52.0800 - Finance (2010 Implement by Fall 2012)

Plus Technical Standards

Plus I. Technical Standards (AP Accounting Pilot Standards June 2010)
  Plus A. Introduction to Accounting (Module 1)
    1. Explain how and why the conceptual framework of accounting and generally accepted accounting principles provide guidance and structure for preparing financial statements
    2. Describe the information provided in each financial statement and how the statements articulate with each other.
    3. Identify business ownership structures
    4. Explain the role of management and the auditor in preparing and issuing an annual report.
    5. Describe the relationship between assets, liabilities and equity on the balance sheet.
    6. Identify and explain the classifications within assets, liabilities, and equity.
    7. Define and calculate the current ratio and debt-equity ratio
    8. Describe the information presented in an income statement. (See supplement)
    9. Calculate return on sales (net profit margin) and return on equity
    10. Identify and explain the three phases of the management cycle.
    11. Identify and explain the four business processes.
    12. Explain and calculate the operating cycle ( accounts receivable turnover and inventory turnover)
    13. Explain how internal control procedures are used to safeguard assets.
    14. Prepare a bank reconciliation.
  Plus B. Accounting Information System (Module 3)
    1. Describe the purpose of the accounting system.
    2. Describe the purpose of journals and ledgers and their relationship.
    3. Analyze and describe how business transactions impact the accounting equation.
    4. Apply the double-entry system of accounting to record business transactions and prepare a trial balance.
    5. Explain the need for adjusting entries and record adjusting entries.
    6. Prepare the financial statements for the different types of business operations and ownership structures.
    7. Explain the purposes of the closing process and record closing entries.
    8. Complete the steps in the accounting cycle and prepare financial statements. (Practice set)
  Plus C. Accounting for Merchandising Companies (Module 3 & 4)
    1. Describe the differences between the periodic and perpetual inventory systems.
    2. Record business transactions using the periodic inventory system and the perpetual inventory system.
    3. Describe the difference between the gross price method and the net price method.
    4. Record business transactions using the gross price method and the net price method.
    5. Determine cash paid for inventory and operating expenses.
    6. Identify and describe the cost flow assumptions for inventory and explain the impact on the balance sheet and income statement.
    7. Calculate cost of goods sold and ending inventory using LIFO and FIFO inventory costing methods.
    8. Explain how inventory for a manufacturing business differs from inventory for a merchandising business.
    9. Explain how an activity-based costing system operates, including the identification of activity cost pools, and the selection of cost drivers.
    10. Explain the flow of costs through the manufacturing accounts used in product costing.
    11. Compute a predetermined overhead rate, and explain its use in job-order costing.
    12. Determine whether manufacturing overhead is over/under-applied.
    13. Prepare journal entries to record the costs of direct material, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead in a job-order costing system.
    14. Prepare a schedule of cost of goods manufactured, a schedule of cost of goods sold, and an income statement for a manufacturer.
  Plus D. Introduction to Taxes (Module 3)
    1. Calculate payroll taxes.
  Plus E. Accounting for Sales and Accounts Receivable (Module 4)
    1. Describe the criteria used to determine revenue recognition.
    2. Record revenue-related transactions.
    3. Explain the accounting methods used to determine the value of accounts receivable to be reported on the balance sheet and describe the effect on the income statement.
    4. Record transactions for accounts receivable, including uncollectible accounts, write-offs, and recoveries.
  Plus F. Time Value of Money (Module 5)
    1. Determine the present value and future value cash flows
  Plus G. Accounting for Fixed Assets (Module 6)
    1. Use net present value concepts to make investment decisions.
    2. Explain the purpose and methods of cost allocation.
    3. Calculate and record depreciation, depletion and amortization and explain the impact on the financial statements.
    4. Record the sale and disposal of fixed assets and the impact on the financial statements.
  Plus H. Accounting for Debt (Module 7)
    1. Compare and contrast debt and equity financing.
    2. Define and calculate TIE (Times-interest-earned ratio)
    3. Compare and contrast a periodic payment note payable, a lump-sum note payable, and a periodic and lump-sum note payable.
    4. Calculate the carrying value, interest expense and cash payment for note payable (periodic payment, lump-sum, periodic and lump-sum) transactions.
    5. Record transactions for notes payable: issuance and interest expense.
    6. Record transactions for bonds issued at face value, a premium and a discount.
    7. Record interest expense for bonds issued at face value, a premium and a discount using the straight-line method and effective-interest method.
  Plus I. Accounting for Stockholder’s Equity (Module 7)
    1. Identify and describe the different classes of stock and explain the rights afforded each class of stock.
    2. Describe the difference between cash dividends, stock dividends and stock splits, and the impact on the financial statements
    3. Record stock transactions: contributions by owners, corporate distributions (dividends), and the reacquisition of company stock.
  Plus J. Financial Statements (Module 8)
    1. Describe the information provided in an income statement, and the purpose of an income statement.
    2. Prepare an income statement.
    3. Explain the difference in net income and income from continuing operations (discontinued operations, extraordinary items).
    4. Describe the information provided in a balance sheet and statement of equity, and the purpose of a balance sheet and statement of equity.
    5. Prepare a balance sheet and statement of equity.
    6. Describe the information provided in statement of cash flows, and the purpose of a statement of cash flows.
    7. Prepare a statement of cash flows using the direct method
  Plus K. Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis (Module 2)
    1. Identify the activities in the three operating processes.
    2. Identify and explain variable costs, fixed costs, and mixed costs.
    3. Use high-low analysis to determine variable costs, fixed costs, and mixed costs.
    4. Calculate break-even point and perform cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis.
    5. Apply sensitivity analysis to CVP analysis.
    6. Determine selling price using sensitivity analysis and CVP analysis.
    7. Describe the process of determining selling prices and demonstrate how various strategies are used to determine selling price
    8. Describe the differences among product and non-product costs.
    9. Identify and explain product costs: direct/indirect materials, direct/indirect labor, manufacturing overhead.
    10. Record direct materials and direct labor transactions.
    11. Analyze a make-or-buy decision.
    12. Describe the process of determining selling prices and demonstrate how various strategies are used to determine selling price.
  Plus L. Summary of Ratios:
    1. Assess a company’s profitability by calculating: Return on sales (Net profit margin) (Module 1)
    2. Assess a company’s profitability by calculating: Earnings per share (EPS) (Module 8)
    3. Assess a company’s profitability by calculating: DuPont ROI (ROA) (Module 8)
    4. Assess a company’s profitability by calculating: ROE (Return on Equity) (Module 1)
    5. Assess a company’s liquidity and solvency by calculating: Current ratio (Module 1)
    Plus 6. Assess a company’s liquidity and solvency by calculating: Operating cycle (Module 1)
        a. Inventory turnover in days
        b. accounts receivable turnover in days
    7. Assess a company’s debt position and ability to pay interest by calculating: Debt-equity ratio (Module 1)
    8. Assess a company’s debt position and ability to pay interest by calculating: TIE (Times-interest-earned ratio) (Module 7)
Plus II. Technical Standards (NOCTI Accounting)
  Plus A. Journalizing
    1. Journalize an opening entry
    2. Interpret information contained in source documents
    3. Follow principles of double-entry bookkeeping in the journalizing process
    4. Record entries in special journals
    5. Total and post special journals
    6. Adjust for bad debts using direct write off or allowance methods
    7. Analyze transactions involving owners’ equity
  Plus B. Posting
    1. Post from special journals to general and subsidiary ledger accounts
    2. Demonstrate understanding of multicolumn ledgers
    3. Demonstrate familiarity with computerized posting methods
    4. Use appropriate posting references
    5. Prove accuracy of posting to ensure entries are in-balance
  Plus C. Payroll Preparation
    1. Calculate employee earnings based on hourly and/or salaried time records
    2. Enter payroll data in a payroll earnings record
    3. Demonstrate familiarity with electronic payroll data entry
    4. Complete a payroll register
    5. Prepare a payroll check and check stub with appropriate information
    6. Record information found on W-4 forms in employee data section
    7. Demonstrate understanding of payroll taxes
    8. Demonstrate understanding of employer payroll liabilities
    9. Journalize payroll entries at end of earnings period in appropriate journals
    10. Demonstrate understanding of processes and functions of various payroll records
  Plus D. Banking and Banking Procedures
    1. Complete check stubs and checks
    2. Enter appropriate data on a deposit slip
    3. Reconcile a bank statement
    4. Follow-up on outstanding checks, including voiding and/or reissuing checks
    5. Demonstrate familiarity with online and electronic banking procedures
    6. Exhibit understanding of credit cards and/or debit cards
  Plus E. Merchandise Inventory
    1. Demonstrate knowledge of a merchandise inventory account
    2. Analyze effects on accounts by the purchase of merchandise
    3. Analyze effects on accounts by the sale of merchandise
    4. Demonstrate the ability to determine the cost of merchandise sold
    5. Prepare adjusting entries based on physical inventory
  Plus F. Completion of Accounting Cycle
    1. Complete 8 or 10 column worksheets
    2. Prepare the needed financial statements from a completed worksheet
    3. Verify the financial statements against the worksheet for accuracy
    4. Record and post adjusting and closing entries
    5. Locate and correct accounting errors
    6. Prepare post-closing trial balance from general ledger
  Plus G. Locating Source Data
    1. Identify uses of business forms used in bookkeeping and/or accounting
    2. Locate data from a bookkeeping and/or accounting record or source document
    3. Manipulate electronic data for various bookkeeping and/or accounting purposes
  Plus H. Mechanical and Electronic Accounting Devices
    1. Demonstrate ability to use calculator, adding machine, and computer
    2. Demonstrate ability to understand charts and graphs
    3. Demonstrate familiarity with basic computer terminology
    4. Demonstrate basic familiarity with spreadsheet software
  Plus I. Advanced Accounting Practices
    1. Demonstrate understanding of cash or accrual accounting
    2. Demonstrate understanding of departmentalized accounting
    3. Demonstrate understanding of terminology relating to accounting
    4. Demonstrate entry use to establish and replenish the petty cash fund
    5. Apply the various methods of maintaining inventory
    6. Differentiate between proprietorship, partnership, and corporation
    7. Demonstrate accounting procedures used in partnerships
    8. Record accounting entries for the installment payment systems
    9. Determine uncollectible accounts through aging of accounts receivable
    10. Record bookkeeping entries for distributing dividends
    11. Recognize and understand the concept of goodwill
    12. Record entries for research and developmental costs
    13. Demonstrate understanding of stocks, dividends, declarations and payments
    14. Record entries for corporations issuing cash dividends
    15. Analyze and project net yearly income

Plus Pathway Standards

Plus I. BUSINESS LAW
  Plus A. Describe and abide by laws and regulations in order to manage business operations and transactions in corporate finance.
