data to assess/evaluate learning.
        a. Use multiple sources of data.
        b. Interpret data correctly.
        c. Utilize learner self-assessment.
        d. Utilize authentic assessment.
        e. Utilize appropriate technology.
    Plus 2. Use feedback provided to learners to enhance learning.
        a. Provide accurate feedback.
        b. Provide substantive feedback.
        c. Provide constructive feedback.
        d. Provide specific feedback.
        e. Assist learners in interpreting progress.
        f. Encourage learners to use feedback to enhance their learning.
    Plus 3. Plan adjustments in instruction that reflect assessment and teaching/learning theory.
        a. Align adjustments to assessment data.
        b. Justify adjustments in terms of data-based effective practice.
Plus IV. PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES
  Plus A. Assess past teaching/training performance to determine effectiveness of instructional practices.
    Plus 1. Construct an active philosophy of instruction to form criteria for assessing effective instructional practice.
        a. Prepare a written philosophy of instruction.
        b. Reference research-based, effective practice.
        c. Address efficacy.
        d. Update philosophy regularly.
    Plus 2. Employ various strategies while systematically monitoring effectiveness of instruction.
        a. Consult colleagues.
        b. Reflect accurately on instruction.
        c. Cite supporting data.
    Plus 3. Refine instructional practice based upon analysis of past actions.
        a. Express a commitment to continuous improvement.
        b. Suggest multiple alternative actions.
        c. Explain merits of alternative actions.
  Plus B. Pursue opportunities to improve knowledge and skills within learning environments to propel professional development.
    Plus 1. Use participation in professional associations to improve knowledge and skills.
        a. Establish membership.
        b. Utilize services of professional associations.
        c. Participate in professional association activities.
    Plus 2. Employ in-service education to improve knowledge and skills.
        a. Prepare a written personal growth plan.
        b. Identify multiple resources.
        c. Utilize technology.
        d. Utilize observations of colleagues.
        e. Explain applications of in-service learnings.
  Plus C. Employ community-building skills and strategies with others to advance the education profession and learning organizational vision.
    Plus 1. Form partnerships with colleagues to establish a community of learners.
        a. Seek opportunities to work collaboratively with colleagues.
        b. Maintain cordial relationships.
        c. Share personal expertise.
        d. Share in decision-making and problem-solving.
    Plus 2. Employ interpersonal skills to recruit and attract able individuals to teaching/training.
        a. Demonstrate enthusiasm for teaching/training.
        b. Demonstrate competency in teaching/training.
        c. Use persuasive communication.
        d. Offer assistance to those pursuing teaching/training.
    Plus 3. Utilize expertise to advance organizational vision.
        a. Assume additional responsibilities.
        b. Focus on the well being of learners and the organization.
    Plus 4. Participate in community affairs to engage community in organization vision.
        a. Apply personal expertise to issues of mutual concern.
        b. Focus on the well being of the community.
  Plus D. Maintain accurate records through the use of organization skills in order to monitor and guide learner progress.
    Plus 1. Use an organized system for recording learner assignments.
        a. Maintain complete, orderly, and timely records.
        b. Make records accessible to appropriate stakeholders.
    Plus 2. Use an organized system for recording learner progress.
        a. Maintain complete, interpretable, and timely records.
        b. Make records accessible to appropriate stakeholders.
    Plus 3. Use an organized system for recording non-instructional data.
        a. Maintain complete and timely records.
        b. Make records accessible to appropriate stakeholders.
  Plus E. Implement strategies to maintain relationships with stakeholders to increase support for the organization.
    Plus 1. Advocate for needs of learners, organization, community, and profession.
        a. Explain mutual benefits.
        b. Assess needs of all categories of stakeholders.
        c. Cite supporting data.
    Plus 2. Seek opportunities to promote instructional program.
        a. Communicate frequently.
        b. Provide accurate program descriptions.
        c. Address the goals of stakeholders.
        d. Cite outcome data.
    Plus 3. Seek opportunities to engage stakeholders in organization vision.
        a. Engage stakeholders frequently.
        b. Give recognition to stakeholder contributions to program.
    Plus 4. Provide information to meet appropriate accountability standards.
        a. Follow policies on organizational reporting.
        b. Respond to concerns of stakeholders.
        c. Report both positive and negative outcomes.
        d. Provide accurate information.

Plus Foundation Standards

Plus I. ACADEMIC FOUNDATIONS: Achieve additional academic knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of career and postsecondary education opportunities within a career cluster.
  Plus A. Employ fundamental principles of psychology to enhance learner achievement.
    Plus 1. Employ fundamental knowledge of developmental theory to enhance learner achievement.
        a. Identify major theorists.
        b. Explain major theories using real-world examples.
        c. Critique major theories.
        d. Use theory to predict and explain individual and group behavior.
    Plus 2. Employ fundamental knowledge of learning theory to enhance learner achievement.
        a. Identify major theorists.
        b. Explain major theories using real-world examples.
        c. Critique major theories.
        d. Use theory to predict and explain individual and group behavior.
    Plus 3. Employ fundamental knowledge of motivation theory to enhance learner achievement.
        a. Identify major theorists.
        b. Explain major theories using real-world examples.
        c. Critique major theories.
        d. Use theory to predict and explain individual and group behavior.
    Plus 4. Employ fundamental knowledge of the dynamics of psychological change to enhance professional practice.
        a. Identify major theorists.
        b. Explain major theories using real-world examples.
        c. Critique major theories.
        d. Use theory to predict and explain individual and group behavior.
  Plus B. Employ fundamental principles of sociology to enhance learner achievement.
    Plus 1. Employ fundamental knowledge of the social interaction of individuals and institutions to enhance learner achievement.
        a. Identify multiple social factors and institutions that impact learning.
        b. Explain factors using real-world examples.
        c. Use social interaction of individuals and institutions to predict and explain individual and group behavior.
    Plus 2. Analyze social barriers to learning.
        a. Identify multiple barriers.
        b. Explain barriers using real-world examples.
        c. Propose solutions to barriers.
    Plus 3. Employ fundamental knowledge of the dynamics of sociological change to enhance professional practice.
        a. Identify major theorists.
        b. Explain major theories using real-world examples.
        c. Critique major theories.
        d. Use theory to predict and explain individual and group behavior.
  Plus C. Utilize knowledge about the history and belief systems of multiple cultural, ethnic, and racial groups to enhance learner achievement.
    Plus 1. Explain the history of multiple cultural, ethnic, and racial groups as it relates to learning.
        a. Explain history that relates to learning settings and institutions.
        b. Explain history that relates to family and community.
        c. Explain history that relates to work.
    Plus 2. Explain multiple cultural, ethnic, and racial groups’ belief systems that relate to learning.
        a. Explain achievement belief systems.
        b. Explain life goals belief systems.
  Plus D. Analyze and apply knowledge of the relationships between education and society to enhance learner achievement.
    Plus 1. Employ fundamental knowledge of educational philosophies to enhance learner achievement.
        a. Identify major philosophers.
        b. Explain major philosophies using real-world examples.
        c. Critique major philosophies.
        d. Relate educational philosophies to contemporary issues in professional practice.
    Plus 2. Analyze structures for governing professional practices in learning settings.
        a. Identify multiple governance structures.
        b. Explain governance structures using real-world examples.
        c. Critique governance structures.
        d. Relate governance structures to contemporary issues in professional practice.
    Plus 3. Apply fundamental knowledge of economics to enhance learner achievement.
        a. Identify major economic factors affecting learning and educational practice.
        b. Explain factors using real world examples.
        c. Relate factors to local funding issues.
  Plus E. Explain and apply a variety of instructional models to enhance learning achievement.
    Plus 1. Explain models of instruction.
        a. Explain various models.
        b. Explain optimal contexts for using models.
    Plus 2. Employ models of instruction to enhance learner achievement.
        a. Use various models.
        b. Explain appropriateness of models in terms of context and learner results.
  Plus F. Employ knowledge of assessment methods to enhance learner achievement.
