11.0901 - Computer Systems Networking & Telecommunications (2011 Implement by Fall 2012) Consolidated

Plus Consolidated Standards

Plus I. ACADEMIC FOUNDATIONS
  Plus A. Demonstrate language arts knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary education and career opportunities.
    Plus 1. Select and employ appropriate reading and communication strategies to learn and use technical concepts and vocabulary in practice.
        a. Determine the most appropriate reading strategy for identifying the overarching purpose of a text (i.e. skimming, reading for detail, reading for meaning or critical analysis).
        b. Demonstrate use of content, technical concepts and vocabulary when analyzing information and following directions.
        c. Select the reading strategy or strategies needed to fully comprehend the content within a written document (i.e., skimming, reading for detail, reading for meaning or critical analysis).
        d. Interpret information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
        e. Transcribe information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
        f. Communicate information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
    Plus 2. Demonstrate use of the concepts, strategies, and systems for obtaining and conveying ideas and information to enhance communication in the workplace.
        a. Employ verbal skills when obtaining and conveying information.
        b. Record information needed to present a report on a given topic or problem.
        c. Write internal and external business correspondence that conveys and/or obtains information effectively.
        d. Communicate with other employees to clarify workplace objectives.
        e. Communicate effectively with customers and employees to foster positive relationships.
        f. Evaluate oral and written information for accuracy, adequacy/sufficiency, appropriateness, clarity, conclusions/solutions, fact/opinion, propaganda, relevancy, validity, and relationship of ideas.
        g. Comprehend key elements of oral and written information such as cause/effect, comparisons/contrasts, conclusions, context, purpose, charts/tables/graphs, evaluation/critiques, mood, persuasive text, sequence, summaries, and technical subject matter.
    Plus 3. Locate, organize and reference written information from various sources to communicate with co-workers and clients/participants.
        a. Locate written information used to communicate with co-workers and customers.
        b. Organize information to use in written and oral communications.
        c. Reference the sources of information.
    Plus 4. Evaluate and use information resources to accomplish specific occupational tasks.
        a. Use informational texts, Internet web sites, and/or technical materials to review and apply information sources for occupational tasks.
        b. Evaluate the reliability of information from informational texts, Internet Web sites, and/or technical materials and resources.
    Plus 5. Use correct grammar, punctuation and terminology to write and edit documents.
        a. Compose focused copy for a variety of written documents such as agendas, audio-visuals, bibliographies, drafts, forms/documents, notes, oral presentations, reports, and technical terminology.
        b. Edit copy to create focused written documents such as agendas, audio-visuals, bibliographies, drafts, forms/documents, notes, oral presentations, reports, and technical terminology.
        c. Compose multi-paragraph documents clearly, succinctly, and accurately.
        d. Use descriptions of audience and purpose when preparing and editing written documents.
        e. Use correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization when preparing written documents.
    Plus 6. Develop and deliver formal and informal presentations using appropriate media to engage and inform audiences.
        a. Prepare oral presentations to provide information for specific purposes and audiences.
        b. Adapt language for audience, purpose, situation. (i.e. diction/structure, style).
        c. Identify support materials that will enhance an oral presentation.
        d. Prepare support materials that will enhance an oral presentation.
        e. Deliver an oral presentation that sustains listeners' attention and interest.
        f. Align presentation strategies to the intended audience.
        g. Implement multi-media strategies for presentations.
        h. Identify assumptions, purpose, outcomes/solutions, and propaganda techniques.
        i. Predict potential outcomes and/or solutions based on oral and written information regarding trends.
        j. Present formal and informal speeches including discussion, information requests, interpretation, and persuasive arguments.
    Plus 7. Interpret verbal and nonverbal cues/behaviors to enhance communication with co-workers and clients/participants.
        a. Interpret verbal behaviors when communicating with clients and co-workers.
        b. Interpret nonverbal behaviors when communicating with clients and co-workers.
  Plus B. Demonstrate mathematics knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary education and career opportunities.
    1. Identify whole numbers, decimals, and fractions.
    2. Demonstrate knowledge of basic arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
    3. Demonstrate use of relational expressions such as equal to, not equal, greater than, less than, etc.
    4. Apply data and measurements to solve a problem.
    5. Analyze Mathematical problem statements for missing and/or irrelevant data.
    6. Construct charts/tables/graphs from functions and data.
    7. Analyze data when interpreting operational documents.
  Plus C. Demonstrate science knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary and career education opportunities.