    Plus 1. Describe regulations governing corporate finance.
        a. Explain laws and regulations pertaining to business finance
        b. Explain the nature of business taxation
        c. Describe regulations and laws governing ownership change transactions
    Plus 2. Explain the role of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission in the regulation of corporate finance.
        a. Discuss the impact of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission Division of Corporation Finance on business finance
Plus II. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
  Plus A. Maintain, monitor, control, and plan the use of financial resources to ensure business stability.
    Plus 1. Describe fundamental financial concepts involved in the management of corporate finances.
        a. Discuss the nature of depreciation
        b. Describe the nature of cash flows
    Plus 2. Discuss the need for efficient capital markets in corporate finance.
        a. Explain the role of efficient capital markets in business finance
    Plus 3. Explore capital budgeting.
        a. Discuss the capital budgeting process
    Plus 4. Perform calculations necessary for capital budgeting decision-making.
        a. Calculate the initial investment associated with a proposed capital expenditure
        b. Determine operating cash inflows
        c. Determine terminal cash flow
    Plus 5. Conduct cash flow analysis to select an acceptable capital expenditure.
        a. Discuss the nature of relevant cash flow analysis
        b. Explain the nature of the payback period
        c. Calculate the payback period
        d. Discuss the use of net present value (NPV)
        e. Explain the relationship between the internal rate of return and net present value
        f. Calculate the net present value (NPV)
        g. Calculate the internal rate of return (IRR)
    Plus 6. Explain the role of financial planning in corporate finance.
        a. Discuss the financial planning process
        b. Discuss the nature of short-term (operating) financial plans
        c. Describe the nature of long-term (strategic) financial plans
    Plus 7. Conduct cash planning.
        a. Explain the use of cash budgets
        b. Cope with uncertainty in cash budgets
        c. Prepare a cash budget
        d. Evaluate a cash budget
    Plus 8. Conduct profit planning.
        a. Discuss the use of pro forma statements in profit planning
        b. Develop a pro forma income statement
        c. Prepare a pro forma balance sheet
        d. Evaluate pro forma statements
    Plus 9. Describe short-term financial management.
        a. Describe the nature of short-term financial management
    Plus 10. Explain the role of valuation in making appropriate financial decisions for a company.
        a. Discuss the role of project valuation in capital allocation decisions
        b. Discuss methods for valuing flexibility
        c. Discuss the valuation implications in business finance
    Plus 11. Analyze a company's financial statements.
        a. Discuss the analysis of a company's financial situation using its financial statements
        b. Discuss external forces affecting a company's value
        c. Explain how value is created for a company
        d. Analyze a company's financial situation
    Plus 12. Calculate business ratios to evaluate company performance.
        a. Discuss the use of financial ratios in business finance
        b. Determine business liquidity
        c. Calculate corporate activity ratios
        d. Calculate corporate debt ratios
        e. Calculate business profitability
        f. Calculate market ratios
        g. Discuss the use of benchmarks when analyzing ratios
        h. Describe bankruptcy prediction models
    Plus 13. Utilize capital market securities to secure financing for a company.
        a. Discuss ways to determine the best financing option for a company
        b. Determine financing options for a company
        c. Discuss the nature of corporate bonds
        d. Discuss the cost of long-term debt
        e. Determine the cost of long-term debt
        f. Discuss the issuance of stock from a corporation
        g. Calculate the cost of preferred stock
        h. Discuss the cost of common stock
        i. Calculate the cost of common stock
    Plus 14. Explain the role of dividends in corporate finance.
        a. Explain forms of dividends
        b. Explain the nature of dividend reinvestment plans (DRIPs)
        c. Describe the effect of a firm's dividend decisions on its external financing requirements
        d. Discuss the residual theory of dividends
        e. Describe the impact of dividends on the value of the firm
        f. Explain the nature of a dividend policy
        g. Discuss factors to consider when deciding on the form of dividend distribution
    Plus 15. Analyze ownership change transactions.
        a. Compare mergers and acquisitions
        b. Explain the nature of hostile takeovers
        c. Discuss issues that arise from mergers and acquisitions
        d. Explain methods for evaluating potential merger/acquisition targets
        e. Evaluate potential merger/acquisition targets
        f. Discuss the nature of restructurings
Plus III. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
  Plus A. Utilize career planning concepts, tools, and strategies to explore, obtain, and develop in a corporate finance career.
    Plus 1. Discuss the fundamentals of corporate finance.
        a. Describe the nature of business finance
    Plus 2. Discuss the role of ethics in corporate finance.
        a. Discuss business ethics for business finance
        b. Discuss corporate responsibility issues in business finance
    Plus 3. Describe the relationship of corporate governance and corporate finance.
        a. Discuss corporate governance issues in business finance
        b. Describe the components of a well-governed company (e.g. board of directors, reporting, transparency, internal and external audit functions)
    Plus 4. Describe careers in corporate finance.
        a. Explain the role and responsibilities of financial managers
        b. Explain the role and responsibilities of a financial analyst
        c. Describe the role and responsibilities of a controller
        d. Describe the role and responsibilities of a risk manager
        e. Discuss the role and responsibilities of a treasurer
        f. Discuss the role and responsibilities of a chief financial officer (CFO)
    Plus 5. Explore corporate finance licensing and certification programs.
        a. Explain professional designations in the field of business finance (e.g. CF, CFA, CCM, CTP, CFM, etc.)
Plus IV. RISK MANAGEMENT
  Plus A. Employ risk management strategies and techniques in corporate finance to minimize business loss.
    Plus 1. Manage risk to protect a business’s wellbeing.
        a. Discuss the relationship between risk management and business finance
        b. Discuss the nature of risk measurement
        c. Measure risk
        d. Explain the nature of interest rate risk
        e. Manage interest rate risk
        f. Explain approaches to financial risk management
        g. Discuss the use of derivatives in financial risk management
        h. Evaluate the risks of derivatives
        i. Discuss reasons to integrate risk management into business operations
        j. Identify business risks
        k. Integrate risk management into business operations
    Plus 2. Explain enterprise risk management.
        a. Discuss the nature of enterprise risk management (ERM)

Plus Foundation Standards

Plus I. ACADEMIC FOUNDATIONS: Achieve additional academic knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of career and postsecondary education opportunities within a career cluster.
  Plus A. Solve mathematical problems to obtain information for decision making in finance.
    Plus 1. Employ numbers and operations in finance.
        a. Recognize relationships among numbers
        b. Employ mathematical operations
        c. Perform computations successfully
        d. Predict reasonable estimations
    Plus 2. Apply algebraic skills to make business decisions.
        a. Recognize patterns and mathematical relations
        b. Use algebraic symbols to represent, solve, and analyze mathematical problems
        c. Create mathematical models from real-life situations
        d. Represent changes in quantities mathematically
        e. Determine rate of change mathematically
        f. Interpret graphical and numerical data
    Plus 3. Employ measurement skills to make business decisions.
        a. Recognize measurable attributes of objects
        b. Take measurements correctly
    Plus 4. Perform data analysis to make business decisions.
        a. Formulate questions effectively
        b. Collect relevant data
        c. Organize useful data
        d. Answer questions appropriately
        e. Employ appropriate statistical methods in data analysis
        f. Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions
        g. Apply basic concepts of probability
    Plus 5. Use problem-solving techniques to evaluate the accuracy of mathematical responses in finance.
        a. Identify problem-solving techniques
        b. Apply a variety of problem-solving strategies
        c. Adjust problem-solving strategies, when needed
  Plus B. Discuss the economic principles and concepts fundamental to financial operations.
