11.1001 - Systems Administration/Administrator (2011 Implement by Fall 2012)

Plus Pathway Standards

Plus I. INFORMATION SUPPORT AND SERVICES
  Plus A. Perform computer user support to maintain service.
    Plus 1. Employ effective listening skills when working with client.
        a. Identify support needs.
        b. Apply information and data analysis techniques.
        c. Identify skill level needs and available resources.
        d. Define scope of work to meet customer needs.
        e. Identify resources.
        f. Evaluate present data and system configuration.
        g. Formulate a support plan/confirm plan with client.
    Plus 2. Employ customer service principles when working with consumers.
        a. Respond to user questions.
        b. Provide troubleshooting for hardware/software.
        c. Diagnose problems within system.
        d. Perform technical functions required by customer/user.
        e. Employ appropriate hardware and software tools to perform task in the most cost-effective manner.
        f. Maintain timeliness and professionalism during interaction.
        g. Communicate and document technical support provided.
    Plus 3. Evaluate and follow-up on customer service provided.
        a. When appropriate, follows up support session for evaluation.
        b. Employs evaluative tools (software/recordings) to check work.
        c. Understands steps to take to create improvement plan when needed.
    Plus 4. Analyze symptoms of problem and use diagnostic skills.
        a. Employ effective problem-solving skills in performing support, maintenance and/or repair.
  Plus B. Manage software systems to maintain and update service.
    Plus 1. Perform configuration management activities.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of identification and control functions.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of version management and interface control.
        c. Select appropriate tools for configuration management.
        d. Determine standards to be applied (e.g., international, industry, military).
        e. Specify baseline and software life-cycle phases.
        f. Assess the impact of changes that affect interfaces.
    Plus 2. Evaluate application software packages.
        a. Perform work flow analysis to determine user needs.
        b. Evaluate appropriateness of software for specific projects.
        c. Prepare a cost-benefit analysis for a software package.
        d. Document results of the software evaluation.
        e. Perform a software configuration audit.
        f. Perform a physical configuration audit.
        g. Develop a method for evaluation.
        h. Test the functionality of proposed software configuration.
  Plus C. Utilize hardware design, operation and maintenance knowledge and skills to provide computer user support.
    Plus 1. Identify the purpose of computer components.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the CPU (Intel, AMD, etc) and sockets.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of motherboard/CPU (North/Southbridge, L1/L2, multi-core, bus, 32/64 bit, form-factor, slots, etc).
        c. Demonstrate knowledge of Chipsets/BIOS and their drivers.
        d. Demonstrate knowledge of memory modules (RIMM, Dimm, SDRAM, DDR, DDR2, etc).
        e. Demonstrate knowledge of hard drive technologies (IDE, EIDE, SATA, SCSI, etc).
        f. Demonstrate knowledge of hard drive setup and troubleshooting.
        g. Demonstrate knowledge of video cards and slots (VGA, XVGA, VESA, SLI, etc).
        h. Demonstrate knowledge of I/O ports (serial, parallel, USB, PS/2, Firewire, etc).
        i. Demonstrate knowledge of modem/NIC ports and troubleshooting their problems.
        j. Demonstrate knowledge of INPUT devices (keyboard, mouse, touchpad, cameras, scanners, midis, barcode scanners, etc).
        k. Demonstrate knowledge of OUTPUT devices (printers, CRTs, LCD monitors, network devices).
        l. Demonstrate knowledge of PDAs and Phones and how they connect to and share data with computers.
        m. Demonstrate knowledge of power and power supplies and how associated problems can be solved.
        n. Demonstrate knowledge of peculiar features and problems of notebooks, PDAs and other portable devices.
    2. Explain the purpose of computer components and how they work together as a system.
    Plus 3. Demonstrate knowledge to build or install computer system.
        a. Identify primary PC components and the functions of each.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of how hardware components interact and how conflicts arise.
        c. Access needed information using manufacturers' references (e.g., procedural manuals, documentation, standards, work flowcharts).
        d. Secure supplies and resources.
        e. Demonstrate knowledge of error messages and symptoms of hardware failures.
        f. Install mainboard (with memory/CPU).
        g. Connect peripherals and expansion cards to/in mainboard.
        h. Install drives (HDD, FDD, CD, CDR) both EIDE and SATA.
        i. Employ appropriate safety precautions when working with PC.
        j. Configure hardware system.
        k. Verify system operation.
        l. Document system installation activities.
        m. Backup system and configuration.
        n. Test all applications.
        o. Restore system and configuration.
        p. Transfer system settings and files from old system to new.
    Plus 4. Demonstrate ability to couple troubleshooting skills with hardware knowledge to solve client problems.
        a. Know startup sequence and beep codes.
        b. Identify priorities and interrupts at system level.
        c. Replace RAM chips (different types).
        d. Test system using diagnostic tools/software.
        e. Identify problems in the operating system and related hardware.
        f. Differentiate between hardware and software failure.
        g. Update flash memory (BIOS).
        h. Demonstrate hard drive maintenance procedures (defrag/scan (2) clear caches, etc).
        i. Gather information on problem from user.
        j. Conduct appropriate diagnostic tests.
        k. Repair/replace malfunctioning hardware.
        l. Reinstall software as needed.
        m. Demonstrate backup and recovery.
        n. Restore system to various states (safe modes, previous date, etc.).
  Plus D. Demonstrate and apply knowledge of Operating System design, operation and maintenance to perform information support and service tasks.
    Plus 1. Demonstrate knowledge of Operating System components in the building and deployment of computer systems.
        a. Identify differences between O/Ss (Windows/Linux/Mac/DOS).
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of components of O/S (explorer, Control panel, etc).
        c. Demonstrate knowledge of startup sequence of O/Ss.
    Plus 2. Demonstrate knowledge of Operating System components in the repair and maintenance of computer systems.
        a. Connect stations to each other and to Internet.
        b. Connect stations to peripheral devices, especially printers.
        c. Protect stations from viruses, malwares, adwares, security breaches, etc.
        d. Test integrity and drivers of all devices recognized by O/S.
        e. Recover from system errors.
        f. Upgrade from one generation of O/S to the next.
        g. Install new hardware (drives, cards, etc) on O/S.
  Plus E. Demonstrate the use of networking concepts to develop a network.
    Plus 1. Describe basic network classifications, topologies and network operating systems (NOS).
        a. Interpret basic networking terminology.
        b. Differentiate between LANs, MANs and WANs.
        c. Demonstrate knowledge of how to turn LANs into MANs and WANs.
        d. Identify the basic point-to-point network topologies (e.g., star, ring, tree, network, irregular).
        e. Identify the basic broadcast topologies (e.g., star ring, bus).
    Plus 2. Demonstrate the use of networking concepts in the support and maintenance of the computers on the network.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics and uses of network components (e.g., hub, switches, routers, firewall).
        b. Differentiate between a physical and logical topology.
        c. Demonstrate knowledge of LAN transmission methods, standards and protocols.
  Plus F. Employ knowledge of information system analysis and design to evaluate information systems.
    Plus 1. Initiate a system project.
        a. Identify the phases in a system project.
        b. Select basic fact-gathering techniques to be used.
        c. Define the scope of the systems project.
        d. Conduct a preliminary investigation.
    Plus 2. Evaluate applications within the information system.
        a. Design a framework for evaluating information system functions.
        b. Design a framework for evaluating individual applications.
        c. Recommend new features or enhancements to existing tools.
  Plus G. Employ system installation and maintenance skills when setting-up and maintaining an information system to demonstrate application of fundamental system knowledge.
    Plus 1. Describe the life cycle of an information system.
        a. Research the concept of information system life cycles.
    Plus 2. Manage backup and recovery, both on- and off-site.
        a. Implement backup procedures in accordance with a regular schedule.
        b. Implement recovery procedures as needed.
    Plus 3. Troubleshoot problems.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of basic troubleshooting steps.
        b. Minimize impact of problems on productivity (e.g., minimize downtime).
    Plus 4. Evaluate problem-solving processes and outcomes.
        a. Evaluate problem-solving outcomes to determine whether the problem was solved as intended.
        b. Evaluate whether the process was applied in an efficient and responsible manner.
        c. Assess the validity and usefulness of the outcomes.
        d. Determine needed follow-up actions.
  Plus H. Employ system administration and control skills to monitor an information system.