    1. Evaluate scientific constructs including conclusions, conflicting data, controls, data, inferences, limitations, questions, sources of errors, and variables.
    2. Apply scientific methods in qualitative and quantitative analysis, data gathering, direct and indirect observation, predictions, and problem identification.
Plus II. COMMUNICATIONS
  Plus A. Develop and interpret tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communications.
    1. Create tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communications.
    2. Interpret tables, charts, and figures used to support written and oral communication.
    Plus 3. Effectively use organizational protocols and systems to fulfill customer service requirements.
        a. Comply with established business protocols and company policies.
        b. Communicate company policies to customers.
        c. Handle merchandise returns in accordance with customer service policy.
        d. Handle customer complaints in accordance with customer service policy.
        e. Facilitate customer service through the maintenance of key information systems.
  Plus B. Apply active listening skills to obtain and clarify information.
    1. Interpret a given verbal message/information.
    2. Respond with restatement and clarification techniques to clarify information.
    3. Model behaviors that demonstrate active listening.
    4. Schedule customer appointments.
  Plus C. Listen to and speak with diverse individuals to enhance communication skills.
    1. Apply factors and strategies for communicating with a diverse workforce.
    2. Demonstrate ability to communicate and resolve conflicts within a diverse workforce.
  Plus D. Exhibit public relations skills to increase internal and external customer/client satisfaction.
    1. Communicate effectively when developing positive customer/client relationships.
    2. Identify organization's products and services (including own strengths as an agent of the company).
    3. Use correct grammar to communicate verbally.
    4. Listen to a presentation and record important information. Report back identifying central themes and use key points to explain how the message applies to a similar situation.
Plus III. PROBLEM-SOLVING AND CRITICAL THINKING
  Plus A. Solve problems using critical thinking skills (analyze, synthesize, and evaluate) independently and in teams. Solve problems using creativity and innovation.
    Plus 1. Employ critical thinking skills independently and in teams to solve problems and make decisions (e.g., analyze, synthesize and evaluate).
        a. Identify common tasks that require employees to use problem-solving skills.
        b. Analyze elements of a problem to develop creative solutions.
        c. Describe the value of using problem-solving and critical thinking skills to improve a situation or process.
        d. Create ideas, proposals, and solutions to problems.
        e. Evaluate ideas, proposals, and solutions to problems.
        f. Use structured problem-solving methods when developing proposals and solutions.
        g. Generate new and creative ideas to solve problems by brainstorming possible solutions.
        h. Critically analyze information to determine value to the problem-solving task.
        i. Guide individuals through the process of recognizing concerns and making informed decisions.
        j. Identify alternatives using a variety of problem-solving and critical thinking skills.
        k. Evaluate alternatives using a variety of problem-solving and critical thinking skills.
    Plus 2. Employ critical thinking and interpersonal skills to resolve conflicts with staff and/or customers.
        a. Analyze situations and behaviors that affect conflict management.
        b. Determine best options/outcomes for conflict resolution using critical thinking skills.
        c. Identify with others’ feelings, needs, and concerns.
        d. Implement stress management techniques.
        e. Resolve conflicts with/for customers using conflict resolution skills.
        f. Implement conflict resolution skills to address staff issues/problems.
    Plus 3. Identify, write and monitor workplace performance goals to guide progress in assigned areas of responsibility and accountability.
        a. Write realistic performance goals, objectives and action plans.
        b. Monitor performance goals and adjust as necessary.
        c. Recognize goal achievement using appropriate rewards in the workplace.
        d. Communicate goal achievement with managers and co-workers.
    Plus 4. Conduct technical research to gather information necessary for decision-making.
        a. Align the information gathered to the needs of the audience.
        b. Gather technical information and data using a variety of resources.
        c. Analyze information and data for value to the research objectives.
        d. Evaluate information and data to determine value to research objectives.
  Plus B. Implement problem-solving processes to evaluate and verify the nature of problems in the IT industry.