    Plus 1. Discuss economic concepts impacting finance.
        a. Distinguish between economic goods and services
        b. Explain the concept of economic resources
        c. Describe the concepts of economics and economic activities
        d. Determine economic utilities created by business activities
        e. Explain the principles of supply and demand
        f. Describe the functions of prices in markets
    Plus 2. Explain the nature of business.
        a. Explain the role of business in society
        b. Describe types of business activities
        c. Explain the organizational design of businesses
        d. Discuss the global environment in which businesses operate
        e. Describe factors that affect the business environment
        f. Explain how organizations adapt to today's markets
    Plus 3. Describe economic systems.
        a. Explain the types of economic systems
        b. Explain the concept of private enterprise
        c. Identify factors affecting a business's profit
        d. Determine factors affecting business risk
        e. Explain the concept of competition
        f. Describe market structures
    Plus 4. Explain the impact of government on business activities.
        a. Determine the relationship between government and business
        b. Describe the nature of taxes
        c. Discuss the nature of monetary policy
        d. Discuss the supply and demand for money
        e. Explain the role of the Federal Reserve System
        f. Explain the concept of fiscal policies
        g. Describe the effects of fiscal and monetary policies
    Plus 5. Analyze cost/profit relationships in finance.
        a. Explain the concept of productivity
        b. Analyze impact of specialization/division of labor on productivity
        c. Explain the concept of organized labor and business
        d. Explain the impact of the law of diminishing returns
        e. Describe the concept of economies of scale
    Plus 6. Describe economic indicators impacting financial decision-making.
        a. Describe the concept of price stability as an economic measure
        b. Discuss the measure of consumer spending as an economic indicator
        c. Discuss the impact of a nation's unemployment rates
        d. Explain the concept of Gross Domestic Product
        e. Describe the economic impact of inflation on business
        f. Explain unemployment and inflation tradeoffs
        g. Explain the economic impact of interest-rate fluctuations
        h. Determine the impact of business cycles on business activities
    Plus 7. Determine global trade’s impact on business decision-making.
        a. Explain the nature of global trade
        b. Describe the determinants of exchange rates and their effects on the domestic economy
        c. Discuss the impact of cultural and social environments on global trade
        d. Explain labor issues associated with global trade
  Plus C. Integrate sociological knowledge of group behavior to understand customer decision-making in finance.
    Plus 1. Employ sociological knowledge to facilitate finance activities.
        a. Analyze and interpret complex societal issues, events, and problems
        b. Analyze researched information and statistics
        c. Reach reasoned conclusions
        d. Examine social beliefs, influences, and behavior
        e. Analyze group dynamics
        f. Assess human behavior
  Plus D. Integrate psychological knowledge to understand finance customer motivation.
    Plus 1. Apply psychological knowledge to facilitate finance activities.
        a. Recognize factors influencing perception
        b. Identify sources of attitude formation
        c. Assess methods used to evaluate attitudes
        d. Identify basic social and cultural strata
        e. Determine behavioral effects of social and cultural strata
        f. Analyze effects of others on individual behavior
        g. Predict likelihood of conformity and obedience
        h. Determine significance of aggression
        i. Recognize factors affecting personality
        j. Evaluate the nature of change over a lifetime
        k. Identify sources of stress
        l. Detail reactions to stress
        m. Employ strategies for dealing with stress
        n. Investigate factors affecting motivation
        o. Analyze cues to basic drives/motives
        p. Analyze the development of motives
II. COMMUNICATIONS: Use oral and written communication skills in creating, expressing and interpreting information and ideas including technical terminology and information.
III. PROBLEM-SOLVING AND CRITICAL THINKING: Solve problems using critical thinking skills (analyze, synthesize, and evaluate) independently and in teams. Solve problems using creativity and innovation.
IV. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS: Use information technology tools specific to the career cluster to access, manage, integrate, and create information.
Plus V. SYSTEMS: Understand roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment. Identify how key organizational systems affect organizational performance and the quality of products and services. Understand global context of industries and careers.
  Plus A. Discuss the concepts, processes, and skills used to identify new ideas, opportunities, and methods and to create or start a new finance project or venture.
    Plus 1. Employ entrepreneurial discovery strategies in finance.
        a. Explain the need for entrepreneurial discovery
        b. Discuss entrepreneurial discovery processes
        c. Assess global trends and opportunities
        d. Determine opportunities for venture creation
        e. Assess opportunities for venture creation
        f. Describe idea-generation methods
        g. Generate venture ideas
        h. Determine feasibility of venture ideas
    Plus 2. Develop concept for new finance venture.
        a. Describe entrepreneurial planning considerations
        b. Explain tools used by entrepreneurs for venture planning
        c. Assess start-up requirements
        d. Assess risks associated with venture
        e. Describe external resources useful to entrepreneurs during concept development
        f. Assess the need to use external resources for concept development
        g. Describe strategies to protect intellectual property
        h. Use components of business plan to define venture idea
    Plus 3. Determine needed resources for a new finance venture.
        a. Describe processes used to acquire adequate financial resources for venture creation/start-up
        b. Select sources to finance venture creation/start-up
        c. Explain factors to consider in determining a venture's human-resource needs
        d. Explain considerations in making the decision to hire staff
        e. Describe considerations in selecting capital resources
        f. Identify capital resources needed for the venture
        g. Assess the costs/benefits associated with resources
    Plus 4. Actualize new finance venture.
        a. Use external resources to supplement entrepreneur's expertise
        b. Explain the complexity of business operations
        c. Evaluate risk-taking opportunities
        d. Explain the need for business systems and procedures
        e. Describe the use of operating procedures
        f. Explain methods/processes for organizing workflow
        g. Develop and/or provide product/service
        h. Use creative problem-solving in business activities/decisions
        i. Explain the impact of resource productivity on venture success
        j. Create processes for ongoing opportunity recognition
        k. Develop plan to invest resources into improving current products or creating new ones
        l. Adapt to changes in business environment
    Plus 5. Select harvesting strategies for finance venture.
        a. Explain the need for continuation planning
        b. Describe methods of venture harvesting
        c. Evaluate options for continued venture involvement
        d. Develop exit strategies
  Plus B. Analyze accounting systems to examine their contribution to the fiscal stability of businesses.
    Plus 1. Describe the nature and scope of accounting.
        a. Explain the concept of accounting
        b. Explain the need for accounting standards (GAAP)
        c. Discuss the role of ethics in accounting
        d. Explain the use of technology in accounting
        e. Explain legal considerations for accounting
    Plus 2. Implement accounting procedures for tracking money flow and determining financial status.
        a. Describe the nature of cash flow statements
        b. Prepare cash flow statements
        c. Explain the nature of balance sheets
        d. Describe the nature of income statements
  Plus C. Describe tools, strategies, and systems used to maintain, monitor, control, and plan the use of financial resources.
    Plus 1. Describe the nature and scope of finance.
        a. Explain the role of finance in business
        b. Discuss the role of ethics in finance
        c. Explain legal considerations for finance
        d. Discuss trends in the current financial environment (i.e., consolidation, regulatory burden, role of technology, and globalization)
  Plus D. Plan, staff, lead, and organize human resources in finance to enhance productivity and job satisfaction.
    Plus 1. Describe the role and function of human resources management.
        a. Discuss the nature of human resources management
        b. Explain the role of ethics in human resources management
        c. Describe the use of technology in human resources management
  Plus E. Describe the tools, techniques, and systems that businesses use to create, communicate, and deliver value to finance customers and to manage customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders.
    Plus 1. Discuss marketing’s role and function.
        a. Explain marketing and its importance in a global economy
        b. Describe marketing functions and related activities
    Plus 2. Describe customer/client/business behavior in finance.
        a. Explain customer/client/business buying behavior
        b. Discuss actions employees can take to achieve the company's desired results
        c. Demonstrate connections between company actions and results (e.g., influencing consumer buying behavior, gaining market share, etc.)
    Plus 3. Explain a finance organization's unique selling proposition.
        a. Identify company's unique selling proposition
        b. Identify internal and external service standards
  Plus F. Utilize customer relations techniques and strategies to foster positive, ongoing relationships with finance customers.
    Plus 1. Foster positive relationships with finance customers.
        a. Explain the nature of positive customer relations
        b. Demonstrate a customer-service mindset
        c. Explain management's role in customer relations
    Plus 2. Reinforce finance organization's image by exhibiting the company’s brand promise.
        a. Identify company's brand promise
        b. Determine ways of reinforcing the company's image through employee performance
    Plus 3. Explain the nature and scope of customer relationship management in finance.
        a. Discuss the nature of customer relationship management
        b. Explain the role of ethics in customer relationship management
        c. Describe the use of technology in customer relationship management
        d. Discuss customer relationship management as a key factor to success in the finance industry
        e. Explain trends in customer relationship management that impact finance
  Plus G. Plan, monitor, and control day-to-day activities to enable continued functioning in finance.
    Plus 1. Discuss operation’s role and function in finance.
        a. Explain the nature of operations
        b. Discuss the role of ethics in operations
        c. Describe the use of technology in operations
    Plus 2. Implement purchasing activities in finance.
        a. Explain the nature and scope of purchasing
        b. Place orders/reorders
        c. Maintain inventory of supplies
        d. Manage the bid process in purchasing
        e. Select vendors
        f. Evaluate vendor's performance
    Plus 3. Describe production’s role and function.
        a. Explain the concept of production
        b. Describe production activities
    Plus 4. Implement quality-control processes in finance.
        a. Identify quality-control measures
        b. Utilize quality control methods at work
        c. Describe crucial elements of a quality culture
        d. Describe the role of management in the achievement of quality
        e. Establish efficient operating systems
Plus VI. SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL: Understand the importance of health, safety, and environmental management systems in organizations and their importance to organizational performance and regulatory compliance. Follow organizational policies and procedures and contribute to continuous improvement in performance and compliance.