    Plus 1. Perform general system administration tasks.
        a. Facilitate the delivery of technical services.
        b. Set up/maintain user accounts on multiple systems.
        c. Participate in the evaluation, analysis, and recommendation of technical computing products.
        d. Document performance problems.
        e. Prepare required reports.
        f. Maintain technical industry knowledge.
  Plus I. Employ technical writing and documentation skills to keep records necessary for an information system.
    Plus 1. Employ sound technical writing skills including keyboarding and handwriting.
        a. Define/prioritize communication needs.
        b. Specify project objectives.
        c. Determine the size and specifics of the work to be completed.
        d. Estimate time, materials, and capabilities needed to complete assignment.
        e. Evaluate strengths and weaknesses of completed project.
    Plus 2. Employ technical research to both evaluate applications and systems as well as find drivers and solutions.
        a. Identify target audience.
        b. Define research questions.
        c. Determine priorities for the information that should be gathered.
        d. Identify potential sources of information.
        e. Target audience/user group as a key information source.
        f. Identify subject-matter experts.
        g. Evaluate potential sources of information based on established criteria (e.g., affordability, relevance).
        h. Conduct interviews with selected human information sources.
        i. Gather information from selected print and electronic sources.
        j. Determine the accuracy and completeness of the information gathered.
    Plus 3. Design technical documentation.
        a. Define purpose of documentation.
        b. Specify standards for documentation, including critical success criteria.
        c. Identify delivery options.
        d. Evaluate cost-effectiveness of each delivery option.
        e. Select tools appropriate for task purpose.
        f. Plan information flow.
        g. Select writing style and tone appropriate for given documentation.
        h. Determine level of detail needed.
        i. Identify visuals appropriate for given documentation.
        j. Provide feedback on design to development team/individual.
    Plus 4. Write technical reports and effective field notes.
        a. Determine audience.
        b. Access needed information using standard references and sources.
        c. Identify type of report needed.
        d. Compile relevant data.
        e. Organize data into charts and graphs.
        f. Analyze data.
        g. Draw conclusions from data analysis.
        h. Outline report.
        i. Draft report.
        j. Edit report (e.g., check spelling, grammar, punctuation, sentence structure, accuracy of content).
        k. Review report with peers.
        l. Revise report as needed based on peer feedback.
        m. Proofread revised report.
        n. Present reports.
  Plus J. Identify and implement quality assurance processes to maximize information system operation.
    Plus 1. Evaluate tools for quality characteristics.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics and functions of available quality tools.
        b. Select quality tool(s) appropriate to situation.
    Plus 2. Apply quality cost implications to a project.
        a. Establish cost/quality objectives.
        b. Classify costs (e.g., direct and indirect, fixed and variable, methods and standards).
        c. Classify quality costs (e.g., prevention, evaluation, pre-delivery failure, post-delivery failure).
        d. Interpret quality cost reports.
        e. Establish guidelines for liability prevention.
        f. Identify safety terms of product.
        g. Identify safety responsibility within organization.

Plus Foundation Standards

I. ACADEMIC FOUNDATIONS: Achieve additional academic knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of career and postsecondary education opportunities within a career cluster.
Plus II. COMMUNICATIONS: Use oral and written communication skills in creating, expressing and interpreting information and ideas including technical terminology and information.
  Plus A. Develop positive customer relations to build and maintain a customer base in the IT industry.
    Plus 1. Demonstrate knowledge of organization’s offerings and of customers’ importance to the organization.
        a. Identify organization's products and services (including own strengths as an agent of the company).
        b. Recognize the importance of all customers to the business.
    Plus 2. Demonstrate ability to assist customers in a professional manner.
        a. Determine customers' individual needs.
        b. Project a professional business image (e.g., appearance, voice, grammar, word usage, enunciation, nonverbal communication).
        c. Interact with customers and colleagues in a professional manner (e.g., prompt, friendly, courteous, respectful, helpful, knowledgeable, understandable).
        d. Ensure that your assistance promotes the best interests of the company.
    Plus 3. Effectively use organizational protocols and systems to fulfill customer service requirements.
        a. Comply with established business protocols and company policies.
        b. Communicate company policies to customers.
        c. Handle merchandise returns in accordance with customer service policy.
        d. Handle customer complaints in accordance with customer service policy.
        e. Facilitate customer service through the maintenance of key information systems.
    Plus 4. Ensure that customers' needs are met to maintain a customer base.
        a. Follow through on commitments made to customers(e.g., special orders, delivery specifications, new items).
        b. Maintain customer base.
  Plus B. Perform scheduling functions to meet customer needs.
    Plus 1. Schedule customer appointments.
        a. Create calendars/schedules.
        b. Maintain appointment calendars.
        c. Process requests for appointments.
        d. Verify appointments.
        e. Notify customers of changes in schedule.
        f. Manage scheduling conflicts.
    Plus 2. Document results of customer appointments.
        a. Document results.
Plus III. PROBLEM-SOLVING AND CRITICAL THINKING: Solve problems using critical thinking skills (analyze, synthesize, and evaluate) independently and in teams. Solve problems using creativity and innovation.
  Plus A. Use product/service design processes and guidelines to produce a quality IT product/service.
    Plus 1. Summarize the process of IT product/service design.
        a. Test products for reliability.
        b. Initiate predictive maintenance procedures.
        c. Document a Quality Assurance (QA) program (includes creating a plan and evaluating effectiveness of the program).
    2. Plan for products/services using reliability factors.
    3. Create products/services using reliability factors.
    4. Test new products/services for reliability.
    5. Maintain the reliability of new products/services.
  Plus B. Implement problem-solving processes to evaluate and verify the nature of problems in the IT industry.
    Plus 1. Explain information systems theory and practice.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the underlying concepts of the information systems discipline.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of methods for achieving productivity in knowledge work.
        c. Apply general systems theory to the analysis and development of an information system.
        d. Identify procedures for formal problem-solving.
        e. Demonstrate knowledge of the fundamental concept of information theory and organizational system processes.
        f. Identify the essential properties of information systems.
    2. Explain information systems problem-solving techniques and approaches.
    3. Evaluate information systems problem-solving techniques and approaches.
  Plus C. Employ organization and design principles to sort and group information used in the IT industry.
    Plus 1. Demonstrate the use of information organization principles.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of group support technology for common knowledge requirements.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of the information analysis process.
        c. Demonstrate knowledge of Information Technology solutions.
        d. Demonstrate knowledge of methods for achieving productivity in knowledge work.
    2. Demonstrate the use of design and color principles.
IV. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS: Use information technology tools specific to the career cluster to access, manage, integrate, and create information.
Plus V. SYSTEMS: Understand roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment. Identify how key organizational systems affect organizational performance and the quality of products and services. Understand global context of industries and careers.
  Plus A. Analyze and summarize the use of IT in business to enhance effectiveness.
    Plus 1. Integrate IT into various types of business models.
        a. Determine how business activities interface with data processing functions.
        b. Differentiate between the role of information systems within a company and their role in a global environment.
        c. Measure increases in productivity realized by the implementation of information systems.
  Plus B. Implement cross-functional teams to achieve IT project goals.
    Plus 1. Summarize the importance of cross-functional teams in achieving IT project goals.
        a. Consider the benefits of using a cross-functional team in policy and procedure development.
        b. Identify desired group and team behavior in an IT context.
        c. Explain technical concepts to various audiences in non-technical terms.
    2. Describe strategies for maximizing productivity in a high tech environment.
  Plus C. Employ project management knowledge to oversee IT projects.
    Plus 1. Implement project methodologies to manage information system projects.
        a. Define the project's contribution to business needs.
        b. Define the scope of the project.
        c. Identify stakeholders and decision makers.
        d. Identify escalation procedures.
        e. Develop task list (work breakdown structures).
        f. Evaluate project requirements.
        g. Identify required resources and budget.
        h. Estimate time requirements.
        i. Develop initial project management flowchart.
        j. Identify interdependencies.
        k. Identify critical milestones.
        l. Evaluate risks.
        m. Prepare contingency plan.
        n. Manage the change control process.
        o. Track critical milestones.
        p. Participate in project phase review.
        q. Report project status.
        r. Utilize project management software.
        s. Develop a method of evaluation.