    Plus 1. Explain information systems theory and practice.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the underlying concepts of the information systems discipline.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of methods for achieving productivity in knowledge work.
        c. Apply general systems theory to the analysis and development of an information system.
        d. Identify procedures for formal problem-solving.
        e. Demonstrate knowledge of the fundamental concept of information theory and organizational system processes.
        f. Identify the essential properties of information systems.
    2. Explain information systems problem-solving techniques and approaches.
    3. Evaluate information systems problem-solving techniques and approaches.
  Plus C. Use product/service design processes and guidelines to produce a quality IT product/service.
    1. Summarize the process of IT product/service design.
    2. Plan for products/services using reliability factors.
    3. Create products/services using reliability factors.
    4. Test new products/services for reliability.
    5. Maintain the reliability of new products/services.
    6. Demonstrate the use of design and color principles.
Plus IV. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS
  Plus A. Use Personal Information Management (PIM) applications to increase workplace efficiency.
    1. Manage personal schedules and contact information.
    2. Create memos and notes.
  Plus B. Employ technological tools to expedite workflow.
    1. Use information technology tools to manage and perform work responsibilities.
    2. Use email to share files and documents.
    3. Identify the functions and purpose of email systems.
    4. Use email to communicate within and across organizations.
    5. Access and navigate Internet (e.g., use a web browser).
    6. Search for information and resources.
    7. Evaluate Internet resources for reliability and validity.
    8. Prepare simple documents and other business communications.
    9. Prepare reports and other business communications by integrating graphics and other non-text elements.
    10. Prepare complex multi-media publications.
    11. Prepare presentations for training, sales and information sharing.
    12. Deliver presentations with supporting materials.
    13. Create a spreadsheet.
    14. Perform calculations and analyses on data using a spreadsheet.
    15. Manipulate data elements.
    16. Manage interrelated data elements.
    17. Analyze interrelated data elements.
    18. Generate reports showing interrelated data elements.
    19. Facilitate group work through management of shared schedule and contact information.
    20. Facilitate group work through management of shared files and online information.
    21. Facilitate group work through instant messaging or virtual meetings.
    22. Manage computer operations.
    23. Manage file storage.
    24. Compress or alter files.
    25. Operate computer driven equipment and machines.
    26. Use installation and operation manuals.
    27. Troubleshoot computer driven equipment and machines.
    28. Access support as needed to maintain operation of computer driven equipment and machines.
  Plus C. Demonstrate Digital Citizenship
    1. Identify legal and ethical issues related to the use of information and communication technologies (e.g., properly selecting and citing resources)
    2. Discuss possible long-range effects of unethical uses of technology (e.g., virus spreading, file pirating, hacking) on cultures and society
    3. Discuss and demonstrate proper netiquette in online communications
    4. Identify ways that individuals can protect their technology systems from unethical or unscrupulous users
    5. Create appropriate citations for resources when presenting research findings
    6. Discuss and adhere to fair use policies and copyright guidelines
Plus V. SYSTEMS
  Plus A. Describe the nature and types of business organizations to build an understanding of the scope of organizations.
    1. Describe the types and functions of businesses.
    2. Explain the functions and interactions of common departments within a business.
    3. Summarize the importance of cross-functional teams in achieving IT project goals.
  Plus B. Employ project management knowledge to oversee IT projects.
    Plus 1. Implement project methodologies to manage information system projects.
        a. Define the project's contribution to business needs.
        b. Define the scope of the project.
        c. Identify stakeholders and decision makers.
        d. Identify escalation procedures.
        e. Develop task list (work breakdown structures).
        f. Evaluate project requirements.
        g. Identify required resources and budget.
        h. Estimate time requirements.
        i. Develop initial project management flowchart.
        j. Identify interdependencies.
        k. Identify critical milestones.
        l. Evaluate risks.
        m. Prepare contingency plan.
        n. Manage the change control process.
        o. Track critical milestones.
        p. Participate in project phase review.
        q. Report project status.
        r. Utilize project management software.
        s. Develop a method of evaluation.
    2. Define scope of work to achieve individual and group goals.
    3. Develop time and activity plans to achieve objectives.
  Plus C. Implement quality control systems and practices to ensure quality products and services.
    1. Describe quality control standards and practices common to the workplace.
    Plus 2. Integrate IT into various types of business models.
        a. Determine how business activities interface with data processing functions.
        b. Differentiate between the role of information systems within a company and their role in a global environment.
        c. Measure increases in productivity realized by the implementation of information systems.