    Plus 1. Employ fundamental knowledge of measurement to enhance learner achievement.
        a. Explain concepts of measurement.
        b. Measure educational outcomes appropriately.
        c. Interpret measurements appropriately.
    Plus 2. Employ fundamental knowledge of non-numeric data to enhance learner achievement.
        a. Explain concepts of non-numeric data.
        b. Collect non-numeric data appropriately.
        c. Interpret non-numeric data appropriately.
  Plus G. Employ knowledge of economic principles to enhance understanding of professional practices in learning settings.
    Plus 1. Employ fundamental knowledge of macroeconomics to enhance funding for professional practices in learning settings.
        a. Identify major macroeconomic factors.
        b. Explain factors using real-world examples.
        c. Relate factors to contemporary funding issues.
    Plus 2. Employ fundamental knowledge of microeconomics to enhance funding for professional practices in learning settings.
        a. Identify major microeconomic factors.
        b. Explain factors using real-world examples.
        c. Relate factors to local funding issues.
Plus II. COMMUNICATIONS: Use oral and written communication skills in creating, expressing and interpreting information and ideas including technical terminology and information.
  Plus A. Apply verbal communication skills to enhance learning and stakeholder commitment to learning organization.
    Plus 1. Provide information using motivational and engaging communication techniques.
        a. Cite data.
        b. Explain relevance to audience and context.
        c. Explain the significance of the tone of the communication.
        d. Use concise, coherent organization.
        e. Use language, terminology, and complexity suitable to audience.
        f. Use language sensitive to culture and gender.
        g. Address multiple intelligences and modalities.
        h. Use appropriate volume, rate, and clarity of voice.
        i. Use multiple mediums.
    Plus 2. Enlist stakeholder commitment using persuasive communication techniques.
        a. Create awareness of problem.
        b. Explain relevance to audience and context.
        c. Propose needed action and the role of the audience in that action.
        d. Create visualization of effects of proposed action.
        e. Explain the significance of the tone of the communication.
        f. Use concise, coherent organization.
        g. Use language, terminology, and complexity suitable to audience.
        h. Use language sensitive to culture and gender.
        i. Address multiple intelligences and modalities.
        j. Use appropriate volume, rate, and clarity of voice.
        k. Use multiple mediums.
    Plus 3. Use non-verbal communication to enhance verbal communication.
        a. Explain the congruency between non-verbal and verbal communication.
        b. Describe intentional use of appearance, gesture, and tone of voice.
    Plus 4. Customize communication messages to fit the audience members.
        a. Describe audience characteristics.
        b. Explain alignment of communication components to audience characteristics.
    Plus 5. Recognize and address barriers to oral communication.
        a. Address language barriers.
        b. Explain alignment of communication components to audience characteristics.
    Plus 6. Give clear verbal directions.
        a. Organize steps logically.
        b. Use language, terminology, and complexity suitable to audience.
        c. Reference prior knowledge and experience of audience.
        d. Address both content and processes.
        e. Use appropriate volume, rate, and clarity of voice.
    Plus 7. Utilize feedback to improve communication.
        a. Interpret verbal and non-verbal feedback.
        b. Allow appropriate response time based on audience and context.
        c. Adapt communication based on feedback.
  Plus B. Employ communication skills in interactive situations to enhance learning and stakeholder commitment to the organization.
    Plus 1. Utilize interviewing skills.
        a. Obtain complete information.
        b. Maintain focus on interview objectives.
        c. Explain evidence that interviewee understood the purpose of the interview and the information conveyed in the interview.
    Plus 2. Utilize discussion skills.
        a. Construct objectives for the discussion.
        b. Describe evidence that participants actively contributed.
        c. Maintain focus on discussion topic.
        d. Explain evidence that participants’ understanding of the topic advanced.
    Plus 3. Utilize questioning skills.
        a. Describe evidence that participants actively responded.
        b. Questions are suitable for audience and context in terms of Bloom’s Taxonomy of higher-order thinking.
        c. Explain evidence that participants’ understanding of the topic advanced.
    Plus 4. Apply listening skills to enhance learning and stakeholder investment in learning organization.
        a. Explain components of active listening.
        b. Describe barriers to effective listening.
    Plus 5. Follow verbal directions.
        a. Follow directions completely.
        b. Follow directions precisely.
  Plus C. Use writing skills to enhance stakeholder commitment to the learning organization.
    Plus 1. Write informational correspondence to stakeholders in the learning environment.
        a. Use language, terminology, and complexity suitable to audience.
        b. Use concise, coherent organization.
        c. Explain the significance of the tone of the correspondence.
        d. Use language sensitive to culture and gender.
    Plus 2. Write clear directions for learners.
        a. Organize steps logically.
        b. Use language, terminology, and complexity suitable to audience.
        c. Address both content and processes.
        d. Use concise, coherent organization.
    Plus 3. Write summative reports regarding the learning environment.
        a. Cite data.
        b. Use language, terminology, and complexity suitable to audience.
        c. Address both positive and negative aspects of the topic.
        d. Use language sensitive to culture and gender.
    Plus 4. Write position papers on issues affecting learning environments and organizations.
        a. Cite data.
        b. Synthesize multiple sources of information.
        c. Use persuasive communication.
        d. Use coherent organization.
        e. Use language and terminology suitable to audience.
        f. Use language sensitive to culture and gender.
    Plus 5. Write requests for funding, resources, and services in the learning setting.
        a. Describe required formatting and components.
        b. Include all required components.
        c. Use language and terminology suitable to audience.
        d. Cite data.
        e. Use persuasive communication.
        f. Use concise, coherent organization.
        g. Use language sensitive to culture and gender.
    Plus 6. Employ graphic communication to enhance learning and stakeholder investment in learning organization.
        a. Explain relevance to audience and context.
        b. Use complexity suitable to audience.
        c. Graphics can be easily seen and read.
  Plus D. Use knowledge of reading strategies in the content area to enhance learner achievement.
    Plus 1. Model reading strategies (skimming, reading for detail, reading for meaning and critical analysis) for determining the purpose of text.
        a. Use reading strategy to achieve intended purpose.
        b. Identify complexity of text(s).
        c. Evaluate and explain relevance, accuracy and appropriateness to purpose.
    Plus 2. Understand content, technical concepts, and vocabulary to analyze information and follow directions.
        a. Identify issues and questions.
        b. Analyze information presented in a variety of formats, such as tables, lists, figures, etc.
        c. Identify key technical concepts and vocabulary.
    Plus 3. Communicate information, data, and observations that apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
        a. Interpret technical materials used.
        b. Summarize overall meaning of text(s).
        c. Identify strategies for applying information learned to the task or new situation.
Plus III. PROBLEM-SOLVING AND CRITICAL THINKING: Solve problems using critical thinking skills (analyze, synthesize, and evaluate) independently and in teams. Solve problems using creativity and innovation.
  Plus A. Apply problem-solving and critical thinking skills in educational and training settings to enhance instruction and learner achievement.
    Plus 1. Utilize scientific thinking to solve education and training related problems.
        a. Define the problem.
        b. Explain hypothetical solutions based on prior knowledge.
        c. Describe the collection of data.
        d. Explain analysis of data.
        e. Explain conclusions.
    Plus 2. Synthesize multiple and conflicting data and viewpoints to derive a position on educational issues.
        a. Explain similarities in data and viewpoints.
        b. Explain dissimilarities in data and viewpoints.
        c. Use inductive and deductive reasoning.
        d. Explain a position based on multiple and conflicting data and viewpoints.
    Plus 3. Utilize reflection strategies to improve instructional skills and learner achievement.
        a. Solicit and evaluate feedback of others.
        b. Evaluate self-assessments.
        c. Encourage others to use reflection strategies.
        d. Explain behavior adaptations motivated by reflection.
    Plus 4. Utilize perspective-taking to enhance instruction and learner achievement.
        a. Use open-ended questioning.
        b. Encourage respect for multiple opinions.
    Plus 5. Utilize conflict resolution strategies to resolve issues in educational contexts.
        a. Use third party intervention and support.
        b. Openly and respectfully identify issues.
        c. Identify solutions that meet needs of all parties involved.