    Plus 2. Define scope of work to achieve individual and group goals.
        a. Assess the task's contribution to overall business needs.
        b. Identify size and specifics of the task.
        c. Formulate task sequence.
        d. Plan multiple tasks simultaneously.
        e. Identify potential problems.
        f. Develop contingency plans.
    Plus 3. Develop time and activity plans to achieve objectives.
        a. Coordinate plan with team, cross-functional groups, or individuals.
        b. Formulate a task strategy.
        c. Prioritize tasks according to business needs.
        d. Manage multiple tasks simultaneously.
        e. Devise plan of action.
VI. SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL: Understand the importance of health, safety, and environmental management systems in organizations and their importance to organizational performance and regulatory compliance. Follow organizational policies and procedures and contribute to continuous improvement in performance and compliance.
VII. LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK: Use leadership and teamwork skills in collaborating with others to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
Plus VIII. ETHICS AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES: Know and understand the importance of professional ethics and legal responsibilities.
  Plus A. Apply standard practices and behaviors that meet legal and ethical responsibilities and exhibit positive cyber-citizenry to understand legal issues faced by IT professionals.
    Plus 1. Explain legal issues faced by IT professionals.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the legal issues that face Information Technology professionals.
        b. Identify issues and trends affecting computers and information privacy.
        c. Explain legal issues involved in a company security policy.
        d. Identify legal issues involved concerning a security breach.
    2. Summarize the rights and responsibilities of IT workers.
    3. Identify ethical issues common to the IT field.
Plus IX. EMPLOYABILITY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT: Know and understand the importance of employability skills. Explore, plan, and effectively manage careers. Know and understand the importance of entrepreneurship skills.
  Plus A. Identify and explain the implications IT has on business transformation and development to demonstrate an understanding of the impact on business.
    Plus 1. Demonstrate understanding of the impact of IT on businesses.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of how both PCs and larger computer systems impact people and are used in business/industry/government and other institutions.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of the impact of computers on career pathways in business/industry (e.g., how computers have eliminated and created jobs).
        c. Demonstrate knowledge of the impact of computers on access to information and information exchange worldwide.
        d. Demonstrate knowledge of ethical issues that have surfaced in the information age.
Plus X. TECHNICAL SKILLS: Use the technical knowledge and skills required to pursue the targeted careers for all pathways in the career cluster, including knowledge of design, operation, and maintenance of technological systems critical to the career cluster.
  Plus A. Demonstrate knowledge of the hardware components associated with information systems.
    Plus 1. Explain the fundamentals of operating systems.
        a. Identify major operating system fundamentals and components.
    Plus 2. Explain the role of number systems in information systems.
        a. Identify the role the binary and hexadecimal system in information systems.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of number systems and internal data representation.
    Plus 3. Identify computer classifications and hardware.
        a. Identify major hardware components and their functions.
        b. Identify the hardware associated with telecommunications functions.
        c. Identify types of computer storage devices.
    Plus 4. Describe elements and types of information processing.
        a. Identify the elements of the information processing cycle (i.e., input, process, output, and storage).
        b. Identify types of processing (e.g., batch, interactive, event-driven, object-oriented).
    Plus 5. Use available reference tools as appropriate.
        a. Access needed information using company and manufacturers' references (e.g., procedural manuals, documentation, standards, work flowcharts).
    6. Describe the function of CPUs.
  Plus B. Compare classes of software associated with the development and maintenance information systems to develop software and maintain computer systems.
    Plus 1. Explain the key functions and applications of software.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the key functions of systems software.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of widely used software applications (e.g., word processing, database management, spreadsheet development).
        c. Demonstrate knowledge of the function and operation of compilers and interpreters.
    Plus 2. Describe the range of languages used in software development.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the range of languages used in software development.
    Plus 3. Summarize how data is organized in software development.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of how data is organized in software development.
    Plus 4. Explain new and emerging classes of software.
        a. Identify new and emerging classes of software.
  Plus C. Identify and compare new IT trends and technologies to build an understanding of their potential influence on IT practices.
    Plus 1. Explain measurement techniques for increased productivity due to information support implementation.
        a. Measure increases in productivity realized by the implementation of information systems.
    Plus 2. Identify new IT technologies.
        a. Identify new technologies relevant to information technology.
        b. Assess the importance of new technologies to future developments and to future knowledge worker productivity.
        c. Identify new and emerging drivers and inhibitors of Information Technology change.
    3. Assess the potential importance and impact of new IT technologies in the future.
  Plus D. Summarize basic data communications components and trends to maintain and update IT systems.
    Plus 1. Explain data communications procedures, equipment and media.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of key communications procedures.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of the uses of data communication equipment.
        c. Demonstrate knowledge of types of communications media.
    Plus 2. Explain data transmission codes and protocols.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of data transmission codes and protocols.
    Plus 3. Explain the differences between local and wide area networks.
        a. Distinguish between local area networks and wide-area networks.
    Plus 4. Summarize data communication trends and issues.
        a. Identify data communication trends.
        b. Identify major current issues in data communications.
  Plus E. Demonstrate technical knowledge of the Internet to develop and maintain IT systems.
    Plus 1. Describe Internet protocols.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of management protocols, applications and procedures (e.g., SNMP, intrusion detection, and reporting issues).
        c. Explain the concept of routing.
    Plus 2. Explain Domain Name Server (DNS).
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the Domain Name System (DNS).
        b. Explain the DNS hierarchy.
        c. Identify elements of DNS (e.g., zones, server types).
    Plus 3. Summarize Internet security issues and systems available for addressing them.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the Domain Name System (DNS).
        b. Explain the DNS hierarchy.
        c. Identify elements of DNS (e.g., zones, server types).
  Plus F. Access and use Internet services when completing IT related tasks to service and update IT systems.
    Plus 1. Demonstrate the use of an Internet connection.
        a. Configure a small home office Internet connection using cable, DSL, wireless or satellite connection.
        b. Test Internet connection using tools such as ping, trace route, net stat, host, dig, and nslookup.
    2. Troubleshoot Internet connection problems.
    Plus 3. Explain the components of Internet software.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the components of Internet software.
    Plus 4. Install Internet software for use on an operating system.
        a. Identify common browser features.
        b. Install Internet software.
        c. Differentiate between Web-based applications and applications installed on a local computer.
        d. Download software upgrades and shareware from the Internet.
        e. Unpack files using compression software.
    Plus 5. Describe virus protection procedures.
        a. Demonstrate acute awareness of virus protection techniques.
        b. Identify types and capabilities of popular virus protection software.
        c. Explain spyware, adware, and malware.
        d. Identify how to avoid spyware, adware, and malware and how to recover from infection.
    Plus 6. Explain cookies and adware on an internet connected computer system.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of cookies and their use on an internet-connected computer system.
        b. Identify types and consequences of pop-ups and ad-ware.
  Plus G. Install and configure software programs to maintain and update IT systems.
    Plus 1. Verify that hardware and software system components are compatible prior to performing installation.
        a. Identify hardware requirements (e.g., processor, memory, disk space, communications, printers, monitors).
        b. Determine compatibility of hardware and software.
    Plus 2. Verify that software to be installed is licensed prior to performing installation.
        a. Verify conformance to licensing agreement.
        b. Understand the concept of an End User License Agreement (EULA).
        c. Differentiate between open source and proprietary licenses.
        d. Explain the concept of open source.
        e. Identify common characteristics of open source licensing agreements, including the GNU General Public License (GPL).
    Plus 3. Perform installation accurately and completely, using available resources as needed.
        a. Install given application/system software on various platforms in accordance with manufacturer's procedures.
        b. Disable/uninstall software that may interfere with installation of new software.
        c. Differentiate between procedures for an upgrade and for a new installation.
        d. Differentiate between stand-alone and network installation procedures.
        e. Select appropriate installation options (e.g., default, customized).
        f. Configure software to appropriate operating system settings.
        g. Configure macros, tools, and packages to accomplish simple organizational and personal tasks.
        h. Convert data files if required.
        i. Verify software installation and operation.
    Plus 4. Resolve problems with installation if they occur.
        a. Troubleshoot unexpected results.
        b. Access needed help using manufacturers' technical help lines or Internet sites.
        c. Formulate new installation procedure if needed.
    Plus 5. Perform customization as requested.
        a. Customize software to meet user preferences.
    Plus 6. Document procedures, using clear and effective notes, for future use.
        a. Document step-by-step installation and configuration procedures.