    3. Diagnose and make necessary corrections or improvements to a technical system in a business, industry, or simulated work place setting.
Plus VI. SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL
  Plus A. Implement personal and jobsite safety rules and regulations to maintain safe and healthful working conditions and environments.
    Plus 1. Assess workplace conditions with regard to safety and health.
        a. Align safety issues with appropriate safety standards to ensure a safe workplace/jobsite.
        b. Identify safety hazards common to workplaces.
    Plus 2. Select appropriate personal protective equipment as needed for a safe workplace/jobsite.
        a. Inspect personal protective equipment commonly used for selected career pathway.
        b. Use personal protective equipment according to manufacturer rules and regulations.
    3. Employ a safety hierarchy and communication system within the workplace/jobsite.
    4. Implement safety precautions to maintain a safe worksite.
  Plus B. Complete work tasks in accordance with employee rights and responsibilities and employers obligations to maintain workplace safety and health.
    1. Identify rules and laws designed to promote safety and health in the workplace.
    2. State the rationale of rules and laws designed to promote safety and health.
  Plus C. Employ emergency procedures as necessary to provide aid in workplace accidents.
    1. Use knowledge of First Aid procedures as necessary.
    2. Use knowledge of CPR procedures as necessary.
    3. Use safety equipment as necessary.
  Plus D. Employ knowledge of response techniques to create a disaster and/or emergency response plan.
    1. Complete an assessment of an emergency and/or disaster situation.
    2. Create an emergency and/or disaster plan.
Plus VII. LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK
  Plus A. Use leadership and teamwork skills in collaborating with others to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
    Plus 1. Employ leadership skills to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
        a. Analyze the various roles of leaders within organizations (e.g. contribute ideas; share in building an organization; act as role models to employees by adhering to company policies, procedures, and standards; promote the organization’s vision; and mentor others).
        b. Exhibit traits such as empowerment, risk, communication, focusing on results, decision-making, problem solution, and investment in individuals when leading a group in solving a problem.
        c. Exhibit traits such as compassion, service, listening, coaching, developing others, team development, and understanding and appreciating others when acting as a manager of others in the workplace.
        d. Exhibit traits such as enthusiasm, creativity, conviction, mission, courage, concept, focus, principle-centered living, and change when interacting with others in general.
        e. Consider issues related to self, team, community, diversity, environment, and global awareness when leading others.
        f. Exhibit traits such as innovation, intuition, adaptation, life-long learning and coachability to develop leadership potential over time.
        g. Analyze leadership in relation to trust, positive attitude, integrity, and willingness to accept key responsibilities in a work situation.
        h. Describe observations of outstanding leaders using effective management styles.
        i. Participate in civic and community leadership and teamwork opportunities to enhance skills.
    Plus 2. Employ organizational and staff development skills to foster positive working relationships and accomplish organizational goals.
        a. Implement organizational skills when facilitating others’ work efforts.
        b. Explain how to manage a staff that satisfies work demands while adhering to budget constraints.
        c. Describe how staff growth and development to increase productivity and employee satisfaction.
        d. Organize team involvement within a group environment.
        e. Work with others to develop and gain commitment to team goals.
        f. Distribute responsibility and work load fairly.
        g. Model leadership and teamwork qualities to aid in employee morale.
        h. Identify best practices for successful team functioning.
        i. Explain best practices for successful team functioning.
    Plus 3. Employ teamwork skills to achieve collective goals and use team members' talents effectively.
        a. Work with others to achieve objectives in a timely manner.
        b. Promote the full involvement and use of team member's individual talents and skills.
        c. Employ conflict-management skills to facilitate solutions.
        d. Demonstrate teamwork skills through working cooperatively with co-workers, supervisory staff, and others, both in and out of the organization, to achieve particular tasks.
        e. Demonstrate teamwork processes that provide team building, consensus, continuous improvement, respect for the opinions of others, cooperation, adaptability, and conflict resolution.
        f. Develop plans to improve team performance.
        g. Demonstrate commitment to and a positive attitude toward team goals.
        h. Take responsibility for shared group and individual work tasks.
        i. Assist team members in completing their work.
        j. Adapt effectively to changes in projects and work activities.
        k. Negotiate effectively to arrive at decisions.