  Plus A. Implement safety, health, and environmental controls to enhance productivity in finance.
    Plus 1. Adhere to health and safety regulations in finance.
        a. Describe health and safety regulations in business
        b. Report noncompliance with business health and safety regulations
    Plus 2. Implement safety procedures in finance.
        a. Follow instructions for use of equipment, tools, and machinery
        b. Follow safety precautions
        c. Maintain a safe work environment
        d. Explain procedures for handling accidents
        e. Handle and report emergency situations
    Plus 3. Determine needed safety policies/procedures in finance.
        a. Identify potential safety issues
        b. Establish safety policies and procedures
    Plus 4. Implement security policies/procedures in finance.
        a. Explain routine security precautions
        b. Follow established security procedures/policies
        c. Protect company information and intangibles
    Plus 5. Develop policies/procedures to protect workplace security in finance.
        a. Identify potential security issues
        b. Establish policies to protect company information and intangibles
        c. Establish policies to maintain a non-hostile work environment
        d. Establish policies and procedures to maintain physical security of the work environment
VII. LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK: Use leadership and teamwork skills in collaborating with others to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
Plus VIII. ETHICS AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES: Know and understand the importance of professional ethics and legal responsibilities.
  Plus A. Know and abide by laws, regulations, and ethical behavior that affect finance operations and transactions.
    Plus 1. Employ ethical actions in obtaining and providing finance information.
        a. Respect the privacy of others
        b. Explain ethical considerations in providing information
        c. Protect confidential information
        d. Determine information appropriate to obtain from a client or another employee
    Plus 2. Apply ethics in finance.
        a. Explain the nature of business ethics
        b. Demonstrate responsible behavior
        c. Demonstrate honesty and integrity
        d. Demonstrate ethical work habits
    Plus 3. Manage internal and external business relationships in finance.
        a. Treat others fairly at work
        b. Describe ethics in human resources issues
    Plus 4. Explain the nature and scope of business laws and regulations.
        a. Discuss the nature of law and sources of law in the United States
        b. Describe the United States' judicial system
        c. Describe legal issues affecting businesses
    Plus 5. Discuss the civil foundations of the legal environment of business.
        a. Identify the basic torts relating to business enterprises
        b. Describe the nature of legally binding contracts
    Plus 6. Explore the regulatory environment of United States’ businesses.
        a. Describe the nature of legal procedures
        b. Discuss the nature of debtor-creditor relationships
        c. Explain the nature of agency relationships
        d. Discuss the nature of environmental law
        e. Discuss the role of administrative law
    Plus 7. Describe human resources laws and regulations.
        a. Explain the nature of human resources regulations
        b. Explain the nature of workplace regulations (including OSHA, ADA)
        c. Discuss employment relationships
    Plus 8. Determine form of business ownership.
        a. Explain types of business ownership
        b. Select form of business ownership
    Plus 9. Explain commerce laws and regulations.
        a. Explain the nature of trade regulations
        b. Describe the impact of anti-trust legislation
    Plus 10. Discuss tax laws and regulations.
        a. Explain the nature of tax regulations on business
        b. Explain the nature of businesses' reporting requirements
        c. Develop strategies for legal/government compliance
    Plus 11. Describe government regulation of the finance industry.
        a. Explain federal legislation impacting the finance industry (e.g., Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Uniform Commercial Code, etc.)
        b. Discuss the effect of tax laws and regulations on financial transactions
    Plus 12. Discuss the nature and scope of compliance in finance.
        a. Discuss the nature and scope of compliance in the finance industry
        b. Describe the use of technology in compliance
        c. Explain the role of business ethics in compliance
IX. EMPLOYABILITY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT: Know and understand the importance of employability skills. Explore, plan, and effectively manage careers. Know and understand the importance of entrepreneurship skills.
Plus X. TECHNICAL SKILLS: Use the technical knowledge and skills required to pursue the targeted careers for all pathways in the career cluster, including knowledge of design, operation, and maintenance of technological systems critical to the career cluster.
  Plus A. Maintain, control, and plan the use of financial resources to protect solvency.
    Plus 1. Discuss the fundamental principles of money.
        a. Explain forms of financial exchange (cash, credit, debit, electronic funds transfer, etc.)
        b. Identify types of currency (paper money, coins, banknotes, government bonds, treasury notes, etc.)
        c. Describe functions of money (medium of exchange, unit of measure, store of value)
        d. Describe sources of income (wages/salaries, interest, rent, dividends, transfer payments, etc.)
        e. Explain the time value of money
        f. Explain the purposes and importance of credit
        g. Explain legal responsibilities associated with financial exchanges
    Plus 2. Analyze personal financial needs and goals.
        a. Explain the nature of financial needs (e.g., college, retirement, wills, insurance, etc.)
        b. Set financial goals
        c. Develop personal budget
        d. Explain the need to save and invest
    Plus 3. Manage personal finances to achieve financial goals.
        a. Explain the nature of tax liabilities
        b. Interpret a pay stub
        c. Read and reconcile bank statements
        d. Maintain financial records
        e. Demonstrate the wise use of credit
        f. Validate credit history
        g. Protect against identity theft
        h. Prepare personal income tax forms (i.e., 1040 EZ)
    Plus 4. Describe the use of financial-services providers.
        a. Describe types of financial-services providers
        b. Discuss considerations in selecting a financial-services provider
    Plus 5. Use investment strategies.
        a. Explain types of investments
        b. Explain the nature of capital investment
        c. Establish investment goals and objectives
    Plus 6. Identify potential business threats and opportunities to protect a business’s financial well-being.
        a. Describe the concept of insurance
        b. Obtain insurance coverage
        c. Settle insurance losses
        d. Identify speculative business risks
        e. Explain the nature of risk management
    Plus 7. Obtain business credit and control its use.
        a. Explain the purposes and importance of obtaining business credit
        b. Analyze critical banking relationships
        c. Make critical decisions regarding acceptance of bank cards
        d. Determine financing needed for business operations
        e. Identify risks associated with obtaining business credit
        f. Explain sources of financial assistance
        g. Explain loan evaluation criteria used by lending institutions
        h. Complete loan application package
    Plus 8. Manage financial resources to ensure solvency.
        a. Describe the nature of budgets
        b. Explain the nature of operating budgets
        c. Describe the nature of cost/benefit analysis
        d. Determine relationships among total revenue, marginal revenue, output, and profit
        e. Develop company's/department's budget
        f. Forecast sales
        g. Calculate financial ratios
        h. Interpret financial statements
        i. Describe types of financial statement analysis (e.g., ratio analysis, trend analysis, etc.)
        j. Spot problems in/issues with financial statements
    Plus 9. Explain the importance of financial markets in business.
        a. Describe the role of financial institutions
        b. Explain types of financial markets (i.e., money markets, securities markets, property market, market for risk transfer)
    Plus 10. Explain the nature of assets’ values.
        a. Discuss factors that affect the value of an asset (e.g., cash flows, growth rate, timing, inflation, interest rate, opportunity cost, and risk and required return)
    Plus 11. Utilize sources of securities information to make informed financial decisions.
        a. Describe sources of securities information
        b. Read/Interpret securities table
    Plus 12. Use debt and equity capital to raise funds for business growth.
        a. Describe the financial needs of a business at different stages of its development
        b. Discuss factors to consider in choosing between debt and equity capital
        c. Explain the significance of a firm's capital structure
  Plus B. Plan, control, and organize a finance organization/department.
    Plus 1. Explain management’s role in business success.
        a. Explain the concept of management
        b. Explain the nature of managerial ethics
    Plus 2. Utilize planning tools that can guide finance organization’s/department’s activities.
        a. Explain the nature of business plans
        b. Develop company goals/objectives
        c. Define business mission
        d. Conduct an organizational SWOT
        e. Explain external planning considerations
        f. Identify and benchmark key performance indicators (e.g., dashboards, scorecards, etc.)
        g. Develop action plans
    Plus 3. Control a finance organization’s/department’s activities.
        a. Describe the nature of managerial control (control process, types of control, what is controlled)
        b. Analyze operating results in relation to budget/industry
        c. Track performance of business plan
  Plus C. Monitor, plan, and control day-to-day activities required for continued business functioning.
    Plus 1. Implement expense-control strategies.
        a. Explain the nature of overhead/operating costs
        b. Explain employee's role in expense control
        c. Control use of supplies
        d. Conduct breakeven analysis
        e. Negotiate service and maintenance contracts
        f. Negotiate lease or purchase of facility
        g. Develop expense control plans
        h. Use budgets to control operations
    Plus 2. Maintain property and equipment.
        a. Identify routine activities for maintaining business facilities and equipment
        b. Plan maintenance program
  Plus D. Discuss techniques and strategies used in finance to foster positive, ongoing relationships with customers.