  Plus H. Demonstrate knowledge of Web page basics to build an understanding of Web page design and functioning.
    Plus 1. Explain the features and functions of Web browsing software.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the role of browsers in reading files on the World Wide Web (text-only, hypertext).
        b. Identify how different browsers affect the look of a web page.
        c. Demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics and uses of plug-ins.
    Plus 2. Explain the features and functions of Web page design software.
        a. Compare/contrast the features and functions of software editors available for designing web pages.
    Plus 3. Compare and contrast clients and servers.
        a. Differentiate between a client and a server.
        b. Explain how traditional and modern Internet clients exploit the client/server relationship.
    Plus 4. Describe how bandwidth affects data transmission and on-screen image.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of how bandwidths affect data transmission and on-screen image.
    Plus 5. Compare the benefits of internal and external Web hosting.
        a. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of internal external web hosting.
  Plus I. Employ IT knowledge and procedures when configuring or modifying an operating system to ensure optimal system functioning.
    Plus 1. Configure/modify system as needed.
        a. Secure needed supplies and resources.
        b. Review automated scheduling software.
        c. Identify data requirements.
        d. Identify scheduling priority in programming.
        e. Build system software command structures using operating system macro facilities for computer systems.
    Plus 2. Use operating system principles to ensure optimal system function.
        a. Apply basic commands of operating system software.
        b. Apply appropriate file and disk management techniques.
        c. Employ desktop operating skills.
        d. Handle materials and equipment in a responsible manner.
        e. Follow power-up and log-on procedures.
        f. Interact with/respond to system messages using console device.
        g. Run applications/jobs in accordance with processing procedures.
        h. Follow log-off and power-down procedure(s).
    Plus 3. Use available reference tools as appropriate.
        a. Access needed information using appropriate reference materials.
    Plus 4. Document procedures and actions.
        a. Develop audit trails.
    5. Configure systems to provide optimal system interfaces.
  Plus J. Perform standard computer backup procedures to protect IT information.
    Plus 1. Explain the need for regular backup procedures.
        a. Recognize the need for regular backup procedures.
    Plus 2. Configure, perform and maintain backup procedures.
        a. Load backup software.
        b. Load compression drive backup software.
        c. Install surge suppression protection.
        d. Identify battery backup equipment.
        e. Maintain battery backup system.
        f. Identify hot and warm site backup concepts.
  Plus K. Recognize and analyze potential IT security threats to develop and maintain security requirements.
    1. Describe potential security threats to information systems.
    2. Identify the range of security needs and the problems that can occur due to security lapses.
    Plus 3. Assess security threats.
        a. Maximize threat reduction.
        b. Assess exposure to security issues.
        c. Implement countermeasures.
        d. Ensure compliance with security rules, regulations, and codes.
        e. Demonstrate knowledge of virus protection strategy.
        f. Implement security procedures in accordance with business ethics.
    4. Develop plans to address security threats.
    Plus 5. Implement plans to address security procedures.
        a. Maintain confidentiality.
        b. Load virus detection and protection software.
        c. Identify sources of virus infections.
        d. Remove viruses.
        e. Report viruses in compliance with company standards.
        f. Implement backup and recovery procedures.
        g. Follow disaster plan.
        h. Provide for user authentication and restricted access (e.g., assign passwords, access level).
    6. Document security procedures.
  Plus L. Maintain computer systems to ensure optimal IT system functioning.
    Plus 1. Implement queries and reports to provide access to critical system information.
        a. Create a query to extract information from a file.
        b. Create a query to extract information from multiple files.
        c. Create reports from queries.
        d. Create and use logical files.
        e. Develop a display screen for use with high-level language program.
        f. Access needed information using appropriate reference materials.
    Plus 2. Ensure that system is functioning optimally.
        a. Monitor system status and performance.
        b. Run diagnostics.
        c. Respond to system messages.
        d. Perform preventive maintenance procedures on computer and peripheral devices.
        e. Handle materials and equipment in a responsible manner.
        f. Optimize windows environment to maximize performance of desktop resources.
        g. Review automated scheduling software.
    Plus 3. Fix and document system problems.
        a. Fix recoverable problems.
        b. Restore system.
        c. Document computer system malfunction(s).
        d. Document software malfunction(s).
    Plus 4. Configure systems to provide optimal system interfaces.
        a. Define hardware-software interface issues for a computer system.
        b. Identify standards and issues related to I/O programming and design of I/O interfaces.
        c. Interface peripheral devices/controllers in the computer system (e.g., software and hardware interrupts, exceptions, Direct Memory Addressing [DMA], bus structures).
        d. Apply concepts of privileged instructions and protected mode programming.
        e. Configure peripheral device drivers (e.g., disk, display, printer, modem, keyboard, mouse, network).
        f. Apply advanced I/O concepts (e.g., disk caching, data compression, extended memory, magnetic disk/CD-ROM storage and formats).
        g. Allocate disk space, non-sharable resources, and I/O devices.
  Plus M. Provide IT support and training to maintain proper network functioning.
    Plus 1. Provide Help Desk service to computer users within the organization.
        a. Operate help desk.
        b. Employ desktop productivity tools.
        c. Support computer users.
    Plus 2. Provide training for basic computer use within the organization.
        a. Train computer users.
  Plus N. Identify and describe quality assurance concepts to develop an understanding of the requirements for quality IT products/services.
    Plus 1. Explain the history and standards of key quality management initiatives.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the historical evolution of quality assurance/total quality management (e.g., Deming, ISO 9000).
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of changes brought about by quality leaders in the world.
        c. Demonstrate knowledge of the ISO 9000 process.
        d. Demonstrate knowledge of the standards/requirements for the Baldridge award.
        e. Demonstrate knowledge of successful efforts by industry to improve quality and/or reduce costs.
    Plus 2. Explain the terminology, role and benefits of quality within an organization.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of quality management terminology.
        b. Identify the role of quality within the organization.
        c. Identify the features and benefits of quality planning.
    Plus 3. Summarize the elements of a quality management system.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the control devices used in functional areas (e.g., SPC, equipment).
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of the relationship among organizational structures, policies, procedures, and quality assurance.
        c. Identify internal and external customers.
        d. Differentiate between prevention and detection.
        e. Differentiate between variable and attribute data.
        f. Identify types of control charts.
        g. Demonstrate knowledge of how statistical techniques used to control quality (e.g., SPC, DOE, CR).
  Plus O. Describe the use of computer forensics to prevent and solve information technology crimes and security breaches.
    Plus 1. Describe the role of computer forensic investigators.
        a. Define computer forensics.
        b. List some of the basic skills and knowledge a computer forensics specialist should possess.
        c. Identify the circumstances under which computer forensics evidence is typically used, who typically uses such evidence, and how it is used.
    Plus 2. Demonstrate the effective use of basic computer applications relating to forensics investigations.
        a. Identify and attempt to retrieve possible evidence that may exist on a computer system.
        b. List what should and should not be done with the computer and evidence during an investigation.
    Plus 3. Identify criminal activity in relationship to cyber crime, the Internet, and Internet trafficking.
        a. List common internet crimes.
        b. List some prevention actions related to cyber crime.
        c. Describe techniques to identify criminal activity.
        d. Identify how one files a complaint if a cyber crime is suspected or has occurred.

Plus Essential Standards

Plus I. ACADEMIC FOUNDATIONS: Achieve additional academic knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of career and postsecondary education opportunities within a career cluster.
  Plus A. Complete required training, education, and certification to prepare for employment in a particular career field.
    1. Identify training, education and certification requirements for occupational choice.
    2. Participate in career-related training and/or degree programs.
    3. Pass certification tests to qualify for licensure and/or certification in chosen occupational area.
  Plus B. Demonstrate language arts knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary education and career opportunities.
    1. Model behaviors that demonstrate active listening.
    2. Adapt language for audience, purpose, situation. (i.e. diction/structure, style).
    3. Organize oral and written information.
    4. Compose focused copy for a variety of written documents such as agendas, audio-visuals, bibliographies, drafts, forms/documents, notes, oral presentations, reports, and technical terminology.
    5. Edit copy to create focused written documents such as agendas, audio-visuals, bibliographies, drafts, forms/documents, notes, oral presentations, reports, and technical terminology.