    Plus 4. Establish and maintain effective working relationships with all levels of personnel and other departments in order to accomplish objectives and tasks.
        a. Build effective working relationships using interpersonal skills.
        b. Use positive interpersonal skills to work cooperatively with co-workers representing different cultures, genders and backgrounds.
        c. Manage personal skills to accomplish assignments.
        d. Treat people with respect.
        e. Provide constructive praise and criticism.
        f. Demonstrate sensitivity to and value for diversity.
        g. Manage stress and control emotions.
    Plus 5. Conduct and participate in meetings to accomplish work tasks.
        a. Develop meeting goals, objectives and agenda.
        b. Assign responsibilities for preparing materials and leading discussions.
        c. Prepare materials for leading discussion.
        d. Assemble and distribute meeting materials.
        e. Conduct meeting to achieve objectives within scheduled time.
        f. Demonstrate effective communication skills in meetings.
        g. Produce meeting minutes including decisions and next steps.
        h. Use parliamentary procedure, as needed, to conduct meetings.
    Plus 6. Employ mentoring skills to inspire and teach others.
        a. Use motivational techniques to enhance performance in others.
        b. Provide guidance to enhance performance in others.
Plus VIII. ETHICS AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES
  Plus A. Know and understand the importance of professional ethics and legal responsibilities.
    Plus 1. Apply ethical reasoning to a variety of workplace situations in order to make ethical decisions.
        a. Evaluate alternative responses to workplace situations based on legal responsibilities and employer policies.
        b. Evaluate alternative responses to workplace situations based on personal or professional ethical responsibilities.
        c. Identify personal and long-term workplace consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors.
        d. Explain personal and long-term workplace consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors.
        e. Determine the most appropriate response to workplace situations based on legal and ethical considerations.
        f. Explain the most appropriate response to workplace situations based on legal and ethical considerations.
    Plus 2. Interpret and explain written organizational policies and procedures to help employees perform their jobs according to employer rules and expectations.
        a. Locate information on organizational policies in handbooks and manuals.
        b. Discuss how specific organizational policies and procedures influence a specific work situation.
    3. Explain legal issues faced by IT professionals.
Plus IX. EMPLOYABILITY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT
  Plus A. Know and understand the importance of employability skills.
    Plus 1. Identify and demonstrate positive work behaviors and personal qualities needed to be employable.
        a. Demonstrate self-discipline, self-worth, positive attitude, and integrity in a work situation.
        b. Demonstrate flexibility and willingness to learn new knowledge and skills.
        c. Exhibit commitment to the organization.
        d. Identify how work varies with regard to site, from indoor confined spaces to outdoor areas, including aerial space and a variety of climatic and physical conditions.
        e. Identify positive work-qualities typically desired in each of the career cluster's pathways.
    2. Manage resources in relation to the position (i.e. budget, supplies, computer, etc).
  Plus B. Explore, plan, and effectively manage careers.
    Plus 1. Develop a personal career plan to meet career goals and objectives.
        a. Develop career goals and objectives as part of a plan for future career direction.
        b. Develop strategies to reach career objectives.
    Plus 2. Identify and explore career opportunities in one or more career pathways to build an understanding of the opportunities available in the cluster.
        a. Locate and identify career opportunities that appeal to personal career goals.
        b. Match personal interest and aptitudes to selected careers.
    Plus 3. Recognize and act upon requirements for career advancement to plan for continuing education and training.
        a. Identify opportunities for career advancement.
        b. Pursue education and training opportunities to acquire skills necessary for career advancement.
        c. Examine the organization and structure of various segments of the industry to prepare for career advancement.
        d. Research local and regional labor (workforce) market and job growth information to project potential for advancement.
        e. Manage employment relations to make career advancements.
    Plus 4. Continue professional development to keep current on relevant trends and information within the industry.
        a. Use self assessment, organizational priorities, journals, Internet sites, professional associations, peers and other resources to develop goals that address training, education and self-improvement issues.
        b. Read trade magazines and journals, manufacturers’ catalogues, industry publications and Internet sites to keep current on industry trends.
        c. Participate in relevant conferences, workshops, mentoring activities and in-service training to stay current with recent changes in the field.