  Plus B. Evaluate educational perspectives, policies and procedures using critical thinking in order to intelligently discuss educational issues.
    Plus 1. Analyze the diversity of objectives and perspectives of multiple stakeholders.
        a. Express respect for multiple viewpoints.
        b. Explain underlying assumptions of multiple viewpoints.
        c. Identify common ground among multiple viewpoints.
    Plus 2. Analyze public and organizational policies and procedures.
        a. Predict the impact of policies and procedures on instructional goals.
        b. Explain options for aligning policies and procedures with instructional goals.
IV. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS: Use information technology tools specific to the career cluster to access, manage, integrate, and create information.
Plus V. SYSTEMS: Understand roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment. Identify how key organizational systems affect organizational performance and the quality of products and services. Understand global context of industries and careers.
  Plus A. Explain models of education delivery using system theory to demonstrate understanding of key relationships in the learning system.
    Plus 1. Explain factors that affect learning systems.
        a. Explain the interdependence and mutual influence of stakeholders.
        b. Explain role of feedback.
        c. Explain role of external regulations.
        d. Explain role of social responsibility.
        e. Explain role of research.
        f. Explain role of non-educational systems.
    Plus 2. Explain the role of the individual in learning systems.
        a. Explain role of partnerships.
        b. Explain role of professional organization membership.
        c. Explain role of mentoring.
    Plus 3. Explain the role of organizations in learning systems.
        a. Explain role of clarifying identity and purpose.
        b. Explain role of governance.
        c. Explain role of professional development provider.
        d. Explain role of being a legislative voice.
    Plus 4. Identify systems that deliver education and training.
        a. Identify public sources.
        b. Identify private sources.
    Plus 5. Identify systems that fund education and training.
        a. Identify public sources.
        b. Identify private sources.
  Plus B. Form, sustain, and modify instructional systems to facilitate learning within educational and training settings.
    Plus 1. Explain concepts of systemic change as it applies to instructional systems.
        a. Explain system change in terms of changes in individual behavior.
        b. Explain system change in terms of structural changes in system.
        c. Explain inertia.
        d. Explain status quo.
        e. Explain change forces.
    Plus 2. Communicate about instructional systems with stakeholders.
        a. Communicate frequently.
        b. Communicate honestly.
    Plus 3. Use instructional system resources to meet learner needs.
        a. Use multiple resources.
        b. Encourage reciprocity among system entities.
    Plus 4. Advocate for learning organization and learners.
        a. Participate in professional organizations.
        b. Communicate learning successes among system entities.
        c. Promote learning initiatives within systems.
    Plus 5. Monitor instructional system outcomes.
        a. Use data.
        b. Evaluate quality, productivity, efficiency, and cost effectiveness.
        c. Explain outcomes in terms of interconnected components of systems.
        d. Explain outcomes in terms of organizational structure.
Plus VI. SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL: Understand the importance of health, safety, and environmental management systems in organizations and their importance to organizational performance and regulatory compliance. Follow organizational policies and procedures and contribute to continuous improvement in performance and compliance.
  Plus A. Evaluate and control risks to safety, health, and the environment in learning settings.
    Plus 1. Evaluate equipment and facility safety within the learning environment.
        a. Identify potential hazards related to equipment and building codes.
        b. Explain procedures for documenting and reporting hazards to appropriate authorities.
        c. Explain appropriate corrective actions for equipment and building hazards.
        d. Describe system for monitoring compliance with relevant equipment and facility safety procedures.
    Plus 2. Control risks to individual health and safety in the learning setting.
        a. Identify appropriate infection control procedures.
        b. Describe universal precautions for blood-borne pathogens and the procedures for responding to and reporting exposure.
        c. Explain procedures related to recognition of and responses to controlled substance risks.
        d. Describe safe body mechanics relevant to the learning setting.
        e. Describe safe ergonomics relevant to the learning setting.
        f. Explain procedures related to criminal background checks, if appropriate to the learning setting.
        g. Identify governmental regulations regarding worker and learner safety.
        h. Describe fire precautions and response procedures.
        i. Describe procedures for responding to violent and threatening behaviors, health risks, and fire emergencies.
        j. Describe procedures for documenting and reporting violent and threatening behaviors, health risks, and fire emergencies.
        k. Identify risks to psychological health in the learning setting.
        l. Explain appropriate responses to psychological risks.
        m. Monitor compliance with relevant individual health and safety regulations and procedures.
    Plus 3. Control environmental health and safety in the learning setting.
        a. Identify potential hazards.
        b. Inspect the setting for environmental safety hazards.
        c. Describe corrective actions for potential hazards.
        d. Explain safe practices for the storage and use of hazardous materials.
        e. Monitor compliance with relevant environmental health and safety regulations and procedures.
        f. Describe procedures for documenting and reporting environmental hazards to appropriate authorities.
Plus VII. LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK: Use leadership and teamwork skills in collaborating with others to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
  Plus A. Employ project and strategic planning skills within an educational and training setting to enhance professional practice.
    Plus 1. Employ data to make decisions.
        a. Use multiple sources of data.
        b. Analyze data appropriately.
        c. Explain alignment of data and decisions made.
    Plus 2. Analyze the dynamics of change to enhance professional practice.
        a. Evaluate multiple change factors.
        b. Adjust actions based on changing needs.
    Plus 3. Employ strategic planning skills to enhance professional practice.
        a. Identify measurable goals.
        b. Prioritize.
        c. Analyze trends, factors, and issues that influence the organization and its future success.
        d. Create an action plan with timelines and accountability measures.
        e. Explain socially responsible components.
    Plus 4. Employ project planning skills to enhance professional practice.
        a. Explain contexts that benefit from teamwork.
        b. Align project goals and activities with organizational mission.
        c. Analyze tasks.
        d. Create an action plan with timelines, needed resources, delegation of duties, and accountability measures.
        e. Identify means to recognize and reward contributions.
  Plus B. Employ knowledge of group processes and skills for working collaboratively to enhance professional practice.
    Plus 1. Employ interpersonal skills to enhance professional practice.
        a. Use collaboration skills.
        b. Use compromise skills.
        c. Use conflict resolution techniques.
        d. Use consultation skills.
        e. Use mentoring skills.
        f. Use motivational strategies.
    Plus 2. Employ group processes knowledge and skills to enhance professional practice.
        a. Use parliamentary procedure.
        b. Conduct productive and efficient meetings.
        c. Build consensus among stakeholders.
Plus VIII. ETHICS AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES: Know and understand the importance of professional ethics and legal responsibilities.
  Plus A. Analyze and explain ethical and legal boundaries of professional practice in learning settings to enhance professionalism in education and training.
    Plus 1. Explain major laws that govern behavior within learning settings.
        a. Explain major laws affecting a variety of issues in learning settings.
        b. Explain personal and organizational liabilities associated with major laws.
        c. Identify regulatory agencies.
        d. Identify sources for updating information on legal boundaries.
        e. Identify sources for obtaining assistance in interpreting legal responsibilities.
        f. Explain consequences of non-compliance.
    Plus 2. Analyze ethical responsibilities in professional practice within learning settings.
        a. Identify sources of applicable ethical codes.
        b. Analyze applicable ethical codes.
        c. Explain personal and organizational liabilities associated with ethical codes.
        d. Identify regulatory agencies.
        e. Identify sources for updating information on ethical boundaries.
        f. Identify sources for obtaining assistance in interpreting ethical responsibilities.
        g. Explain consequences of non-compliance.
    Plus 3. Explain institutional policies and procedures that relate to ethical and legal behavior.
        a. Explain rationale for policies and procedures.
        b. Analyze expected effects of compliance and non-compliance.
        c. Explain consequences of non-compliance.
  Plus B. Explain legal rights that apply to stakeholders and practitioners within learning settings to enhance professionalism in education and training.
    Plus 1. Explain legal rights of stakeholders within learning settings.
        a. Explain rights of expression.
        b. Explain nondiscrimination rights.
        c. Explain rights to due process.
        d. Explain privacy rights.