    Plus 1. Describe characteristics, motivations, and behaviors of finance clients.
        a. Describe customer needs and wants that are met by financial products and services
        b. Explain the responsibilities of finance professionals in providing client services
    Plus 2. Use Customer Relationship Management technology.
        a. Explain the use of databases in customer relationship management
        b. Use Customer Relationship Management (CRM) technology
  Plus E. Access, process, maintain, evaluate, and disseminate financial information to assist business decision-making.
    Plus 1. Explain the nature and scope of financial-information management.
        a. Describe the need for financial information
        b. Explain the nature and scope of the financial-information management function
        c. Explain the role of ethics in financial-information management
    Plus 2. Discuss the importance of accurately reporting a business’s financial position.
        a. Describe the need to accurately report a business's financial position
        b. Describe the relationship between accounting (with an emphasis on cash flow) and finance (with an emphasis on decision-making)
        c. Discuss types of accounting systems used to report a business's financial position (i.e., financial, tax, management, cost, accrual)
    Plus 3. Discuss the nature and scope of financial information analysis.
        a. Discuss the impact of economic conditions on finance
        b. Explain the use of financial information to identify trends
        c. Describe the need to analyze customer financial information
        d. Identify reasons to analyze financial data (e.g., to understand accounting treatment, to verify information, to analyze variances, to guide financial decision-making)
    Plus 4. Utilize financial-information technology tools.
        a. Describe the use of technology in the financial-information management function
        b. Demonstrate data mining techniques
        c. Demonstrate budgeting applications
        d. Demonstrate financial analysis applications
        e. Demonstrate advanced database applications
  Plus F. Obtain, develop, maintain, and improve a financial product or service mix in order to respond to market opportunities.
    Plus 1. Explain the nature and scope of product/service management.
        a. Explain the nature and scope of the product/service management function
        b. Identify the impact of product life cycles on business decisions
        c. Explain the use of technology in the product/service management function
        d. Discuss business ethics in product/service management
    Plus 2. Develop a financial product/service mix.
        a. Explain the concept of financial product/service mix
        b. Describe the nature of financial product/service bundling
        c. Identify financial product/service to fill a customer need
    Plus 3. Position financial products/services to acquire desired business image.
        a. Describe factors used to position financial products/services
        b. Explain the nature of financial product/service branding
        c. Explain the role of customer service in positioning/image
    Plus 4. Position company to acquire desired business image.
        a. Explain the nature of corporate branding
        b. Describe factors used by businesses to position corporate brands
  Plus G. Employ financial risk-management strategies and techniques used to minimize business loss.
    Plus 1. Describe the nature and scope of risk management in finance.
        a. Explain the role of ethics in risk management
        b. Describe the use of technology in risk management
        c. Discuss legal considerations affecting risk management
    Plus 2. Use risk management techniques in finance.
        a. Discuss the relationship between risk and business objectives
        b. Develop a risk management program
        c. Evaluate a risk management program
    Plus 3. Describe risk control methods in finance.
        a. Discuss the nature of risk control (i.e., internal and external)
        b. Explain ways to assess risk
        c. Describe the importance of auditing risk control
        d. Discuss risk control systems

Plus Essential Standards

Plus I. ACADEMIC FOUNDATIONS: Achieve additional academic knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of career and postsecondary education opportunities within a career cluster.
  Plus A. Complete required training, education, and certification to prepare for employment in a particular career field.
    1. Identify training, education and certification requirements for occupational choice.
    2. Participate in career-related training and/or degree programs.
    3. Pass certification tests to qualify for licensure and/or certification in chosen occupational area.
  Plus B. Demonstrate language arts knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary education and career opportunities.
    1. Model behaviors that demonstrate active listening.
    2. Adapt language for audience, purpose, situation. (i.e. diction/structure, style).
    3. Organize oral and written information.
    4. Compose focused copy for a variety of written documents such as agendas, audio-visuals, bibliographies, drafts, forms/documents, notes, oral presentations, reports, and technical terminology.
    5. Edit copy to create focused written documents such as agendas, audio-visuals, bibliographies, drafts, forms/documents, notes, oral presentations, reports, and technical terminology.
    6. Comprehend key elements of oral and written information such as cause/effect, comparisons/contrasts, conclusions, context, purpose, charts/tables/graphs, evaluation/critiques, mood, persuasive text, sequence, summaries, and technical subject matter.
    7. Evaluate oral and written information for accuracy, adequacy/sufficiency, appropriateness, clarity, conclusions/solutions, fact/opinion, propaganda, relevancy, validity, and relationship of ideas.
    8. Identify assumptions, purpose, outcomes/solutions, and propaganda techniques.
    9. Predict potential outcomes and/or solutions based on oral and written information regarding trends.
    10. Present formal and informal speeches including discussion, information requests, interpretation, and persuasive arguments.
  Plus C. Demonstrate mathematics knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary education and career opportunities.
    1. Identify whole numbers, decimals, and fractions.
    2. Demonstrate knowledge of basic arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
    3. Demonstrate use of relational expressions such as equal to, not equal, greater than, less than, etc.
    4. Apply data and measurements to solve a problem.
    5. Analyze Mathematical problem statements for missing and/or irrelevant data.
    6. Construct charts/tables/graphs from functions and data.
    7. Analyze data when interpreting operational documents.
  Plus D. Demonstrate science knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary and career education opportunities.
    1. Evaluate scientific constructs including conclusions, conflicting data, controls, data, inferences, limitations, questions, sources of errors, and variables.
    2. Apply scientific methods in qualitative and quantitative analysis, data gathering, direct and indirect observation, predictions, and problem identification.
Plus II. COMMUNICATIONS: Use oral and written communication skills in creating, expressing and interpreting information and ideas including technical terminology and information.
  Plus A. Select and employ appropriate reading and communication strategies to learn and use technical concepts and vocabulary in practice.
    1. Determine the most appropriate reading strategy for identifying the overarching purpose of a text (i.e. skimming, reading for detail, reading for meaning or critical analysis).
    2. Demonstrate use of content, technical concepts and vocabulary when analyzing information and following directions.
    3. Select the reading strategy or strategies needed to fully comprehend the content within a written document (i.e., skimming, reading for detail, reading for meaning or critical analysis).
    4. Interpret information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
    5. Transcribe information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
    6. Communicate information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
  Plus B. Demonstrate use of the concepts, strategies, and systems for obtaining and conveying ideas and information to enhance communication in the workplace.
    1. Employ verbal skills when obtaining and conveying information.
    2. Record information needed to present a report on a given topic or problem.
    3. Write internal and external business correspondence that conveys and/or obtains information effectively.
    4. Communicate with other employees to clarify workplace objectives.
    5. Communicate effectively with customers and employees to foster positive relationships.
  Plus C. Locate, organize and reference written information from various sources to communicate with co-workers and clients/participants.
    1. Locate written information used to communicate with co-workers and customers.
    2. Organize information to use in written and oral communications.
    3. Reference the sources of information.
  Plus D. Evaluate and use information resources to accomplish specific occupational tasks.
    1. Use informational texts, Internet web sites, and/or technical materials to review and apply information sources for occupational tasks.
    2. Evaluate the reliability of information from informational texts, Internet Web sites, and/or technical materials and resources.
  Plus E. Use correct grammar, punctuation and terminology to write and edit documents.
    1. Compose multi-paragraph documents clearly, succinctly, and accurately.
    2. Use descriptions of audience and purpose when preparing and editing written documents.
    3. Use correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization when preparing written documents.
  Plus F. Develop and deliver formal and informal presentations using appropriate media to engage and inform audiences.
    1. Prepare oral presentations to provide information for specific purposes and audiences.
    2. Identify support materials that will enhance an oral presentation.
    3. Prepare support materials that will enhance an oral presentation.
    4. Deliver an oral presentation that sustains listeners' attention and interest.
    5. Align presentation strategies to the intended audience.
    6. Implement multi-media strategies for presentations.
  Plus G. Interpret verbal and nonverbal cues/behaviors to enhance communication with co-workers and clients/participants.
    1. Interpret verbal behaviors when communicating with clients and co-workers.
    2. Interpret nonverbal behaviors when communicating with clients and co-workers.
  Plus H. Apply active listening skills to obtain and clarify information.
    1. Interpret a given verbal message/information.
    2. Respond with restatement and clarification techniques to clarify information.
  Plus I. Develop and interpret tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communications.
    1. Create tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communications.
    2. Interpret tables, charts, and figures used to support written and oral communication.
  Plus J. Listen to and speak with diverse individuals to enhance communication skills.
    1. Apply factors and strategies for communicating with a diverse workforce.
    2. Demonstrate ability to communicate and resolve conflicts within a diverse workforce.
  Plus K. Exhibit public relations skills to increase internal and external customer/client satisfaction.
    1. Communicate effectively when developing positive customer/client relationships.
Plus III. PROBLEM-SOLVING AND CRITICAL THINKING: Solve problems using critical thinking skills (analyze, synthesize, and evaluate) independently and in teams. Solve problems using creativity and innovation.
  Plus A. Employ critical thinking skills independently and in teams to solve problems and make decisions (e.g., analyze, synthesize and evaluate).