    Plus 5. Examine licensing, certification and credentialing requirements at the national, state and local levels to maintain compliance with industry requirements.
        a. Examine continuing education requirements related to licensing, certification, and credentialing requirements at the local, state and national levels for chosen occupation.
        b. Identify training, education and certification requirements for occupational choice.
        c. Participate in career-related training and/or degree programs.
        d. Pass certification tests to qualify for licensure and/or certification in chosen occupational area.
        e. Examine the procedures and paperwork involved in maintaining and updating licensure, certification and credentials for chosen occupation.
        f. Align ongoing licensing, certification and credentialing requirements to career plans and goals.
    Plus 6. Examine employment opportunities in entrepreneurship to consider entrepreneurship as an option for career planning.
        a. Describe the opportunities for entrepreneurship in a given industry.
  Plus C. Demonstrate skills related to seeking and applying for employment to find and obtain a desired job.
    1. Use multiple resources to locate job opportunities.
    2. Prepare a résumé.
    3. Prepare a letter of application.
    4. Complete an employment application.
    5. Interview for employment.
    6. List the standards and qualifications that must be met in order to enter a given industry.
    7. Employ critical thinking and decision-making skills to exhibit qualifications to a potential employer.
    Plus 8. Maintain a career portfolio to document knowledge, skills and experience in a career field.
        a. Select educational and work history highlights to include in a career portfolio.
        b. Produce a record of work experiences, licenses, certifications and products.
        c. Organize electronic or physical portfolio for use in demonstrating knowledge, skills and experiences.
    Plus 9. Demonstrate skills in evaluating and comparing employment opportunities in order to accept employment positions that match career goals.
        a. Compare employment opportunities to individual needs and career plan objectives.
        b. Evaluate employment opportunities based upon individual needs and career plan objectives.
        c. Demonstrate appropriate methods for accepting or rejecting employment offers.
    Plus 10. Identify and exhibit traits for retaining employment to maintain employment once secured.
        a. Model behaviors that demonstrate reliability and dependability.
        b. Maintain appropriate dress and behavior for the job to contribute to a safe and effective workplace/jobsite.
        c. Complete required employment forms and documentation such as I-9 form, work visa, W-4 and licensures to meet employment requirements.
        d. Summarize key activities necessary to retain a job in the industry.
        e. Identify positive work behaviors and personal qualities necessary to retain employment.
    Plus 11. Demonstrate understanding of the impact of IT on businesses.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of how both PCs and larger computer systems impact people and are used in business/industry/government and other institutions.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of the impact of computers on career pathways in business/industry (e.g., how computers have eliminated and created jobs).
        c. Demonstrate knowledge of the impact of computers on access to information and information exchange worldwide.
        d. Demonstrate knowledge of ethical issues that have surfaced in the information age.
Plus X. TECHNICAL SKILLS
  Plus A. Employ information management techniques and strategies in the workplace to assist in decision-making.
    1. Use information literacy skills when accessing, evaluating and disseminating information.
    2. Describe the nature and scope of information management.
    3. Maintain records to facilitate ongoing business operations.
  Plus B. Employ planning and time management skills and tools to enhance results and complete work tasks.
    1. Develop goals and objectives.
    2. Prioritize tasks to be completed.
    3. Develop timelines using time management knowledge and skills.
    4. Use project-management skills to improve workflow and minimize costs.
  Plus C. Demonstrate knowledge of the hardware components associated with information systems.
    Plus 1. Explain the fundamentals of operating systems.
        a. Identify major operating system fundamentals and components.
    Plus 2. Explain the role of number systems in information systems.
        a. Identify the role the binary and hexadecimal system in information systems.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of number systems and internal data representation.
    Plus 3. Identify computer classifications and hardware.
        a. Identify major hardware components and their functions.
        b. Identify the hardware associated with telecommunications functions.
        c. Identify types of computer storage devices.
    Plus 4. Describe elements and types of information processing.
        a. Identify the elements of the information processing cycle (i.e., input, process, output, and storage).
        b. Identify types of processing (e.g., batch, interactive, event-driven, object-oriented).
    Plus 5. Use available reference tools as appropriate.
        a. Access needed information using company and manufacturers' references (e.g., procedural manuals, documentation, standards, work flowcharts).
    6. Describe the function of CPUs.
  Plus D. Compare classes of software associated with the development and maintenance information systems to develop software and maintain computer systems.