    Plus 2. Explain legal rights of professional practitioners within learning settings.
        a. Explain rights of expression.
        b. Explain nondiscrimination rights.
        c. Explain rights to due process.
        d. Explain privacy rights.
  Plus C. Exhibit ethical and legal behavior within educational and training settings to model professional behaviors.
    Plus 1. Perform work duties according to legal boundaries.
        a. Comply with applicable law.
        b. Practice within legislated scope of profession.
        c. Document, record, and report required information.
        d. Comply with financial audit requirements.
    Plus 2. Perform work duties in accordance with legal rights of stakeholders and coworkers.
        a. Comply with applicable law.
        b. Encourage others to comply with applicable law.
    Plus 3. Perform work duties according to ethical boundaries.
        a. Explain how decision-making and actions taken are aligned with commitments to learners and the profession.
        b. Analyze ethical dilemmas.
        c. Propose responses to ethical dilemmas.
        d. Maintain confidentiality.
Plus IX. EMPLOYABILITY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT: Know and understand the importance of employability skills. Explore, plan, and effectively manage careers. Know and understand the importance of entrepreneurship skills.
  Plus A. Explore, describe, and determine career options using research skills in order to plan for a career in education and training.
    Plus 1. Use self-assessment and assessment by others to match personal characteristics to those associated with successful professional practice.
        a. Assess independence and initiative.
        b. Assess flexibility.
    Plus 2. Explain career trajectories in education and training.
        a. Identify practice settings.
        b. Analyze interests, aptitudes, and abilities and match them to characteristics and requirements of the profession.
        c. Identify future demographic and sociological trends that are likely to affect employment in education and training.
        d. Explain the developmental cycle of the profession.
    Plus 3. Use relationships with other professionals to explore career options.
        a. Acquire membership in professional associations.
        b. Enter into job shadowing and mentoring relationships.
    Plus 4. Construct an individual career plan.
        a. Write the career plan.
        b. Incorporate completion of certification/licensure/credentialing requirements.
        c. Revisit and adjust plan throughout career preparation and throughout career as practitioner.
  Plus B. Acquire state-specific certification/ license/credentialing in order to practice within educational and training settings.
    Plus 1. Complete the requirements for certification, licensing, or credentialing.
        a. Complete required academic preparation.
        b. Meet non-academic requirements.
        c. Pass applicable standardized assessments of knowledge and skills.
    Plus 2. Apply for certification, license, or credentials.
        a. Identify issuing agency.
        b. Identify timelines.
        c. Present documentation of completion of requirements.
        d. Identify costs involved.
  Plus C. Complete state-specific professional development requirements to maintain employment and advance in an education and training career.
    Plus 1. Complete professional development requirements.
        a. Identify appropriate sources of professional development.
        b. Identify timelines.
        c. Obtain documentation from issuing institutions/agencies.
    Plus 2. Complete assessments of knowledge and skills.
        a. Identify timelines.
        b. Complete applicable internal assessments.
        c. Complete applicable external assessments.
        d. Obtain documentation of successful completion.
Plus X. TECHNICAL SKILLS: Use the technical knowledge and skills required to pursue the targeted careers for all pathways in the career cluster, including knowledge of design, operation, and maintenance of technological systems critical to the career cluster.
  Plus A. Employ and adapt instructional strategies within educational and training settings to enhance learner achievement.
    Plus 1. Apply instructional strategies to enhance learner achievement.
        a. Construct measurable goals and objectives.
        b. Align goals and objectives to course/program scope and sequence.
        c. Align actions to goals and objectives.
    Plus 2. Adapt instructional strategies based on learner performance.
        a. Deconstruct tasks into progressive steps.
        b. Explain knowledge, skills, and resources needed to accomplish tasks.
    Plus 3. Use instructional tools to enhance learner achievement.
        a. Prioritize tasks.
        b. Align time to the scope of the task.
  Plus B. Employ organizational and logic skills and enhance professional practice.
    Plus 1. Employ record keeping skills to enhance professional practice and meet accountability standards.
        a. Apply various strategies.
        b. Explain alignment of strategies to educational objectives.
        c. Explain alignment of strategies to characteristics of learners.
    Plus 2. Employ logic skills to enhance professional practice.
        a. Assess learner performance.
        b. Explain adaptations based on assessment data.
  Plus C. Conduct, interpret, and share research findings to enhance professional practice.
    Plus 1. Identify credible sources of research to enhance professional practice.
        a. Identify professional literature sources.
        b. Identify Internet sources.
    Plus 2. Conduct research to enhance professional practice.
        a. Conduct action research.
        b. Explain importance of research question to professional practice.
    Plus 3. Interpret research to enhance professional practice.
        a. Analyze research data appropriately.
        b. Explain appropriate implications of research to professional practice.
    Plus 4. Disseminate research results to enhance professional practice.
        a. Write reports of research that are understandable to stakeholders.
        b. Explain research results verbally to stakeholders in understandable terms.
  Plus D. Employ group management skills to enhance professional practice with education and training settings.
    Plus 1. Explain conditions that contribute to a receptive working climate.
        a. Explain the role of trust among those working together.
        b. Explain strategies for establishing trust among individuals.
        c. Explain the role of respect among those working together.
        d. Explain strategies for establishing respect among individuals.
    Plus 2. Use environment to enhance work productivity, efficiency, and quality.
        a. Explain ways that spatial arrangements enhance productivity, efficiency, and quality of work.
        b. Explain ways that environmental conditions are engineered to meet needs of those working in the environment.
  Plus E. Employ assessment skills to enhance professional practice with education and training settings.
    Plus 1. Use data to assess performance.
        a. Use multiple sources of data, including self-assessment.
        b. Use appropriate assessment tools, including reflection.
        c. Interpret data appropriately.
    Plus 2. Communicate assessment results to stakeholders.
        a. Communicate assessment in terms that are understandable to the audience.
        b. Communicate assessment information in a timely manner.
        c. Maintain appropriate confidentiality.
        d. Solicit feedback from stakeholders.
    Plus 3. Use assessment to shape professional practice.
        a. Adapt professional practice based on assessment data.
        b. Disseminate assessment results to encourage replication.

Plus Essential Standards

Plus I. ACADEMIC FOUNDATIONS: Achieve additional academic knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of career and postsecondary education opportunities within a career cluster.
  Plus A. Complete required training, education, and certification to prepare for employment in a particular career field.
    1. Identify training, education and certification requirements for occupational choice.
    2. Participate in career-related training and/or degree programs.
    3. Pass certification tests to qualify for licensure and/or certification in chosen occupational area.
  Plus B. Demonstrate language arts knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary education and career opportunities.
    1. Model behaviors that demonstrate active listening.
    2. Adapt language for audience, purpose, situation. (i.e. diction/structure, style).
    3. Organize oral and written information.
    4. Compose focused copy for a variety of written documents such as agendas, audio-visuals, bibliographies, drafts, forms/documents, notes, oral presentations, reports, and technical terminology.
    5. Edit copy to create focused written documents such as agendas, audio-visuals, bibliographies, drafts, forms/documents, notes, oral presentations, reports, and technical terminology.
    6. Comprehend key elements of oral and written information such as cause/effect, comparisons/contrasts, conclusions, context, purpose, charts/tables/graphs, evaluation/critiques, mood, persuasive text, sequence, summaries, and technical subject matter.
    7. Evaluate oral and written information for accuracy, adequacy/sufficiency, appropriateness, clarity, conclusions/solutions, fact/opinion, propaganda, relevancy, validity, and relationship of ideas.
    8. Identify assumptions, purpose, outcomes/solutions, and propaganda techniques.
    9. Predict potential outcomes and/or solutions based on oral and written information regarding trends.
    10. Present formal and informal speeches including discussion, information requests, interpretation, and persuasive arguments.
  Plus C. Demonstrate mathematics knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary education and career opportunities.
    1. Identify whole numbers, decimals, and fractions.
    2. Demonstrate knowledge of basic arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
    3. Demonstrate use of relational expressions such as equal to, not equal, greater than, less than, etc.
    4. Apply data and measurements to solve a problem.
    5. Analyze Mathematical problem statements for missing and/or irrelevant data.
    6. Construct charts/tables/graphs from functions and data.
    7. Analyze data when interpreting operational documents.
  Plus D. Demonstrate science knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary and career education opportunities.