    1. Identify common tasks that require employees to use problem-solving skills.
    2. Analyze elements of a problem to develop creative solutions.
    3. Describe the value of using problem-solving and critical thinking skills to improve a situation or process.
    4. Create ideas, proposals, and solutions to problems.
    5. Evaluate ideas, proposals, and solutions to problems.
    6. Use structured problem-solving methods when developing proposals and solutions.
    7. Generate new and creative ideas to solve problems by brainstorming possible solutions.
    8. Critically analyze information to determine value to the problem-solving task.
    9. Guide individuals through the process of recognizing concerns and making informed decisions.
    10. Identify alternatives using a variety of problem-solving and critical thinking skills.
    11. Evaluate alternatives using a variety of problem-solving and critical thinking skills.
  Plus B. Employ critical thinking and interpersonal skills to resolve conflicts with staff and/or customers.
    1. Analyze situations and behaviors that affect conflict management.
    2. Determine best options/outcomes for conflict resolution using critical thinking skills.
    3. Identify with others’ feelings, needs, and concerns.
    4. Implement stress management techniques.
    5. Resolve conflicts with/for customers using conflict resolution skills.
    6. Implement conflict resolution skills to address staff issues/problems.
  Plus C. Identify, write and monitor workplace performance goals to guide progress in assigned areas of responsibility and accountability.
    1. Write realistic performance goals, objectives and action plans.
    2. Monitor performance goals and adjust as necessary.
    3. Recognize goal achievement using appropriate rewards in the workplace.
    4. Communicate goal achievement with managers and co-workers.
  Plus D. Conduct technical research to gather information necessary for decision-making.
    1. Align the information gathered to the needs of the audience.
    2. Gather technical information and data using a variety of resources.
    3. Analyze information and data for value to the research objectives.
    4. Evaluate information and data to determine value to research objectives.
Plus IV. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS: Use information technology tools specific to the career cluster to access, manage, integrate, and create information.
  Plus A. Use Personal Information Management (PIM) applications to increase workplace efficiency.
    1. Manage personal schedules and contact information.
    2. Create memos and notes.
  Plus B. Employ technological tools to expedite workflow.
    1. Use information technology tools to manage and perform work responsibilities.
  Plus C. Operate electronic mail applications to communicate within a workplace.
    1. Use email to share files and documents.
    2. Identify the functions and purpose of email systems.
    3. Use email to communicate within and across organizations.
  Plus D. Operate Internet applications to perform workplace tasks.
    1. Access and navigate Internet (e.g., use a web browser).
    2. Search for information and resources.
    3. Evaluate Internet resources for reliability and validity.
  Plus E. Operate writing and publishing applications to prepare business communications.
    1. Prepare simple documents and other business communications.
    2. Prepare reports and other business communications by integrating graphics and other non-text elements.
    3. Prepare complex multi-media publications.
  Plus F. Operate presentation applications to prepare presentations.
    1. Prepare presentations for training, sales and information sharing.
    2. Deliver presentations with supporting materials.
  Plus G. Employ spreadsheet applications to organize and manipulate data.
    1. Create a spreadsheet.
    2. Perform calculations and analyses on data using a spreadsheet.
  Plus H. Employ database applications to manage data.
    1. Manipulate data elements.
    2. Manage interrelated data elements.
    3. Analyze interrelated data elements.
    4. Generate reports showing interrelated data elements.
  Plus I. Employ collaborative/groupware applications to facilitate group work.
    1. Facilitate group work through management of shared schedule and contact information.
    2. Facilitate group work through management of shared files and online information.
    3. Facilitate group work through instant messaging or virtual meetings.
  Plus J. Employ computer operations applications to manage work tasks.
    1. Manage computer operations.
    2. Manage file storage.
    3. Compress or alter files.
  Plus K. Use computer-based equipment (containing embedded computers or processors) to control devices.
    1. Operate computer driven equipment and machines.
    2. Use installation and operation manuals.
    3. Troubleshoot computer driven equipment and machines.
    4. Access support as needed to maintain operation of computer driven equipment and machines.
Plus V. SYSTEMS: Understand roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment. Identify how key organizational systems affect organizational performance and the quality of products and services. Understand global context of industries and careers.
  Plus A. Describe the nature and types of business organizations to build an understanding of the scope of organizations.
    1. List the types and functions of businesses.
    2. Describe the types and functions of businesses.
    3. Explain the functions and interactions of common departments within a business.
  Plus B. Implement quality control systems and practices to ensure quality products and services.
    1. Describe quality control standards and practices common to the workplace.
Plus VI. SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL: Understand the importance of health, safety, and environmental management systems in organizations and their importance to organizational performance and regulatory compliance. Follow organizational policies and procedures and contribute to continuous improvement in performance and compliance.
  Plus A. Implement personal and jobsite safety rules and regulations to maintain safe and healthful working conditions and environments.
    1. Assess workplace conditions with regard to safety and health.
    2. Align safety issues with appropriate safety standards to ensure a safe workplace/jobsite.
    3. Identify safety hazards common to workplaces.
    4. Identify safety precautions to maintain a safe worksite.
    5. Select appropriate personal protective equipment as needed for a safe workplace/jobsite.
    6. Inspect personal protective equipment commonly used for selected career pathway.
    7. Use personal protective equipment according to manufacturer rules and regulations.
    8. Employ a safety hierarchy and communication system within the workplace/jobsite.
    9. Implement safety precautions to maintain a safe worksite.
  Plus B. Complete work tasks in accordance with employee rights and responsibilities and employers obligations to maintain workplace safety and health.
    1. Identify rules and laws designed to promote safety and health in the workplace.
    2. State the rationale of rules and laws designed to promote safety and health.
  Plus C. Employ emergency procedures as necessary to provide aid in workplace accidents.
    1. Use knowledge of First Aid procedures as necessary.
    2. Use knowledge of CPR procedures as necessary.
    3. Use safety equipment as necessary.
  Plus D. Employ knowledge of response techniques to create a disaster and/or emergency response plan.
    1. Complete an assessment of an emergency and/or disaster situation.
    2. Create an emergency and/or disaster plan.
Plus VII. LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK: Use leadership and teamwork skills in collaborating with others to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
  Plus A. Employ leadership skills to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
    1. Analyze the various roles of leaders within organizations (e.g. contribute ideas; share in building an organization; act as role models to employees by adhering to company policies, procedures, and standards; promote the organization’s vision; and mentor others).
    2. Exhibit traits such as empowerment, risk, communication, focusing on results, decision-making, problem solution, and investment in individuals when leading a group in solving a problem.
    3. Exhibit traits such as compassion, service, listening, coaching, developing others, team development, and understanding and appreciating others when acting as a manager of others in the workplace.
    4. Exhibit traits such as enthusiasm, creativity, conviction, mission, courage, concept, focus, principle-centered living, and change when interacting with others in general.
    5. Consider issues related to self, team, community, diversity, environment, and global awareness when leading others.
    6. Exhibit traits such as innovation, intuition, adaptation, life-long learning and coachability to develop leadership potential over time.
    7. Analyze leadership in relation to trust, positive attitude, integrity, and willingness to accept key responsibilities in a work situation.
    8. Describe observations of outstanding leaders using effective management styles.
    9. Participate in civic and community leadership and teamwork opportunities to enhance skills.
  Plus B. Employ organizational and staff development skills to foster positive working relationships and accomplish organizational goals.
    1. Implement organizational skills when facilitating others’ work efforts.
    2. Explain how to manage a staff that satisfies work demands while adhering to budget constraints.
    3. Describe how staff growth and development to increase productivity and employee satisfaction.
    4. Organize team involvement within a group environment.
    5. Work with others to develop and gain commitment to team goals.
    6. Distribute responsibility and work load fairly.
    7. Model leadership and teamwork qualities to aid in employee morale.
    8. Identify best practices for successful team functioning.
    9. Explain best practices for successful team functioning.
  Plus C. Employ teamwork skills to achieve collective goals and use team member's talents effectively.
    1. Work with others to achieve objectives in a timely manner.
    2. Promote the full involvement and use of team member's individual talents and skills.
    3. Employ conflict-management skills to facilitate solutions.
    4. Demonstrate teamwork skills through working cooperatively with co-workers, supervisory staff, and others, both in and out of the organization, to achieve particular tasks.
    5. Demonstrate teamwork processes that provide team building, consensus, continuous improvement, respect for the opinions of others, cooperation, adaptability, and conflict resolution.
    6. Develop plans to improve team performance.
    7. Demonstrate commitment to and a positive attitude toward team goals.
    8. Take responsibility for shared group and individual work tasks.
    9. Assist team members in completing their work.
    10. Adapt effectively to changes in projects and work activities.
    11. Negotiate effectively to arrive at decisions.
  Plus D. Establish and maintain effective working relationships with all levels of personnel and other departments in order to accomplish objectives and tasks.
    1. Build effective working relationships using interpersonal skills.
    2. Use positive interpersonal skills to work cooperatively with co-workers representing different cultures, genders and backgrounds.
    3. Manage personal skills to accomplish assignments.
    4. Treat people with respect.
    5. Provide constructive praise and criticism.
    6. Demonstrate sensitivity to and value for diversity.
    7. Manage stress and control emotions.
  Plus E. Conduct and participate in meetings to accomplish work tasks.
    1. Develop meeting goals, objectives and agenda.
    2. Assign responsibilities for preparing materials and leading discussions.
    3. Prepare materials for leading discussion.
    4. Assemble and distribute meeting materials.
    5. Conduct meeting to achieve objectives within scheduled time.
    6. Demonstrate effective communication skills in meetings.
    7. Produce meeting minutes including decisions and next steps.
    8. Use parliamentary procedure, as needed, to conduct meetings.
  Plus F. Employ mentoring skills to inspire and teach others.