    6. Comprehend key elements of oral and written information such as cause/effect, comparisons/contrasts, conclusions, context, purpose, charts/tables/graphs, evaluation/critiques, mood, persuasive text, sequence, summaries, and technical subject matter.
    7. Evaluate oral and written information for accuracy, adequacy/sufficiency, appropriateness, clarity, conclusions/solutions, fact/opinion, propaganda, relevancy, validity, and relationship of ideas.
    8. Identify assumptions, purpose, outcomes/solutions, and propaganda techniques.
    9. Predict potential outcomes and/or solutions based on oral and written information regarding trends.
    10. Present formal and informal speeches including discussion, information requests, interpretation, and persuasive arguments.
  Plus C. Demonstrate mathematics knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary education and career opportunities.
    1. Identify whole numbers, decimals, and fractions.
    2. Demonstrate knowledge of basic arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
    3. Demonstrate use of relational expressions such as equal to, not equal, greater than, less than, etc.
    4. Apply data and measurements to solve a problem.
    5. Analyze Mathematical problem statements for missing and/or irrelevant data.
    6. Construct charts/tables/graphs from functions and data.
    7. Analyze data when interpreting operational documents.
  Plus D. Demonstrate science knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary and career education opportunities.
    1. Evaluate scientific constructs including conclusions, conflicting data, controls, data, inferences, limitations, questions, sources of errors, and variables.
    2. Apply scientific methods in qualitative and quantitative analysis, data gathering, direct and indirect observation, predictions, and problem identification.
Plus II. COMMUNICATIONS: Use oral and written communication skills in creating, expressing and interpreting information and ideas including technical terminology and information.
  Plus A. Select and employ appropriate reading and communication strategies to learn and use technical concepts and vocabulary in practice.
    1. Determine the most appropriate reading strategy for identifying the overarching purpose of a text (i.e. skimming, reading for detail, reading for meaning or critical analysis).
    2. Demonstrate use of content, technical concepts and vocabulary when analyzing information and following directions.
    3. Select the reading strategy or strategies needed to fully comprehend the content within a written document (i.e., skimming, reading for detail, reading for meaning or critical analysis).
    4. Interpret information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
    5. Transcribe information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
    6. Communicate information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
  Plus B. Demonstrate use of the concepts, strategies, and systems for obtaining and conveying ideas and information to enhance communication in the workplace.
    1. Employ verbal skills when obtaining and conveying information.
    2. Record information needed to present a report on a given topic or problem.
    3. Write internal and external business correspondence that conveys and/or obtains information effectively.
    4. Communicate with other employees to clarify workplace objectives.
    5. Communicate effectively with customers and employees to foster positive relationships.
  Plus C. Locate, organize and reference written information from various sources to communicate with co-workers and clients/participants.
    1. Locate written information used to communicate with co-workers and customers.
    2. Organize information to use in written and oral communications.
    3. Reference the sources of information.
  Plus D. Evaluate and use information resources to accomplish specific occupational tasks.
    1. Use informational texts, Internet web sites, and/or technical materials to review and apply information sources for occupational tasks.
    2. Evaluate the reliability of information from informational texts, Internet Web sites, and/or technical materials and resources.
  Plus E. Use correct grammar, punctuation and terminology to write and edit documents.
    1. Compose multi-paragraph documents clearly, succinctly, and accurately.
    2. Use descriptions of audience and purpose when preparing and editing written documents.
    3. Use correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization when preparing written documents.
  Plus F. Develop and deliver formal and informal presentations using appropriate media to engage and inform audiences.
    1. Prepare oral presentations to provide information for specific purposes and audiences.
    2. Identify support materials that will enhance an oral presentation.
    3. Prepare support materials that will enhance an oral presentation.
    4. Deliver an oral presentation that sustains listeners' attention and interest.
    5. Align presentation strategies to the intended audience.
    6. Implement multi-media strategies for presentations.
  Plus G. Interpret verbal and nonverbal cues/behaviors to enhance communication with co-workers and clients/participants.
    1. Interpret verbal behaviors when communicating with clients and co-workers.
    2. Interpret nonverbal behaviors when communicating with clients and co-workers.
  Plus H. Apply active listening skills to obtain and clarify information.
    1. Interpret a given verbal message/information.
    2. Respond with restatement and clarification techniques to clarify information.
  Plus I. Develop and interpret tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communications.
    1. Create tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communications.
    2. Interpret tables, charts, and figures used to support written and oral communication.
  Plus J. Listen to and speak with diverse individuals to enhance communication skills.
    1. Apply factors and strategies for communicating with a diverse workforce.
    2. Demonstrate ability to communicate and resolve conflicts within a diverse workforce.
  Plus K. Exhibit public relations skills to increase internal and external customer/client satisfaction.
    1. Communicate effectively when developing positive customer/client relationships.
Plus III. PROBLEM-SOLVING AND CRITICAL THINKING: Solve problems using critical thinking skills (analyze, synthesize, and evaluate) independently and in teams. Solve problems using creativity and innovation.
  Plus A. Employ critical thinking skills independently and in teams to solve problems and make decisions (e.g., analyze, synthesize and evaluate).
    1. Identify common tasks that require employees to use problem-solving skills.
    2. Analyze elements of a problem to develop creative solutions.
    3. Describe the value of using problem-solving and critical thinking skills to improve a situation or process.
    4. Create ideas, proposals, and solutions to problems.
    5. Evaluate ideas, proposals, and solutions to problems.
    6. Use structured problem-solving methods when developing proposals and solutions.
    7. Generate new and creative ideas to solve problems by brainstorming possible solutions.
    8. Critically analyze information to determine value to the problem-solving task.
    9. Guide individuals through the process of recognizing concerns and making informed decisions.
    10. Identify alternatives using a variety of problem-solving and critical thinking skills.
    11. Evaluate alternatives using a variety of problem-solving and critical thinking skills.
  Plus B. Employ critical thinking and interpersonal skills to resolve conflicts with staff and/or customers.
    1. Analyze situations and behaviors that affect conflict management.
    2. Determine best options/outcomes for conflict resolution using critical thinking skills.
    3. Identify with others’ feelings, needs, and concerns.
    4. Implement stress management techniques.
    5. Resolve conflicts with/for customers using conflict resolution skills.
    6. Implement conflict resolution skills to address staff issues/problems.
  Plus C. Identify, write and monitor workplace performance goals to guide progress in assigned areas of responsibility and accountability.
    1. Write realistic performance goals, objectives and action plans.
    2. Monitor performance goals and adjust as necessary.
    3. Recognize goal achievement using appropriate rewards in the workplace.
    4. Communicate goal achievement with managers and co-workers.
  Plus D. Conduct technical research to gather information necessary for decision-making.
    1. Align the information gathered to the needs of the audience.
    2. Gather technical information and data using a variety of resources.
    3. Analyze information and data for value to the research objectives.
    4. Evaluate information and data to determine value to research objectives.
Plus IV. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS: Use information technology tools specific to the career cluster to access, manage, integrate, and create information.
  Plus A. Use Personal Information Management (PIM) applications to increase workplace efficiency.
    1. Manage personal schedules and contact information.
    2. Create memos and notes.
  Plus B. Employ technological tools to expedite workflow.
    1. Use information technology tools to manage and perform work responsibilities.
  Plus C. Operate electronic mail applications to communicate within a workplace.
    1. Use email to share files and documents.
    2. Identify the functions and purpose of email systems.
    3. Use email to communicate within and across organizations.
  Plus D. Operate Internet applications to perform workplace tasks.
    1. Access and navigate Internet (e.g., use a web browser).
    2. Search for information and resources.
    3. Evaluate Internet resources for reliability and validity.
  Plus E. Operate writing and publishing applications to prepare business communications.
    1. Prepare simple documents and other business communications.
    2. Prepare reports and other business communications by integrating graphics and other non-text elements.
    3. Prepare complex multi-media publications.
  Plus F. Operate presentation applications to prepare presentations.
    1. Prepare presentations for training, sales and information sharing.
    2. Deliver presentations with supporting materials.
  Plus G. Employ spreadsheet applications to organize and manipulate data.
    1. Create a spreadsheet.
    2. Perform calculations and analyses on data using a spreadsheet.
  Plus H. Employ database applications to manage data.