    1. Evaluate scientific constructs including conclusions, conflicting data, controls, data, inferences, limitations, questions, sources of errors, and variables.
    2. Apply scientific methods in qualitative and quantitative analysis, data gathering, direct and indirect observation, predictions, and problem identification.
Plus II. COMMUNICATIONS: Use oral and written communication skills in creating, expressing and interpreting information and ideas including technical terminology and information.
  Plus A. Select and employ appropriate reading and communication strategies to learn and use technical concepts and vocabulary in practice.
    1. Determine the most appropriate reading strategy for identifying the overarching purpose of a text (i.e. skimming, reading for detail, reading for meaning or critical analysis).
    2. Demonstrate use of content, technical concepts and vocabulary when analyzing information and following directions.
    3. Select the reading strategy or strategies needed to fully comprehend the content within a written document (i.e., skimming, reading for detail, reading for meaning or critical analysis).
    4. Interpret information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
    5. Transcribe information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
    6. Communicate information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
  Plus B. Demonstrate use of the concepts, strategies, and systems for obtaining and conveying ideas and information to enhance communication in the workplace.
    1. Employ verbal skills when obtaining and conveying information.
    2. Record information needed to present a report on a given topic or problem.
    3. Write internal and external business correspondence that conveys and/or obtains information effectively.
    4. Communicate with other employees to clarify workplace objectives.
    5. Communicate effectively with customers and employees to foster positive relationships.
  Plus C. Locate, organize and reference written information from various sources to communicate with co-workers and clients/participants.
    1. Locate written information used to communicate with co-workers and customers.
    2. Organize information to use in written and oral communications.
    3. Reference the sources of information.
  Plus D. Evaluate and use information resources to accomplish specific occupational tasks.
    1. Use informational texts, Internet web sites, and/or technical materials to review and apply information sources for occupational tasks.
    2. Evaluate the reliability of information from informational texts, Internet Web sites, and/or technical materials and resources.
  Plus E. Use correct grammar, punctuation and terminology to write and edit documents.
    1. Compose multi-paragraph documents clearly, succinctly, and accurately.
    2. Use descriptions of audience and purpose when preparing and editing written documents.
    3. Use correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization when preparing written documents.
  Plus F. Develop and deliver formal and informal presentations using appropriate media to engage and inform audiences.
    1. Prepare oral presentations to provide information for specific purposes and audiences.
    2. Identify support materials that will enhance an oral presentation.
    3. Prepare support materials that will enhance an oral presentation.
    4. Deliver an oral presentation that sustains listeners' attention and interest.
    5. Align presentation strategies to the intended audience.
    6. Implement multi-media strategies for presentations.
  Plus G. Interpret verbal and nonverbal cues/behaviors to enhance communication with co-workers and clients/participants.
    1. Interpret verbal behaviors when communicating with clients and co-workers.
    2. Interpret nonverbal behaviors when communicating with clients and co-workers.
  Plus H. Apply active listening skills to obtain and clarify information.
    1. Interpret a given verbal message/information.
    2. Respond with restatement and clarification techniques to clarify information.
  Plus I. Develop and interpret tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communications.
    1. Create tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communications.
    2. Interpret tables, charts, and figures used to support written and oral communication.
  Plus J. Listen to and speak with diverse individuals to enhance communication skills.
    1. Apply factors and strategies for communicating with a diverse workforce.
    2. Demonstrate ability to communicate and resolve conflicts within a diverse workforce.
  Plus K. Exhibit public relations skills to increase internal and external customer/client satisfaction.
    1. Communicate effectively when developing positive customer/client relationships.
Plus III. PROBLEM-SOLVING AND CRITICAL THINKING: Solve problems using critical thinking skills (analyze, synthesize, and evaluate) independently and in teams. Solve problems using creativity and innovation.
  Plus A. Employ critical thinking skills independently and in teams to solve problems and make decisions (e.g., analyze, synthesize and evaluate).
    1. Identify common tasks that require employees to use problem-solving skills.
    2. Analyze elements of a problem to develop creative solutions.
    3. Describe the value of using problem-solving and critical thinking skills to improve a situation or process.
    4. Create ideas, proposals, and solutions to problems.
    5. Evaluate ideas, proposals, and solutions to problems.
    6. Use structured problem-solving methods when developing proposals and solutions.
    7. Generate new and creative ideas to solve problems by brainstorming possible solutions.
    8. Critically analyze information to determine value to the problem-solving task.
    9. Guide individuals through the process of recognizing concerns and making informed decisions.
    10. Identify alternatives using a variety of problem-solving and critical thinking skills.
    11. Evaluate alternatives using a variety of problem-solving and critical thinking skills.
  Plus B. Employ critical thinking and interpersonal skills to resolve conflicts with staff and/or customers.
    1. Analyze situations and behaviors that affect conflict management.
    2. Determine best options/outcomes for conflict resolution using critical thinking skills.
    3. Identify with others’ feelings, needs, and concerns.
    4. Implement stress management techniques.
    5. Resolve conflicts with/for customers using conflict resolution skills.
    6. Implement conflict resolution skills to address staff issues/problems.
  Plus C. Identify, write and monitor workplace performance goals to guide progress in assigned areas of responsibility and accountability.
    1. Write realistic performance goals, objectives and action plans.
    2. Monitor performance goals and adjust as necessary.
    3. Recognize goal achievement using appropriate rewards in the workplace.
    4. Communicate goal achievement with managers and co-workers.
  Plus D. Conduct technical research to gather information necessary for decision-making.
    1. Align the information gathered to the needs of the audience.
    2. Gather technical information and data using a variety of resources.
    3. Analyze information and data for value to the research objectives.
    4. Evaluate information and data to determine value to research objectives.
Plus IV. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS: Use information technology tools specific to the career cluster to access, manage, integrate, and create information.
  Plus A. Use Personal Information Management (PIM) applications to increase workplace efficiency.
    1. Manage personal schedules and contact information.
    2. Create memos and notes.
  Plus B. Employ technological tools to expedite workflow.
    1. Use information technology tools to manage and perform work responsibilities.
  Plus C. Operate electronic mail applications to communicate within a workplace.
    1. Use email to share files and documents.
    2. Identify the functions and purpose of email systems.
    3. Use email to communicate within and across organizations.
  Plus D. Operate Internet applications to perform workplace tasks.
    1. Access and navigate Internet (e.g., use a web browser).
    2. Search for information and resources.
    3. Evaluate Internet resources for reliability and validity.
  Plus E. Operate writing and publishing applications to prepare business communications.
    1. Prepare simple documents and other business communications.
    2. Prepare reports and other business communications by integrating graphics and other non-text elements.
    3. Prepare complex multi-media publications.
  Plus F. Operate presentation applications to prepare presentations.
    1. Prepare presentations for training, sales and information sharing.
    2. Deliver presentations with supporting materials.
  Plus G. Employ spreadsheet applications to organize and manipulate data.
    1. Create a spreadsheet.
    2. Perform calculations and analyses on data using a spreadsheet.
  Plus H. Employ database applications to manage data.
    1. Manipulate data elements.
    2. Manage interrelated data elements.
    3. Analyze interrelated data elements.
    4. Generate reports showing interrelated data elements.
  Plus I. Employ collaborative/groupware applications to facilitate group work.
    1. Facilitate group work through management of shared schedule and contact information.
    2. Facilitate group work through management of shared files and online information.
    3. Facilitate group work through instant messaging or virtual meetings.
  Plus J. Employ computer operations applications to manage work tasks.
    1. Manage computer operations.
    2. Manage file storage.
    3. Compress or alter files.
  Plus K. Use computer-based equipment (containing embedded computers or processors) to control devices.
    1. Operate computer driven equipment and machines.
    2. Use installation and operation manuals.
    3. Troubleshoot computer driven equipment and machines.
    4. Access support as needed to maintain operation of computer driven equipment and machines.
Plus V. SYSTEMS: Understand roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment. Identify how key organizational systems affect organizational performance and the quality of products and services. Understand global context of industries and careers.