    1. Use motivational techniques to enhance performance in others.
    2. Provide guidance to enhance performance in others.
Plus VIII. ETHICS AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES: Know and understand the importance of professional ethics and legal responsibilities.
  Plus A. Apply ethical reasoning to a variety of workplace situations in order to make ethical decisions.
    1. Evaluate alternative responses to workplace situations based on legal responsibilities and employer policies.
    2. Evaluate alternative responses to workplace situations based on personal or professional ethical responsibilities.
    3. Identify personal and long-term workplace consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors.
    4. Explain personal and long-term workplace consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors.
    5. Determine the most appropriate response to workplace situations based on legal and ethical considerations.
    6. Explain the most appropriate response to workplace situations based on legal and ethical considerations.
  Plus B. Interpret and explain written organizational policies and procedures to help employees perform their jobs according to employer rules and expectations.
    1. Locate information on organizational policies in handbooks and manuals.
    2. Discuss how specific organizational policies and procedures influence a specific work situation.
Plus IX. EMPLOYABILITY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT: Know and understand the importance of employability skills. Explore, plan, and effectively manage careers. Know and understand the importance of entrepreneurship skills.
  Plus A. Identify and demonstrate positive work behaviors and personal qualities needed to be employable.
    1. Demonstrate self-discipline, self-worth, positive attitude, and integrity in a work situation.
    2. Demonstrate flexibility and willingness to learn new knowledge and skills.
    3. Exhibit commitment to the organization.
    4. Identify how work varies with regard to site, from indoor confined spaces to outdoor areas, including aerial space and a variety of climatic and physical conditions.
    5. Apply communication strategies when adapting to a culturally diverse environment.
    6. Manage resources in relation to the position (i.e. budget, supplies, computer, etc).
    7. Identify positive work-qualities typically desired in each of the career cluster's pathways.
    8. Manage work roles and responsibilities to balance them with other life roles and responsibilities.
  Plus B. Develop a personal career plan to meet career goals and objectives.
    1. Develop career goals and objectives as part of a plan for future career direction.
    2. Develop strategies to reach career objectives.
  Plus C. Demonstrate skills related to seeking and applying for employment to find and obtain a desired job.
    1. Use multiple resources to locate job opportunities.
    2. Prepare a résumé.
    3. Prepare a letter of application.
    4. Complete an employment application.
    5. Interview for employment.
    6. List the standards and qualifications that must be met in order to enter a given industry.
    7. Employ critical thinking and decision-making skills to exhibit qualifications to a potential employer.
  Plus D. Maintain a career portfolio to document knowledge, skills and experience in a career field.
    1. Select educational and work history highlights to include in a career portfolio.
    2. Produce a record of work experiences, licenses, certifications and products.
    3. Organize electronic or physical portfolio for use in demonstrating knowledge, skills and experiences.
  Plus E. Demonstrate skills in evaluating and comparing employment opportunities in order to accept employment positions that match career goals.
    1. Compare employment opportunities to individual needs and career plan objectives.
    2. Evaluate employment opportunities based upon individual needs and career plan objectives.
    3. Demonstrate appropriate methods for accepting or rejecting employment offers.
  Plus F. Identify and exhibit traits for retaining employment to maintain employment once secured.
    1. Model behaviors that demonstrate reliability and dependability.
    2. Maintain appropriate dress and behavior for the job to contribute to a safe and effective workplace/jobsite.
    3. Complete required employment forms and documentation such as I-9 form, work visa, W-4 and licensures to meet employment requirements.
    4. Summarize key activities necessary to retain a job in the industry.
    5. Identify positive work behaviors and personal qualities necessary to retain employment.
  Plus G. Identify and explore career opportunities in one or more career pathways to build an understanding of the opportunities available in the cluster.
    1. Locate and identify career opportunities that appeal to personal career goals.
    2. Match personal interest and aptitudes to selected careers.
  Plus H. Recognize and act upon requirements for career advancement to plan for continuing education and training.
    1. Identify opportunities for career advancement.
    2. Pursue education and training opportunities to acquire skills necessary for career advancement.
    3. Examine the organization and structure of various segments of the industry to prepare for career advancement.
    4. Research local and regional labor (workforce) market and job growth information to project potential for advancement.
    5. Manage employment relations to make career advancements.
  Plus I. Continue professional development to keep current on relevant trends and information within the industry.
    1. Use self assessment, organizational priorities, journals, Internet sites, professional associations, peers and other resources to develop goals that address training, education and self-improvement issues.
    2. Read trade magazines and journals, manufacturers’ catalogues, industry publications and Internet sites to keep current on industry trends.
    3. Participate in relevant conferences, workshops, mentoring activities and in-service training to stay current with recent changes in the field.
  Plus J. Examine licensing, certification and credentialing requirements at the national, state and local levels to maintain compliance with industry requirements.
    1. Examine continuing education requirements related to licensing, certification, and credentialing requirements at the local, state and national levels for chosen occupation.
    2. Examine the procedures and paperwork involved in maintaining and updating licensure, certification and credentials for chosen occupation.
    3. Align ongoing licensing, certification and credentialing requirements to career plans and goals.
  Plus K. Examine employment opportunities in entrepreneurship to consider entrepreneurship as an option for career planning.
    1. Describe the opportunities for entrepreneurship in a given industry.
Plus X. TECHNICAL SKILLS: Use of technical knowledge and skills required to pursue careers in all career cluster, including knowledge of design, operation, and maintenance of technological systems critical to the career cluster.
  Plus A. Employ information management techniques and strategies in the workplace to assist in decision-making.
    1. Use information literacy skills when accessing, evaluating and disseminating information.
    2. Describe the nature and scope of information management.
    3. Maintain records to facilitate ongoing business operations.
  Plus B. Employ planning and time management skills and tools to enhance results and complete work tasks.
    1. Develop goals and objectives.
    2. Prioritize tasks to be completed.
    3. Develop timelines using time management knowledge and skills.
    4. Use project-management skills to improve workflow and minimize costs.

Plus Career & Employability Standards

Plus I. APPLIED ACADEMIC SKILLS
  Plus A. Reading, English & Language Arts
    1. Read a technical manual and write a clear & logical report explaining the information using standared business English.
    2. Give a verbal report on reading from a technical manual.
    3. Read a case study and identify the details about the situation, define technical terms, jargon, or words with multiple meanings based on context, and summarize the conclusion.
    4. Take a verbal and written position on a topic and use correct grammar to defend it.
  Plus B. Mathematics
    1. Approach practical and workplace problems using a variety of mathematical techniques.
    2. Research how math is used in the workplace and make a presentation detailing the process.
  Plus C. Listening & Presentation Skills
    1. Use correct grammar to communicate verbally.
    2. Listen to a presentation and record important information. Report back identifying central themes and use key points to explain how the message applies to a similar situation.
  Plus D. Technology
    1. Apply technology to workplace or career situation. Include research and a written paper.
Plus II. CAREER PLANNING
  Plus A. Career Planning
    1. Organize career information and labor market trends from a variety of sources.
    2. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of working for self, others, being an employee of a large or small organization.
    3. Analyze information & preferences from work-based opportunity.
    4. Interpret information from a variety of career assessments to identify career interests and abilities.
    5. Apply a decision-making model and use career assessment information to choose a career pathway.
    6. Annually review EDP and include plan for continuing education.
Plus III. DEVELOPING AND PRESENTING INFORMATION
  Plus A. Developing and Presenting information
    1. Gather, interpret, analyze, and refine data.
    2. Analyze and synthesize information and data from muiltiple sources.
    3. Plan and transform ideas and requirements into a concept, service, or product.
    4. Assess the quality of the concept, service, or product using a predetermined standard.
    5. Develop a plan to market a new product, service, or concept which includes identifying of customers, a graphic presentation, product requirements, and costs.
    6. Practice and demonstrate presentation skils using a variety of media and interpretive data.
Plus IV. PROBLEM SOLVING
  Plus A. Problem Solving
    1. Apply a problem solving model to a workplace situation that involves setting goals, implementing and evaluating results.
    2. Identify typical problems that occur in a workplace and use a problem solving model to devise solutions, compare alternatives to past solutions, and predict their success.
Plus V. PERSONAL MANAGEMENT
  Plus A. Responsibility
    1. Demonstrate regular attendance, promptness, and staying with a task until satisfacotry completion.
    2. Complete assignments with minimum supervision and meet deadlines.
    3. Use mistakes as learning opportunities, demonstrate persistence and adaptability to change.
    4. Initiate projects and extra activities for personal satisfaction.
  Plus B. Self-Management
    1. Monitor & evaluate accurately one's progress towards a goal or completion of a project.
    2. Demonstrate health and safety practices and drug-free behavior in school & workplace setting.
    3. Obtain a driver license and demonstrate driving skills and safety and/or use public transportation.
    4. Prioritize and accomplish tasks independently.
    5. Use appropriate personal expression and relate to school and work settings.
  Plus C. Ethical Behavior
    1. Demonstrate etlhical behavior in school, work, and community situations.
    2. Describe employer-employee rights and responsibilities.
    3. Demonstrate appropriate behaviors necessary to maintaining employment.
    4. Demonstrate positive personal qualities as a group leader.
  Plus D. Respect for Self and Others
    1. View accomplishments or failures of self and others accurately and in a positive manner.
    2. Understand how to make improvements and ask for help from adults as needed.
    3. Offer encouragement and ideas to others as they work toward attaining their goals.
    4. Provide for customer needs and expectations in a helpful and courteous manner.
    5. Respect other points of view.
    6. Demonstrate customer service skills in an appropriate setting by listening, suggesting solutions, and communicating the issues at hand.