    Plus 1. Explain the key functions and applications of software.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the key functions of systems software.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of widely used software applications (e.g., word processing, database management, spreadsheet development).
        c. Demonstrate knowledge of the function and operation of compilers and interpreters.
    Plus 2. Describe the range of languages used in software development.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the range of languages used in software development.
    Plus 3. Summarize how data is organized in software development.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of how data is organized in software development.
    Plus 4. Explain new and emerging classes of software.
        a. Identify new and emerging classes of software.
  Plus E. Identify and compare new IT trends and technologies to build an understanding of their potential influence on IT practices.
    Plus 1. Explain measurement techniques for increased productivity due to information support implementation.
        a. Measure increases in productivity realized by the implementation of information systems.
    Plus 2. Identify new IT technologies.
        a. Identify new technologies relevant to information technology.
        b. Assess the importance of new technologies to future developments and to future knowledge worker productivity.
        c. Identify new and emerging drivers and inhibitors of Information Technology change.
    3. Assess the potential importance and impact of new IT technologies in the future.
  Plus F. Summarize basic data communications components and trends to maintain and update IT systems.
    Plus 1. Explain data communications procedures, equipment and media.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of key communications procedures.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of the uses of data communication equipment.
        c. Demonstrate knowledge of types of communications media.
    Plus 2. Explain data transmission codes and protocols.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of data transmission codes and protocols.
    Plus 3. Explain the differences between local and wide area networks.
        a. Distinguish between local area networks and wide-area networks.
    Plus 4. Summarize data communication trends and issues.
        a. Identify data communication trends.
        b. Identify major current issues in data communications.
  Plus G. Demonstrate technical knowledge of the Internet to develop and maintain IT systems.
    Plus 1. Describe Internet protocols.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of management protocols, applications and procedures (e.g., SNMP, intrusion detection, and reporting issues).
        c. Explain the concept of routing.
    Plus 2. Explain Domain Name Server (DNS).
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the Domain Name System (DNS).
        b. Explain the DNS hierarchy.
        c. Identify elements of DNS (e.g., zones, server types).
    Plus 3. Summarize Internet security issues and systems available for addressing them.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the Domain Name System (DNS).
        b. Explain the DNS hierarchy.
        c. Identify elements of DNS (e.g., zones, server types).
  Plus H. Access and use Internet services when completing IT related tasks to service and update IT systems.
    Plus 1. Demonstrate the use of an Internet connection.
        a. Configure a small home office Internet connection using cable, DSL, wireless or satellite connection.
        b. Test Internet connection using tools such as ping, trace route, net stat, host, dig, and nslookup.
    2. Troubleshoot Internet connection problems.
    Plus 3. Explain the components of Internet software.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the components of Internet software.
    Plus 4. Install Internet software for use on an operating system.
        a. Identify common browser features.
        b. Install Internet software.
        c. Differentiate between Web-based applications and applications installed on a local computer.
        d. Download software upgrades and shareware from the Internet.
        e. Unpack files using compression software.
    Plus 5. Describe virus protection procedures.
        a. Demonstrate acute awareness of virus protection techniques.
        b. Identify types and capabilities of popular virus protection software.
        c. Explain spyware, adware, and malware.
        d. Identify how to avoid spyware, adware, and malware and how to recover from infection.
    Plus 6. Explain cookies and adware on an internet connected computer system.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of cookies and their use on an internet-connected computer system.
        b. Identify types and consequences of pop-ups and ad-ware.
  Plus I. Install and configure software programs to maintain and update IT systems.
    Plus 1. Verify that hardware and software system components are compatible prior to performing installation.
        a. Identify hardware requirements (e.g., processor, memory, disk space, communications, printers, monitors).
        b. Determine compatibility of hardware and software.
    Plus 2. Verify that software to be installed is licensed prior to performing installation.
        a. Verify conformance to licensing agreement.
        b. Understand the concept of an End User License Agreement (EULA).
        c. Differentiate between open source and proprietary licenses.
        d. Explain the concept of open source.
        e. Identify common characteristics of open source licensing agreements, including the GNU General Public License (GPL).