  Plus A. Describe the nature and types of business organizations to build an understanding of the scope of organizations.
    1. List the types and functions of businesses.
    2. Describe the types and functions of businesses.
    3. Explain the functions and interactions of common departments within a business.
  Plus B. Implement quality control systems and practices to ensure quality products and services.
    1. Describe quality control standards and practices common to the workplace.
Plus VI. SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL: Understand the importance of health, safety, and environmental management systems in organizations and their importance to organizational performance and regulatory compliance. Follow organizational policies and procedures and contribute to continuous improvement in performance and compliance.
  Plus A. Implement personal and jobsite safety rules and regulations to maintain safe and healthful working conditions and environments.
    1. Assess workplace conditions with regard to safety and health.
    2. Align safety issues with appropriate safety standards to ensure a safe workplace/jobsite.
    3. Identify safety hazards common to workplaces.
    4. Identify safety precautions to maintain a safe worksite.
    5. Select appropriate personal protective equipment as needed for a safe workplace/jobsite.
    6. Inspect personal protective equipment commonly used for selected career pathway.
    7. Use personal protective equipment according to manufacturer rules and regulations.
    8. Employ a safety hierarchy and communication system within the workplace/jobsite.
    9. Implement safety precautions to maintain a safe worksite.
  Plus B. Complete work tasks in accordance with employee rights and responsibilities and employers obligations to maintain workplace safety and health.
    1. Identify rules and laws designed to promote safety and health in the workplace.
    2. State the rationale of rules and laws designed to promote safety and health.
  Plus C. Employ emergency procedures as necessary to provide aid in workplace accidents.
    1. Use knowledge of First Aid procedures as necessary.
    2. Use knowledge of CPR procedures as necessary.
    3. Use safety equipment as necessary.
  Plus D. Employ knowledge of response techniques to create a disaster and/or emergency response plan.
    1. Complete an assessment of an emergency and/or disaster situation.
    2. Create an emergency and/or disaster plan.
Plus VII. LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK: Use leadership and teamwork skills in collaborating with others to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
  Plus A. Employ leadership skills to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
    1. Analyze the various roles of leaders within organizations (e.g. contribute ideas; share in building an organization; act as role models to employees by adhering to company policies, procedures, and standards; promote the organization’s vision; and mentor others).
    2. Exhibit traits such as empowerment, risk, communication, focusing on results, decision-making, problem solution, and investment in individuals when leading a group in solving a problem.
    3. Exhibit traits such as compassion, service, listening, coaching, developing others, team development, and understanding and appreciating others when acting as a manager of others in the workplace.
    4. Exhibit traits such as enthusiasm, creativity, conviction, mission, courage, concept, focus, principle-centered living, and change when interacting with others in general.
    5. Consider issues related to self, team, community, diversity, environment, and global awareness when leading others.
    6. Exhibit traits such as innovation, intuition, adaptation, life-long learning and coachability to develop leadership potential over time.
    7. Analyze leadership in relation to trust, positive attitude, integrity, and willingness to accept key responsibilities in a work situation.
    8. Describe observations of outstanding leaders using effective management styles.
    9. Participate in civic and community leadership and teamwork opportunities to enhance skills.
  Plus B. Employ organizational and staff development skills to foster positive working relationships and accomplish organizational goals.
    1. Implement organizational skills when facilitating others’ work efforts.
    2. Explain how to manage a staff that satisfies work demands while adhering to budget constraints.
    3. Describe how staff growth and development to increase productivity and employee satisfaction.
    4. Organize team involvement within a group environment.
    5. Work with others to develop and gain commitment to team goals.
    6. Distribute responsibility and work load fairly.
    7. Model leadership and teamwork qualities to aid in employee morale.
    8. Identify best practices for successful team functioning.
    9. Explain best practices for successful team functioning.
  Plus C. Employ teamwork skills to achieve collective goals and use team members' talents effectively.
    1. Work with others to achieve objectives in a timely manner.
    2. Promote the full involvement and use of team members' individual talents and skills.
    3. Employ conflict-management skills to facilitate solutions.
    4. Demonstrate teamwork skills through working cooperatively with co-workers, supervisory staff, and others, both in and out of the organization, to achieve particular tasks.
    5. Demonstrate teamwork processes that provide team building, consensus, continuous improvement, respect for the opinions of others, cooperation, adaptability, and conflict resolution.
    6. Develop plans to improve team performance.
    7. Demonstrate commitment to and a positive attitude toward team goals.
    8. Take responsibility for shared group and individual work tasks.
    9. Assist team members in completing their work.
    10. Adapt effectively to changes in projects and work activities.
    11. Negotiate effectively to arrive at decisions.
  Plus D. Establish and maintain effective working relationships with all levels of personnel and other departments in order to accomplish objectives and tasks.
    1. Build effective working relationships using interpersonal skills.
    2. Use positive interpersonal skills to work cooperatively with co-workers representing different cultures, genders and backgrounds.
    3. Manage personal skills to accomplish assignments.
    4. Treat people with respect.
    5. Provide constructive praise and criticism.
    6. Demonstrate sensitivity to and value for diversity.
    7. Manage stress and control emotions.
  Plus E. Conduct and participate in meetings to accomplish work tasks.
    1. Develop meeting goals, objectives and agenda.
    2. Assign responsibilities for preparing materials and leading discussions.
    3. Prepare materials for leading discussion.
    4. Assemble and distribute meeting materials.
    5. Conduct meeting to achieve objectives within scheduled time.
    6. Demonstrate effective communication skills in meetings.
    7. Produce meeting minutes including decisions and next steps.
    8. Use parliamentary procedure, as needed, to conduct meetings.
  Plus F. Employ mentoring skills to inspire and teach others.
    1. Use motivational techniques to enhance performance in others.
    2. Provide guidance to enhance performance in others.
Plus VIII. ETHICS AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES: Know and understand the importance of professional ethics and legal responsibilities.
  Plus A. Apply ethical reasoning to a variety of workplace situations in order to make ethical decisions.
    1. Evaluate alternative responses to workplace situations based on legal responsibilities and employer policies.
    2. Evaluate alternative responses to workplace situations based on personal or professional ethical responsibilities.
    3. Identify personal and long-term workplace consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors.
    4. Explain personal and long-term workplace consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors.
    5. Determine the most appropriate response to workplace situations based on legal and ethical considerations.
    6. Explain the most appropriate response to workplace situations based on legal and ethical considerations.
  Plus B. Interpret and explain written organizational policies and procedures to help employees perform their jobs according to employer rules and expectations.
    1. Locate information on organizational policies in handbooks and manuals.
    2. Discuss how specific organizational policies and procedures influence a specific work situation.
Plus IX. EMPLOYABILITY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT: Know and understand the importance of employability skills. Explore, plan, and effectively manage careers. Know and understand the importance of entrepreneurship skills.
  Plus A. Identify and demonstrate positive work behaviors and personal qualities needed to be employable.
    1. Demonstrate self-discipline, self-worth, positive attitude, and integrity in a work situation.
    2. Demonstrate flexibility and willingness to learn new knowledge and skills.
    3. Exhibit commitment to the organization.
    4. Identify how work varies with regard to site, from indoor confined spaces to outdoor areas, including aerial space and a variety of climatic and physical conditions.
    5. Apply communication strategies when adapting to a culturally diverse environment.
    6. Manage resources in relation to the position (i.e. budget, supplies, computer, etc).
    7. Identify positive work-qualities typically desired in each of the career cluster's pathways.
    8. Manage work roles and responsibilities to balance them with other life roles and responsibilities.
  Plus B. Develop a personal career plan to meet career goals and objectives.
    1. Develop career goals and objectives as part of a plan for future career direction.
    2. Develop strategies to reach career objectives.
  Plus C. Demonstrate skills related to seeking and applying for employment to find and obtain a desired job.