    1. Manipulate data elements.
    2. Manage interrelated data elements.
    3. Analyze interrelated data elements.
    4. Generate reports showing interrelated data elements.
  Plus I. Employ collaborative/groupware applications to facilitate group work.
    1. Facilitate group work through management of shared schedule and contact information.
    2. Facilitate group work through management of shared files and online information.
    3. Facilitate group work through instant messaging or virtual meetings.
  Plus J. Employ computer operations applications to manage work tasks.
    1. Manage computer operations.
    2. Manage file storage.
    3. Compress or alter files.
  Plus K. Use computer-based equipment (containing embedded computers or processors) to control devices.
    1. Operate computer driven equipment and machines.
    2. Use installation and operation manuals.
    3. Troubleshoot computer driven equipment and machines.
    4. Access support as needed to maintain operation of computer driven equipment and machines.
Plus V. SYSTEMS: Understand roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment. Identify how key organizational systems affect organizational performance and the quality of products and services. Understand global context of industries and careers.
  Plus A. Describe the nature and types of business organizations to build an understanding of the scope of organizations.
    1. List the types and functions of businesses.
    2. Describe the types and functions of businesses.
    3. Explain the functions and interactions of common departments within a business.
  Plus B. Implement quality control systems and practices to ensure quality products and services.
    1. Describe quality control standards and practices common to the workplace.
Plus VI. SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL: Understand the importance of health, safety, and environmental management systems in organizations and their importance to organizational performance and regulatory compliance. Follow organizational policies and procedures and contribute to continuous improvement in performance and compliance.
  Plus A. Implement personal and jobsite safety rules and regulations to maintain safe and healthful working conditions and environments.
    1. Assess workplace conditions with regard to safety and health.
    2. Align safety issues with appropriate safety standards to ensure a safe workplace/jobsite.
    3. Identify safety hazards common to workplaces.
    4. Identify safety precautions to maintain a safe worksite.
    5. Select appropriate personal protective equipment as needed for a safe workplace/jobsite.
    6. Inspect personal protective equipment commonly used for selected career pathway.
    7. Use personal protective equipment according to manufacturer rules and regulations.
    8. Employ a safety hierarchy and communication system within the workplace/jobsite.
    9. Implement safety precautions to maintain a safe worksite.
  Plus B. Complete work tasks in accordance with employee rights and responsibilities and employers obligations to maintain workplace safety and health.
    1. Identify rules and laws designed to promote safety and health in the workplace.
    2. State the rationale of rules and laws designed to promote safety and health.
  Plus C. Employ emergency procedures as necessary to provide aid in workplace accidents.
    1. Use knowledge of First Aid procedures as necessary.
    2. Use knowledge of CPR procedures as necessary.
    3. Use safety equipment as necessary.
  Plus D. Employ knowledge of response techniques to create a disaster and/or emergency response plan.
    1. Complete an assessment of an emergency and/or disaster situation.
    2. Create an emergency and/or disaster plan.
Plus VII. LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK: Use leadership and teamwork skills in collaborating with others to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
  Plus A. Employ leadership skills to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
    1. Analyze the various roles of leaders within organizations (e.g. contribute ideas; share in building an organization; act as role models to employees by adhering to company policies, procedures, and standards; promote the organization’s vision; and mentor others).
    2. Exhibit traits such as empowerment, risk, communication, focusing on results, decision-making, problem solution, and investment in individuals when leading a group in solving a problem.
    3. Exhibit traits such as compassion, service, listening, coaching, developing others, team development, and understanding and appreciating others when acting as a manager of others in the workplace.
    4. Exhibit traits such as enthusiasm, creativity, conviction, mission, courage, concept, focus, principle-centered living, and change when interacting with others in general.
    5. Consider issues related to self, team, community, diversity, environment, and global awareness when leading others.
    6. Exhibit traits such as innovation, intuition, adaptation, life-long learning and coachability to develop leadership potential over time.
    7. Analyze leadership in relation to trust, positive attitude, integrity, and willingness to accept key responsibilities in a work situation.
    8. Describe observations of outstanding leaders using effective management styles.
    9. Participate in civic and community leadership and teamwork opportunities to enhance skills.
  Plus B. Employ organizational and staff development skills to foster positive working relationships and accomplish organizational goals.
    1. Implement organizational skills when facilitating others’ work efforts.
    2. Explain how to manage a staff that satisfies work demands while adhering to budget constraints.
    3. Describe how staff growth and development to increase productivity and employee satisfaction.
    4. Organize team involvement within a group environment.
    5. Work with others to develop and gain commitment to team goals.
    6. Distribute responsibility and work load fairly.
    7. Model leadership and teamwork qualities to aid in employee morale.
    8. Identify best practices for successful team functioning.
    9. Explain best practices for successful team functioning.
  Plus C. Employ teamwork skills to achieve collective goals and use team members' talents effectively.
    1. Work with others to achieve objectives in a timely manner.
    2. Promote the full involvement and use of team members' individual talents and skills.
    3. Employ conflict-management skills to facilitate solutions.
    4. Demonstrate teamwork skills through working cooperatively with co-workers, supervisory staff, and others, both in and out of the organization, to achieve particular tasks.
    5. Demonstrate teamwork processes that provide team building, consensus, continuous improvement, respect for the opinions of others, cooperation, adaptability, and conflict resolution.
    6. Develop plans to improve team performance.
    7. Demonstrate commitment to and a positive attitude toward team goals.
    8. Take responsibility for shared group and individual work tasks.
    9. Assist team members in completing their work.
    10. Adapt effectively to changes in projects and work activities.
    11. Negotiate effectively to arrive at decisions.
  Plus D. Establish and maintain effective working relationships with all levels of personnel and other departments in order to accomplish objectives and tasks.
    1. Build effective working relationships using interpersonal skills.
    2. Use positive interpersonal skills to work cooperatively with co-workers representing different cultures, genders and backgrounds.
    3. Manage personal skills to accomplish assignments.
    4. Treat people with respect.
    5. Provide constructive praise and criticism.
    6. Demonstrate sensitivity to and value for diversity.
    7. Manage stress and control emotions.
  Plus E. Conduct and participate in meetings to accomplish work tasks.
    1. Develop meeting goals, objectives and agenda.
    2. Assign responsibilities for preparing materials and leading discussions.
    3. Prepare materials for leading discussion.
    4. Assemble and distribute meeting materials.
    5. Conduct meeting to achieve objectives within scheduled time.
    6. Demonstrate effective communication skills in meetings.
    7. Produce meeting minutes including decisions and next steps.
    8. Use parliamentary procedure, as needed, to conduct meetings.
  Plus F. Employ mentoring skills to inspire and teach others.
    1. Use motivational techniques to enhance performance in others.
    2. Provide guidance to enhance performance in others.
Plus VIII. ETHICS AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES: Know and understand the importance of professional ethics and legal responsibilities.
  Plus A. Apply ethical reasoning to a variety of workplace situations in order to make ethical decisions.
    1. Evaluate alternative responses to workplace situations based on legal responsibilities and employer policies.
    2. Evaluate alternative responses to workplace situations based on personal or professional ethical responsibilities.
    3. Identify personal and long-term workplace consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors.
    4. Explain personal and long-term workplace consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors.
    5. Determine the most appropriate response to workplace situations based on legal and ethical considerations.
    6. Explain the most appropriate response to workplace situations based on legal and ethical considerations.
  Plus B. Interpret and explain written organizational policies and procedures to help employees perform their jobs according to employer rules and expectations.
    1. Locate information on organizational policies in handbooks and manuals.
    2. Discuss how specific organizational policies and procedures influence a specific work situation.
Plus IX. EMPLOYABILITY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT: Know and understand the importance of employability skills. Explore, plan, and effectively manage careers. Know and understand the importance of entrepreneurship skills.
  Plus A. Identify and demonstrate positive work behaviors and personal qualities needed to be employable.
    1. Demonstrate self-discipline, self-worth, positive attitude, and integrity in a work situation.
    2. Demonstrate flexibility and willingness to learn new knowledge and skills.
    3. Exhibit commitment to the organization.
    4. Identify how work varies with regard to site, from indoor confined spaces to outdoor areas, including aerial space and a variety of climatic and physical conditions.
    5. Apply communication strategies when adapting to a culturally diverse environment.
    6. Manage resources in relation to the position (i.e. budget, supplies, computer, etc).
    7. Identify positive work-qualities typically desired in each of the career cluster's pathways.
    8. Manage work roles and responsibilities to balance them with other life roles and responsibilities.
  Plus B. Develop a personal career plan to meet career goals and objectives.