Plus VI. ORGANIZING SKILLS
  Plus A. Time
    1. Determine goals and develop an action plan to accomplish them within a given time frame.
    2. Read time charts and work schedules and perform tasks within time constraints of school or the workplace.
    3. Prioritize tasks and revise schedules as needed.
  Plus B. Money
    1. Estimate costs and prepare a detailed budget for a school-based or work-based project.
    2. Report the costs of various components of a budget and adjust budget items as needed.
    3. Understand compensation practices and financial management and explain how financial resources can be used effectively and efficiently.
  Plus C. Materials
    1. Utilize materials, tools, and processes to complete a task related to a career selection.
    2. Compile a list of materials and supplies needed in advance of an assignment.
    3. Acquire resources in a timely fashion and take responsibility for their care.
    4. Identify and prepare tools, equipment, space, and facilities appropriate for a task.
    5. Work within constraints of safety precautions and available resources.
  Plus D. Human Resources
    1. Learn cooperation and leadership in a team at school or in a workplace setting.
    2. Organize and communicate with members of a team using varied methods of communications.
    3. Recognize the individual roles of team members, delegate tasks, and give feedback on performance.
    4. Acknowledge and utilize the skills, abilities, and input of all member of a team.
Plus VII. TEAMWORK
  Plus A. Group Participation
    1. Exhibit teamwork skills including trust and loyalty to group, and demonstrate connectedness to group members, values, and culture.
    2. Take personal responsibility for influencing and accomplishing group goals.
    3. Demonstrate understanding of how effective teams operate within organization and diverse settings.
    4. Solve a career/work-related problem as a member of a team.
  Plus B. Conflict Resolution
    1. Demonstrate leadership by listening to others and asking appropriate questions to clarify a problem or issue.
    2. Summarize a problem clearly and in appropriate detail.
    3. Suggest constructive alternatives with confidence that will help resolve a conflict.
    4. Compromise and/or build consensus within a group and summarize the decision of the group while maintaining respect for minortiy viewpoints.
    5. Participate in the implementation of a group's decision and evaluate the results.
    6. Show sensitivity to others' thoughts and opinions and relate them to the resolution process.
  Plus C. Diversity
    1. Understand and respect the concerns of members of cultural, gender, age, and ability groups.
    2. Be respectful of a variety of differences of people in a work/school setting.
    3. Demonstrate ability to work with others with different backgrounds, cultures, and abilities.
  Plus D. Leadership
    1. Demonstrate leadership ability in a work or school setting.
    2. Recognize and take advantage of leadership opportunities that give direction to other team members, or that encourage other members to complete tasks.
Plus VIII. NEGOTIATION SKILLS
  Plus A. Negotiation Skills
    1. Using correct terminology, clarify the problem or issue to be negotiated.
    2. Identify, organize, and define ideas from various sources to logically support a position and use these ideas in debate.
    3. Demonstrate objectivity in assessing other viewpoints by considering all sides of an issue, using past experience, data and logical analysis, and showing respectful behavior towards others.
    4. Responsibily challenge existing policies and procedures and identify new solutions or policy changes.
Plus IX. UNDERSTANDING SYSTEMS AND USING TECHNOLOGY
  Plus A. Understanding Systems and Using Technology
    1. Identify trends and how they affect changes within a system.
    2. Demonstrate an understanding of business systems.
    3. Compare management systems and consider how employees function and adapt to change within them.
    4. Describe the technical systems related to a career interest area.
    5. Diagnose and make necessary corrections or improvements to a technical system in a business, industry, or simulated work place setting.
    6. Describe how changes in technology have impacted business and industry, identify current trends, and recommend how a technical system might be improved.
    7. Demonstrate the use of equipment and machines to solve practical or work-based problems.
    8. Demonstrate effective use of a variety of on-line technological resources.
    9. Determine what kind of application is needed for a given task and use effectively.
    10. Use technologies as tools for communication of technical or work-related information.
    11. Use technology effectively in solving problems in an area of career interest.
    12. Understand and demonstrate basic computer hardware and software installation and maintaining efficient machines.
    13. Demonstrate ability to adapt to different software applications, comparing and contrasting specfic functions and applying them to different projects.
Plus X. EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS
  Plus A. Employability Skills
    1. Continue the EDP process which includes an annual review with student and counselor and notification of parents.
    2. Participate in work-based opportunities such as job-shadowing, mentorships, work experiences, etc.
    3. Show ability to market oneself by preparing for and completing an interview process.
    4. Accurately complete records/documents to support job applications (inquiry letters, resume, references, evaluations, follow-up letters).
    5. Use a portfolio, resume, record of attendance, certifricates, and/or transcript as self-marketing tools to demonstrate interest and competence.
    6. Apply career and labormarket information to seek and obtain employment and/or pursue educational goals.
    7. Research availability of educational programs, financial requirements, and resource and complete an application process as appropriate for career goals.
    8. Understand the need for lifelong learning in a rapidly changing job market.
Plus XI. MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS
  Plus A. Creativity and Innovation – By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Apply advanced software features (e.g. built-in thesaurus, templates, styles) to redesign the appearance of word processing documents, spreadsheets, and presentations
    2. Create a web page (e.g., Dreamweaver, iGoogle, Kompozer)
    3. Use a variety of media and formats to design, develop, publish, and present projects (e.g., newsletters, web sites, presentations, photo galleries)
  Plus B. Communication and Collaboration - By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Identify various collaboration technologies and describe their use (e.g., desktop conferencing, listserv, blog, wiki)
    2. Use available technologies (e.g., desktop conferencing, e-mail, videoconferencing, instant messaging) to communicate with others on a class assignment or project
    3. Collaborate in content-related projects that integrate a variety of media (e.g., print, audio, video, graphic, simulations, and models)
    4. Plan and implement a collaborative project using telecommunications tools (e.g., ePals, discussion boards, online groups, interactive web sites, videoconferencing)
    5. Describe the potential risks and dangers associated with online communications
    6. Use technology tools for managing and communicating personal information (e.g., finances, contact information, schedules, purchases, correspondence)
  Plus C. Research and Information Fluency – By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Develop a plan to gather information using various research strategies (e.g., interviews, questionnaires, experiments, online surveys)
    2. Identify, evaluate, and select appropriate online sources to answer content related questions
    3. Demonstrate the ability to use library and online databases for accessing information (e.g., MEL, Proquest, Infosource, United Streaming)
    4. Distinguish between fact, opinion, point of view, and inference
    5. Evaluate information found in selected online sources on the basis of accuracy and validity
    6. Evalate resources for stereotyping, prejudice, and misrepresentation
    7. Understand that using information from a single internet source might result in the reporting of erroneous facts and that multiple sources must always be researched
    8. Research examples of inappropriate use of technologies and participate in related classroom activities (e.g., debates, reports, mock trials, presentations)
  Plus D. Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making - By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Use digital resources (e.g., educational software, simulations, models) for problem solving and independent learning
    2. Analyze the capabilities and limitations of digital resources and evaluate their potential to address personal, social, lifelong learning, and career needs
    3. Devise a research question or hypothesis using information and communication technology resources, analyze the findings to make a decision based on the findings, and report the results
  Plus E. Digital Citizenship – By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Identify legal and ethical issues related to the use of information and communication technologies (e.g., properly selecting and citing resources)
    2. Discuss possible long-range effects of unethical uses of technology (e.g., virus spreading, file pirating, hacking) on cultures and society
    3. Discuss and demonstrate proper netiquette in online communications
    4. Identify ways that individuals can protect their technology systems from unethical or unscrupulous users
    5. Create appropriate citations for resources when presenting research findings
    6. Discuss and adhere to fair use policies and copyright guidelines
  Plus F. Technology Operations and Concepts - By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Complete at least one online credit, or non-credit, course or online learning experience
    2. Use an online tutorial and discuss the benefits and disadvantages of this method of learning
    3. Explore career opportunities, especially those related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics and identify their related technology skill requirements
    4. Describe uses of various existing or emerging technology resources (e.g., podcasting, webcasting, videoconferencing, online file sharing, global positioning software)
    5. Identify an example of an assistive technology and describe its potential purpose and use
    6. Participate in a virtual environment as a strategy to build 21st century learning skills
    7. Assess and solve hardware and software problems by using online help or other user documentation
    8. Explain the differences between freeware, shareware, open source, and commercial software
    9. Participate in experiences associated with technology-related careers
    10. Identify common graphic, audio, and video file formats (e.g., jpeg, gif, bmp, mpeg, wav, wmv, mp3, flv, avi, pdf)
    11. Understand and discuss how assistive technologies can benefit all individuals
    12. Demonstrate how to import/export text, graphics, or audio files
    13. Proofread and edit a document using an application’s spelling and grammar checking functions