    1. Use multiple resources to locate job opportunities.
    2. Prepare a résumé.
    3. Prepare a letter of application.
    4. Complete an employment application.
    5. Interview for employment.
    6. List the standards and qualifications that must be met in order to enter a given industry.
    7. Employ critical thinking and decision-making skills to exhibit qualifications to a potential employer.
  Plus D. Maintain a career portfolio to document knowledge, skills and experience in a career field.
    1. Select educational and work history highlights to include in a career portfolio.
    2. Produce a record of work experiences, licenses, certifications and products.
    3. Organize electronic or physical portfolio for use in demonstrating knowledge, skills and experiences.
  Plus E. Demonstrate skills in evaluating and comparing employment opportunities in order to accept employment positions that match career goals.
    1. Compare employment opportunities to individual needs and career plan objectives.
    2. Evaluate employment opportunities based upon individual needs and career plan objectives.
    3. Demonstrate appropriate methods for accepting or rejecting employment offers.
  Plus F. Identify and exhibit traits for retaining employment to maintain employment once secured.
    1. Model behaviors that demonstrate reliability and dependability.
    2. Maintain appropriate dress and behavior for the job to contribute to a safe and effective workplace/jobsite.
    3. Complete required employment forms and documentation such as I-9 form, work visa, W-4 and licensures to meet employment requirements.
    4. Summarize key activities necessary to retain a job in the industry.
    5. Identify positive work behaviors and personal qualities necessary to retain employment.
  Plus G. Identify and explore career opportunities in one or more career pathways to build an understanding of the opportunities available in the cluster.
    1. Locate and identify career opportunities that appeal to personal career goals.
    2. Match personal interest and aptitudes to selected careers.
  Plus H. Recognize and act upon requirements for career advancement to plan for continuing education and training.
    1. Identify opportunities for career advancement.
    2. Pursue education and training opportunities to acquire skills necessary for career advancement.
    3. Examine the organization and structure of various segments of the industry to prepare for career advancement.
    4. Research local and regional labor (workforce) market and job growth information to project potential for advancement.
    5. Manage employment relations to make career advancements.
  Plus I. Continue professional development to keep current on relevant trends and information within the industry.
    1. Use self assessment, organizational priorities, journals, Internet sites, professional associations, peers and other resources to develop goals that address training, education and self-improvement issues.
    2. Read trade magazines and journals, manufacturers’ catalogues, industry publications and Internet sites to keep current on industry trends.
    3. Participate in relevant conferences, workshops, mentoring activities and in-service training to stay current with recent changes in the field.
  Plus J. Examine licensing, certification and credentialing requirements at the national, state and local levels to maintain compliance with industry requirements.
    1. Examine continuing education requirements related to licensing, certification, and credentialing requirements at the local, state and national levels for chosen occupation.
    2. Examine the procedures and paperwork involved in maintaining and updating licensure, certification and credentials for chosen occupation.
    3. Align ongoing licensing, certification and credentialing requirements to career plans and goals.
  Plus K. Examine employment opportunities in entrepreneurship to consider entrepreneurship as an option for career planning.
    1. Describe the opportunities for entrepreneurship in a given industry.
Plus X. TECHNICAL SKILLS: Use of technical knowledge and skills required to pursue careers in all career cluster, including knowledge of design, operation, and maintenance of technological systems critical to the career cluster.
  Plus A. Employ information management techniques and strategies in the workplace to assist in decision-making.
    1. Use information literacy skills when accessing, evaluating and disseminating information.
    2. Describe the nature and scope of information management.
    3. Maintain records to facilitate ongoing business operations.
  Plus B. Employ planning and time management skills and tools to enhance results and complete work tasks.
    1. Develop goals and objectives.
    2. Prioritize tasks to be completed.
    3. Develop timelines using time management knowledge and skills.
    4. Use project-management skills to improve workflow and minimize costs.

Plus Career & Employability Standards

Plus I. APPLIED ACADEMIC SKILLS
  Plus A. Reading, English & Language Arts
    1. Read a technical manual and write a clear & logical report explaining the information using standared business English.
    2. Give a verbal report on reading from a technical manual.
    3. Read a case study and identify the details about the situation, define technical terms, jargon, or words with multiple meanings based on context, and summarize the conclusion.
    4. Take a verbal and written position on a topic and use correct grammar to defend it.
  Plus B. Mathematics
    1. Approach practical and workplace problems using a variety of mathematical techniques.
    2. Research how math is used in the workplace and make a presentation detailing the process.
  Plus C. Listening & Presentation Skills
    1. Use correct grammar to communicate verbally.
    2. Listen to a presentation and record important information. Report back identifying central themes and use key points to explain how the message applies to a similar situation.
  Plus D. Technology
    1. Apply technology to workplace or career situation. Include research and a written paper.
Plus II. CAREER PLANNING
  Plus A. Career Planning
    1. Organize career information and labor market trends from a variety of sources.
    2. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of working for self, others, being an employee of a large or small organization.
    3. Analyze information & preferences from work-based opportunity.
    4. Interpret information from a variety of career assessments to identify career interests and abilities.
    5. Apply a decision-making model and use career assessment information to choose a career pathway.
    6. Annually review EDP and include plan for continuing education.
Plus III. DEVELOPING AND PRESENTING INFORMATION
  Plus A. Developing and Presenting information
    1. Gather, interpret, analyze, and refine data.
    2. Analyze and synthesize information and data from muiltiple sources.
    3. Plan and transform ideas and requirements into a concept, service, or product.
    4. Assess the quality of the concept, service, or product using a predetermined standard.
    5. Develop a plan to market a new product, service, or concept which includes identifying of customers, a graphic presentation, product requirements, and costs.
    6. Practice and demonstrate presentation skils using a variety of media and interpretive data.
Plus IV. PROBLEM SOLVING
  Plus A. Problem Solving
    1. Apply a problem solving model to a workplace situation that involves setting goals, implementing and evaluating results.
    2. Identify typical problems that occur in a workplace and use a problem solving model to devise solutions, compare alternatives to past solutions, and predict their success.
Plus V. PERSONAL MANAGEMENT
  Plus A. Responsibility
    1. Demonstrate regular attendance, promptness, and staying with a task until satisfacotry completion.
    2. Complete assignments with minimum supervision and meet deadlines.
    3. Use mistakes as learning opportunities, demonstrate persistence and adaptability to change.
    4. Initiate projects and extra activities for personal satisfaction.
  Plus B. Self-Management
    1. Monitor & evaluate accurately one's progress towards a goal or completion of a project.
    2. Demonstrate health and safety practices and drug-free behavior in school & workplace setting.
    3. Obtain a driver license and demonstrate driving skills and safety and/or use public transportation.
    4. Prioritize and accomplish tasks independently.
    5. Use appropriate personal expression and relate to school and work settings.
  Plus C. Ethical Behavior
    1. Demonstrate etlhical behavior in school, work, and community situations.
    2. Describe employer-employee rights and responsibilities.
    3. Demonstrate appropriate behaviors necessary to maintaining employment.
    4. Demonstrate positive personal qualities as a group leader.
  Plus D. Respect for Self and Others
    1. View accomplishments or failures of self and others accurately and in a positive manner.
    2. Understand how to make improvements and ask for help from adults as needed.
    3. Offer encouragement and ideas to others as they work toward attaining their goals.
    4. Provide for customer needs and expectations in a helpful and courteous manner.
    5. Respect other points of view.
    6. Demonstrate customer service skills in an appropriate setting by listening, suggesting solutions, and communicating the issues at hand.
Plus VI. ORGANIZING SKILLS
  Plus A. Time
    1. Determine goals and develop an action plan to accomplish them within a given time frame.
    2. Read time charts and work schedules and perform tasks within time constraints of school or the workplace.
    3. Prioritize tasks and revise schedules as needed.
  Plus B. Money
    1. Estimate costs and prepare a detailed budget for a school-based or work-based project.
    2. Report the costs of various components of a budget and adjust budget items as needed.
    3. Understand compensation practices and financial management and explain how financial resources can be used effectively and efficiently.