    1. Develop career goals and objectives as part of a plan for future career direction.
    2. Develop strategies to reach career objectives.
  Plus C. Demonstrate skills related to seeking and applying for employment to find and obtain a desired job.
    1. Use multiple resources to locate job opportunities.
    2. Prepare a résumé.
    3. Prepare a letter of application.
    4. Complete an employment application.
    5. Interview for employment.
    6. List the standards and qualifications that must be met in order to enter a given industry.
    7. Employ critical thinking and decision-making skills to exhibit qualifications to a potential employer.
  Plus D. Maintain a career portfolio to document knowledge, skills and experience in a career field.
    1. Select educational and work history highlights to include in a career portfolio.
    2. Produce a record of work experiences, licenses, certifications and products.
    3. Organize electronic or physical portfolio for use in demonstrating knowledge, skills and experiences.
  Plus E. Demonstrate skills in evaluating and comparing employment opportunities in order to accept employment positions that match career goals.
    1. Compare employment opportunities to individual needs and career plan objectives.
    2. Evaluate employment opportunities based upon individual needs and career plan objectives.
    3. Demonstrate appropriate methods for accepting or rejecting employment offers.
  Plus F. Identify and exhibit traits for retaining employment to maintain employment once secured.
    1. Model behaviors that demonstrate reliability and dependability.
    2. Maintain appropriate dress and behavior for the job to contribute to a safe and effective workplace/jobsite.
    3. Complete required employment forms and documentation such as I-9 form, work visa, W-4 and licensures to meet employment requirements.
    4. Summarize key activities necessary to retain a job in the industry.
    5. Identify positive work behaviors and personal qualities necessary to retain employment.
  Plus G. Identify and explore career opportunities in one or more career pathways to build an understanding of the opportunities available in the cluster.
    1. Locate and identify career opportunities that appeal to personal career goals.
    2. Match personal interest and aptitudes to selected careers.
  Plus H. Recognize and act upon requirements for career advancement to plan for continuing education and training.
    1. Identify opportunities for career advancement.
    2. Pursue education and training opportunities to acquire skills necessary for career advancement.
    3. Examine the organization and structure of various segments of the industry to prepare for career advancement.
    4. Research local and regional labor (workforce) market and job growth information to project potential for advancement.
    5. Manage employment relations to make career advancements.
  Plus I. Continue professional development to keep current on relevant trends and information within the industry.
    1. Use self assessment, organizational priorities, journals, Internet sites, professional associations, peers and other resources to develop goals that address training, education and self-improvement issues.
    2. Read trade magazines and journals, manufacturers’ catalogues, industry publications and Internet sites to keep current on industry trends.
    3. Participate in relevant conferences, workshops, mentoring activities and in-service training to stay current with recent changes in the field.
  Plus J. Examine licensing, certification and credentialing requirements at the national, state and local levels to maintain compliance with industry requirements.
    1. Examine continuing education requirements related to licensing, certification, and credentialing requirements at the local, state and national levels for chosen occupation.
    2. Examine the procedures and paperwork involved in maintaining and updating licensure, certification and credentials for chosen occupation.
    3. Align ongoing licensing, certification and credentialing requirements to career plans and goals.
  Plus K. Examine employment opportunities in entrepreneurship to consider entrepreneurship as an option for career planning.
    1. Describe the opportunities for entrepreneurship in a given industry.
Plus X. TECHNICAL SKILLS: Use of technical knowledge and skills required to pursue careers in all career cluster, including knowledge of design, operation, and maintenance of technological systems critical to the career cluster.
  Plus A. Employ information management techniques and strategies in the workplace to assist in decision-making.
    1. Use information literacy skills when accessing, evaluating and disseminating information.
    2. Describe the nature and scope of information management.
    3. Maintain records to facilitate ongoing business operations.
  Plus B. Employ planning and time management skills and tools to enhance results and complete work tasks.
    1. Develop goals and objectives.
    2. Prioritize tasks to be completed.
    3. Develop timelines using time management knowledge and skills.
    4. Use project-management skills to improve workflow and minimize costs.

Plus Career & Employability Standards

Plus I. APPLIED ACADEMIC SKILLS
  Plus A. Reading, English & Language Arts
    1. Read a technical manual and write a clear & logical report explaining the information using standared business English.
    2. Give a verbal report on reading from a technical manual.
    3. Read a case study and identify the details about the situation, define technical terms, jargon, or words with multiple meanings based on context, and summarize the conclusion.
    4. Take a verbal and written position on a topic and use correct grammar to defend it.
  Plus B. Mathematics
    1. Approach practical and workplace problems using a variety of mathematical techniques.
    2. Research how math is used in the workplace and make a presentation detailing the process.
  Plus C. Listening & Presentation Skills
    1. Use correct grammar to communicate verbally.
    2. Listen to a presentation and record important information. Report back identifying central themes and use key points to explain how the message applies to a similar situation.
  Plus D. Technology
    1. Apply technology to workplace or career situation. Include research and a written paper.
Plus II. CAREER PLANNING
  Plus A. Career Planning
    1. Organize career information and labor market trends from a variety of sources.
    2. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of working for self, others, being an employee of a large or small organization.
    3. Analyze information & preferences from work-based opportunity.
    4. Interpret information from a variety of career assessments to identify career interests and abilities.
    5. Apply a decision-making model and use career assessment information to choose a career pathway.
    6. Annually review EDP and include plan for continuing education.
Plus III. DEVELOPING AND PRESENTING INFORMATION
  Plus A. Developing and Presenting information
    1. Gather, interpret, analyze, and refine data.
    2. Analyze and synthesize information and data from muiltiple sources.
    3. Plan and transform ideas and requirements into a concept, service, or product.
    4. Assess the quality of the concept, service, or product using a predetermined standard.
    5. Develop a plan to market a new product, service, or concept which includes identifying of customers, a graphic presentation, product requirements, and costs.
    6. Practice and demonstrate presentation skill using a variety of media and interpretive data.
Plus IV. PROBLEM SOLVING
  Plus A. Problem Solving
    1. Apply a problem solving model to a workplace situation that involves setting goals, implementing and evaluating results.
    2. Identify typical problems that occur in a workplace and use a problem solving model to devise solutions, compare alternatives to past solutions, and predict their success.
Plus V. PERSONAL MANAGEMENT
  Plus A. Responsibility
    1. Demonstrate regular attendance, promptness, and staying with a task until satisfacotry completion.
    2. Complete assignments with minimum supervision and meet deadlines.
    3. Use mistakes as learning opportunities, demonstrate persistence and adaptability to change.
    4. Initiate projects and extra activities for personal satisfaction.
  Plus B. Self-Management
    1. Monitor & evaluate accurately one's progress towards a goal or completion of a project.
    2. Demonstrate health and safety practices and drug-free behavior in school & workplace setting.
    3. Obtain a driver license and demonstrate driving skills and safety and/or use public transportation.
    4. Prioritize and accomplish tasks independently.
    5. Use appropriate personal expression and relate to school and work settings.
  Plus C. Ethical Behavior
    1. Demonstrate ethical behavior in school, work, and community situations.
    2. Describe employer-employee rights and responsibilities.
    3. Demonstrate appropriate behaviors necessary to maintaining employment.
    4. Demonstrate positive personal qualities as a group leader.
  Plus D. Respect for Self and Others
    1. View accomplishments or failures of self and others accurately and in a positive manner.
    2. Understand how to make improvements and ask for help from adults as needed.
    3. Offer encouragement and ideas to others as they work toward attaining their goals.
    4. Provide for customer needs and expectations in a helpful and courteous manner.
    5. Respect other points of view.
    6. Demonstrate customer service skills in an appropriate setting by listening, suggesting solutions, and communicating the issues at hand.
Plus VI. ORGANIZING SKILLS
  Plus A. Time
    1. Determine goals and develop an action plan to accomplish them within a given time frame.
    2. Read time charts and work schedules and perform tasks within time constraints of school or the workplace.
    3. Prioritize tasks and revise schedules as needed.
  Plus B. Money
    1. Estimate costs and prepare a detailed budget for a school-based or work-based project.
    2. Report the costs of various components of a budget and adjust budget items as needed.
    3. Understand compensation practices and financial management and explain how financial resources can be used effectively and efficiently.
  Plus C. Materials
    1. Utilize materials, tools, and processes to complete a task related to a career selection.
    2. Compile a list of materials and supplies needed in advance of an assignment.
    3. Acquire resources in a timely fashion and take responsibility for their care.
    4. Identify and prepare tools, equipment, space, and facilities appropriate for a task.
    5. Work within constraints of safety precautions and available resources.
  Plus D. Human Resources
    1. Learn cooperation and leadership in a team at school or in a workplace setting.
    2. Organize and communicate with members of a team using varied methods of communications.
    3. Recognize the individual roles of team members, delegate tasks, and give feedback on performance.
    4. Acknowledge and utilize the skills, abilities, and input of all member of a team.
Plus VII. TEAMWORK
  Plus A. Group Participation
    1. Exhibit teamwork skills including trust and loyalty to group, and demonstrate connectedness to group members, values, and culture.
    2. Take personal responsibility for influencing and accomplishing group goals.
    3. Demonstrate understanding of how effective teams operate within organization and diverse settings.
    4. Solve a career/work-related problem as a member of a team.
  Plus B. Conflict Resolution
    1. Demonstrate leadership by listening to others and asking appropriate questions to clarify a problem or issue.
    2. Summarize a problem clearly and in appropriate detail.
    3. Suggest constructive alternatives with confidence that will help resolve a conflict.
    4. Compromise and/or build consensus within a group and summarize the decision of the group while maintaining respect for minortiy viewpoints.
    5. Participate in the implementation of a group's decision and evaluate the results.
    6. Show sensitivity to others' thoughts and opinions and relate them to the resolution process.
  Plus C. Diversity
    1. Understand and respect the concerns of members of cultural, gender, age, and ability groups.
    2. Be respectful of a variety of differences of people in a work/school setting.
    3. Demonstrate ability to work with others with different backgrounds, cultures, and abilities.
  Plus D. Leadership
    1. Demonstrate leadership ability in a work or school setting.
    2. Recognize and take advantage of leadership opportunities that give direction to other team members, or that encourage other members to complete tasks.
Plus VIII. NEGOTIATION SKILLS
  Plus A. Negotiation Skills
    1. Using correct terminology, clarify the problem or issue to be negotiated.
    2. Identify, organize, and define ideas from various sources to logically support a position and use these ideas in debate.
    3. Demonstrate objectivity in assessing other viewpoints by considering all sides of an issue, using past experience, data and logical analysis, and showing respectful behavior towards others.
    4. Responsibily challenge existing policies and procedures and identify new solutions or policy changes.
Plus IX. UNDERSTANDING SYSTEMS AND USING TECHNOLOGY
  Plus A. Understanding Systems and Using Technology
    1. Identify trends and how they affect changes within a system.
    2. Demonstrate an understanding of business systems.
    3. Compare management systems and consider how employees function and adapt to change within them.
    4. Describe the technical systems related to a career interest area.
    5. Diagnose and make necessary corrections or improvements to a technical system in a business, industry, or simulated work place setting.
    6. Describe how changes in technology have impacted business and industry, identify current trends, and recommend how a technical system might be improved.
    7. Demonstrate the use of equipment and machines to solve practical or work-based problems.
    8. Demonstrate effective use of a variety of on-line technological resources.
    9. Determine what kind of application is needed for a given task and use effectively.
    10. Use technologies as tools for communication of technical or work-related information.
    11. Use technology effectively in solving problems in an area of career interest.
    12. Understand and demonstrate basic computer hardware and software installation and maintaining efficient machines.
    13. Demonstrate ability to adapt to different software applications, comparing and contrasting specfic functions and applying them to different projects.
Plus X. EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS
  Plus A. Employability Skills
    1. Continue the EDP process which includes an annual review with student and counselor and notification of parents.
    2. Participate in work-based opportunities such as job-shadowing, mentorships, work experiences, etc.
    3. Show ability to market oneself by preparing for and completing an interview process.
    4. Accurately complete records/documents to support job applications (inquiry letters, resume, references, evaluations, follow-up letters).
    5. Use a portfolio, resume, record of attendance, certifricates, and/or transcript as self-marketing tools to demonstrate interest and competence.
    6. Apply career and labormarket information to seek and obtain employment and/or pursue educational goals.
    7. Research availability of educational programs, financial requirements, and resource and complete an application process as appropriate for career goals.
    8. Understand the need for lifelong learning in a rapidly changing job market.
Plus XI. MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS
  Plus A. Creativity and Innovation – By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Apply advanced software features (e.g. built-in thesaurus, templates, styles) to redesign the appearance of word processing documents, spreadsheets, and presentations
    2. Create a web page (e.g., Dreamweaver, iGoogle, Kompozer)
    3. Use a variety of media and formats to design, develop, publish, and present projects (e.g., newsletters, web sites, presentations, photo galleries)
  Plus B. Communication and Collaboration - By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Identify various collaboration technologies and describe their use (e.g., desktop conferencing, listserv, blog, wiki)
    2. Use available technologies (e.g., desktop conferencing, e-mail, videoconferencing, instant messaging) to communicate with others on a class assignment or project
    3. Collaborate in content-related projects that integrate a variety of media (e.g., print, audio, video, graphic, simulations, and models)
    4. Plan and implement a collaborative project using telecommunications tools (e.g., ePals, discussion boards, online groups, interactive web sites, videoconferencing)
    5. Describe the potential risks and dangers associated with online communications
    6. Use technology tools for managing and communicating personal information (e.g., finances, contact information, schedules, purchases, correspondence)
  Plus C. Research and Information Fluency – By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Develop a plan to gather information using various research strategies (e.g., interviews, questionnaires, experiments, online surveys)
    2. Identify, evaluate, and select appropriate online sources to answer content related questions
    3. Demonstrate the ability to use library and online databases for accessing information (e.g., MEL, Proquest, Infosource, United Streaming)
    4. Distinguish between fact, opinion, point of view, and inference
    5. Evaluate information found in selected online sources on the basis of accuracy and validity
    6. Evalate resources for stereotyping, prejudice, and misrepresentation
    7. Understand that using information from a single internet source might result in the reporting of erroneous facts and that multiple sources must always be researched
    8. Research examples of inappropriate use of technologies and participate in related classroom activities (e.g., debates, reports, mock trials, presentations)
  Plus D. Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making - By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Use digital resources (e.g., educational software, simulations, models) for problem solving and independent learning
    2. Analyze the capabilities and limitations of digital resources and evaluate their potential to address personal, social, lifelong learning, and career needs
    3. Devise a research question or hypothesis using information and communication technology resources, analyze the findings to make a decision based on the findings, and report the results
  Plus E. Digital Citizenship – By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Identify legal and ethical issues related to the use of information and communication technologies (e.g., properly selecting and citing resources)
    2. Discuss possible long-range effects of unethical uses of technology (e.g., virus spreading, file pirating, hacking) on cultures and society
    3. Discuss and demonstrate proper netiquette in online communications
    4. Identify ways that individuals can protect their technology systems from unethical or unscrupulous users
    5. Create appropriate citations for resources when presenting research findings
    6. Discuss and adhere to fair use policies and copyright guidelines
  Plus F. Technology Operations and Concepts - By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Complete at least one online credit, or non-credit, course or online learning experience
    2. Use an online tutorial and discuss the benefits and disadvantages of this method of learning
    3. Explore career opportunities, especially those related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics and identify their related technology skill requirements
    4. Describe uses of various existing or emerging technology resources (e.g., podcasting, webcasting, videoconferencing, online file sharing, global positioning software)
    5. Identify an example of an assistive technology and describe its potential purpose and use
    6. Participate in a virtual environment as a strategy to build 21st century learning skills
    7. Assess and solve hardware and software problems by using online help or other user documentation
    8. Explain the differences between freeware, shareware, open source, and commercial software
    9. Participate in experiences associated with technology-related careers
    10. Identify common graphic, audio, and video file formats (e.g., jpeg, gif, bmp, mpeg, wav, wmv, mp3, flv, avi, pdf)
    11. Understand and discuss how assistive technologies can benefit all individuals
    12. Demonstrate how to import/export text, graphics, or audio files
    13. Proofread and edit a document using an application’s spelling and grammar checking functions