  Plus C. Materials
    1. Utilize materials, tools, and processes to complete a task related to a career selection.
    2. Compile a list of materials and supplies needed in advance of an assignment.
    3. Acquire resources in a timely fashion and take responsibility for their care.
    4. Identify and prepare tools, equipment, space, and facilities appropriate for a task.
    5. Work within constraints of safety precautions and available resources.
  Plus D. Human Resources
    1. Learn cooperation and leadership in a team at school or in a workplace setting.
    2. Organize and communicate with members of a team using varied methods of communications.
    3. Recognize the individual roles of team members, delegate tasks, and give feedback on performance.
    4. Acknowledge and utilize the skills, abilities, and input of all member of a team.
Plus VII. TEAMWORK
  Plus A. Group Participation
    1. Exhibit teamwork skills including trust and loyalty to group, and demonstrate connectedness to group members, values, and culture.
    2. Take personal responsibility for influencing and accomplishing group goals.
    3. Demonstrate understanding of how effective teams operate within organization and diverse settings.
    4. Solve a career/work-related problem as a member of a team.
  Plus B. Conflict Resolution
    1. Demonstrate leadership by listening to others and asking appropriate questions to clarify a problem or issue.
    2. Summarize a problem clearly and in appropriate detail.
    3. Suggest constructive alternatives with confidence that will help resolve a conflict.
    4. Compromise and/or build consensus within a group and summarize the decision of the group while maintaining respect for minortiy viewpoints.
    5. Participate in the implementation of a group's decision and evaluate the results.
    6. Show sensitivity to others' thoughts and opinions and relate them to the resolution process.
  Plus C. Diversity
    1. Understand and respect the concerns of members of cultural, gender, age, and ability groups.
    2. Be respectful of a variety of differences of people in a work/school setting.
    3. Demonstrate ability to work with others with different backgrounds, cultures, and abilities.
  Plus D. Leadership
    1. Demonstrate leadership ability in a work or school setting.
    2. Recognize and take advantage of leadership opportunities that give direction to other team members, or that encourage other members to complete tasks.
Plus VIII. NEGOTIATION SKILLS
  Plus A. Negotiation Skills
    1. Using correct terminology, clarify the problem or issue to be negotiated.
    2. Identify, organize, and define ideas from various sources to logically support a position and use these ideas in debate.
    3. Demonstrate objectivity in assessing other viewpoints by considering all sides of an issue, using past experience, data and logical analysis, and showing respectful behavior towards others.
    4. Responsibily challenge existing policies and procedures and identify new solutions or policy changes.
Plus IX. UNDERSTANDING SYSTEMS AND USING TECHNOLOGY
  Plus A. Understanding Systems and Using Technology
    1. Identify trends and how they affect changes within a system.
    2. Demonstrate an understanding of business systems.
    3. Compare management systems and consider how employees function and adapt to change within them.
    4. Describe the technical systems related to a career interest area.
    5. Diagnose and make necessary corrections or improvements to a technical system in a business, industry, or simulated work place setting.
    6. Describe how changes in technology have impacted business and industry, identify current trends, and recommend how a technical system might be improved.
    7. Demonstrate the use of equipment and machines to solve practical or work-based problems.
    8. Demonstrate effective use of a variety of on-line technological resources.
    9. Determine what kind of application is needed for a given task and use effectively.
    10. Use technologies as tools for communication of technical or work-related information.
    11. Use technology effectively in solving problems in an area of career interest.
    12. Understand and demonstrate basic computer hardware and software installation and maintaining efficient machines.
    13. Demonstrate ability to adapt to different software applications, comparing and contrasting specfic functions and applying them to different projects.
Plus X. EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS
  Plus A. Employability Skills
    1. Continue the EDP process which includes an annual review with student and counselor and notification of parents.
    2. Participate in work-based opportunities such as job-shadowing, mentorships, work experiences, etc.
    3. Show ability to market oneself by preparing for and completing an interview process.
    4. Accurately complete records/documents to support job applications (inquiry letters, resume, references, evaluations, follow-up letters).
    5. Use a portfolio, resume, record of attendance, certifricates, and/or transcript as self-marketing tools to demonstrate interest and competence.
    6. Apply career and labormarket information to seek and obtain employment and/or pursue educational goals.
    7. Research availability of educational programs, financial requirements, and resource and complete an application process as appropriate for career goals.
    8. Understand the need for lifelong learning in a rapidly changing job market.
Plus XI. MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS
  Plus A. Creativity and Innovation – By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Apply advanced software features (e.g. built-in thesaurus, templates, styles) to redesign the appearance of word processing documents, spreadsheets, and presentations
    2. Create a web page (e.g., Dreamweaver, iGoogle, Kompozer)
    3. Use a variety of media and formats to design, develop, publish, and present projects (e.g., newsletters, web sites, presentations, photo galleries)
  Plus B. Communication and Collaboration - By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Identify various collaboration technologies and describe their use (e.g., desktop conferencing, listserv, blog, wiki)
    2. Use available technologies (e.g., desktop conferencing, e-mail, videoconferencing, instant messaging) to communicate with others on a class assignment or project
    3. Collaborate in content-related projects that integrate a variety of media (e.g., print, audio, video, graphic, simulations, and models)
    4. Plan and implement a collaborative project using telecommunications tools (e.g., ePals, discussion boards, online groups, interactive web sites, videoconferencing)
    5. Describe the potential risks and dangers associated with online communications
    6. Use technology tools for managing and communicating personal information (e.g., finances, contact information, schedules, purchases, correspondence)
  Plus C. Research and Information Fluency – By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Develop a plan to gather information using various research strategies (e.g., interviews, questionnaires, experiments, online surveys)
    2. Identify, evaluate, and select appropriate online sources to answer content related questions
    3. Demonstrate the ability to use library and online databases for accessing information (e.g., MEL, Proquest, Infosource, United Streaming)
    4. Distinguish between fact, opinion, point of view, and inference
    5. Evaluate information found in selected online sources on the basis of accuracy and validity
    6. Evalate resources for stereotyping, prejudice, and misrepresentation
    7. Understand that using information from a single internet source might result in the reporting of erroneous facts and that multiple sources must always be researched
    8. Research examples of inappropriate use of technologies and participate in related classroom activities (e.g., debates, reports, mock trials, presentations)
  Plus D. Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making - By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Use digital resources (e.g., educational software, simulations, models) for problem solving and independent learning
    2. Analyze the capabilities and limitations of digital resources and evaluate their potential to address personal, social, lifelong learning, and career needs
    3. Devise a research question or hypothesis using information and communication technology resources, analyze the findings to make a decision based on the findings, and report the results
  Plus E. Digital Citizenship – By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Identify legal and ethical issues related to the use of information and communication technologies (e.g., properly selecting and citing resources)
    2. Discuss possible long-range effects of unethical uses of technology (e.g., virus spreading, file pirating, hacking) on cultures and society
    3. Discuss and demonstrate proper netiquette in online communications
    4. Identify ways that individuals can protect their technology systems from unethical or unscrupulous users
    5. Create appropriate citations for resources when presenting research findings
    6. Discuss and adhere to fair use policies and copyright guidelines
  Plus F. Technology Operations and Concepts - By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Complete at least one online credit, or non-credit, course or online learning experience
    2. Use an online tutorial and discuss the benefits and disadvantages of this method of learning
    3. Explore career opportunities, especially those related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics and identify their related technology skill requirements
    4. Describe uses of various existing or emerging technology resources (e.g., podcasting, webcasting, videoconferencing, online file sharing, global positioning software)
    5. Identify an example of an assistive technology and describe its potential purpose and use
    6. Participate in a virtual environment as a strategy to build 21st century learning skills
    7. Assess and solve hardware and software problems by using online help or other user documentation
    8. Explain the differences between freeware, shareware, open source, and commercial software
    9. Participate in experiences associated with technology-related careers
    10. Identify common graphic, audio, and video file formats (e.g., jpeg, gif, bmp, mpeg, wav, wmv, mp3, flv, avi, pdf)
    11. Understand and discuss how assistive technologies can benefit all individuals
    12. Demonstrate how to import/export text, graphics, or audio files
    13. Proofread and edit a document using an application’s spelling and grammar checking functions