    Plus 3. Perform installation accurately and completely, using available resources as needed.
        a. Install given application/system software on various platforms in accordance with manufacturer's procedures.
        b. Disable/uninstall software that may interfere with installation of new software.
        c. Differentiate between procedures for an upgrade and for a new installation.
        d. Differentiate between stand-alone and network installation procedures.
        e. Select appropriate installation options (e.g., default, customized).
        f. Configure software to appropriate operating system settings.
        g. Configure macros, tools, and packages to accomplish simple organizational and personal tasks.
        h. Convert data files if required.
        i. Verify software installation and operation.
    Plus 4. Resolve problems with installation if they occur.
        a. Troubleshoot unexpected results.
        b. Access needed help using manufacturers' technical help lines or Internet sites.
        c. Formulate new installation procedure if needed.
    Plus 5. Perform customization as requested.
        a. Customize software to meet user preferences.
    Plus 6. Document procedures, using clear and effective notes, for future use.
        a. Document step-by-step installation and configuration procedures.
  Plus J. Demonstrate knowledge of Web page basics to build an understanding of Web page design and functioning.
    Plus 1. Explain the features and functions of Web browsing software.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the role of browsers in reading files on the World Wide Web (text-only, hypertext).
        b. Identify how different browsers affect the look of a web page.
        c. Demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics and uses of plug-ins.
    Plus 2. Explain the features and functions of Web page design software.
        a. Compare/contrast the features and functions of software editors available for designing web pages.
    Plus 3. Compare and contrast clients and servers.
        a. Differentiate between a client and a server.
        b. Explain how traditional and modern Internet clients exploit the client/server relationship.
    Plus 4. Describe how bandwidth affects data transmission and on-screen image.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of how bandwidths affect data transmission and on-screen image.
    Plus 5. Compare the benefits of internal and external Web hosting.
        a. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of internal external web hosting.
  Plus K. Employ IT knowledge and procedures when configuring or modifying an operating system to ensure optimal system functioning.
    Plus 1. Configure/modify system as needed.
        a. Secure needed supplies and resources.
        b. Review automated scheduling software.
        c. Identify data requirements.
        d. Identify scheduling priority in programming.
        e. Build system software command structures using operating system macro facilities for computer systems.
    Plus 2. Use operating system principles to ensure optimal system function.
        a. Apply basic commands of operating system software.
        b. Apply appropriate file and disk management techniques.
        c. Employ desktop operating skills.
        d. Handle materials and equipment in a responsible manner.
        e. Follow power-up and log-on procedures.
        f. Interact with/respond to system messages using console device.
        g. Run applications/jobs in accordance with processing procedures.
        h. Follow log-off and power-down procedure(s).
    Plus 3. Use available reference tools as appropriate.
        a. Access needed information using appropriate reference materials.
    Plus 4. Document procedures and actions.
        a. Develop audit trails.
    5. Configure systems to provide optimal system interfaces.
  Plus L. Perform standard computer backup procedures to protect IT information.
    Plus 1. Explain the need for regular backup procedures.
        a. Recognize the need for regular backup procedures.
    Plus 2. Configure, perform and maintain backup procedures.
        a. Load backup software.
        b. Load compression drive backup software.
        c. Install surge suppression protection.
        d. Identify battery backup equipment.
        e. Maintain battery backup system.
        f. Identify hot and warm site backup concepts.
  Plus M. Recognize and analyze potential IT security threats to develop and maintain security requirements.
    1. Describe potential security threats to information systems.
    2. Identify the range of security needs and the problems that can occur due to security lapses.
    Plus 3. Assess security threats.
        a. Maximize threat reduction.
        b. Assess exposure to security issues.
        c. Implement countermeasures.
        d. Ensure compliance with security rules, regulations, and codes.
        e. Demonstrate knowledge of virus protection strategy.
        f. Implement security procedures in accordance with business ethics.
    4. Develop plans to address security threats.
    Plus 5. Implement plans to address security procedures.
        a. Maintain confidentiality.
        b. Load virus detection and protection software.
        c. Identify sources of virus infections.
        d. Remove viruses.
        e. Report viruses in compliance with company standards.
        f. Implement backup and recovery procedures.
        g. Follow disaster plan.
        h. Provide for user authentication and restricted access (e.g., assign passwords, access level).
    6. Document security procedures.
  Plus N. Maintain computer systems to ensure optimal IT system functioning.
    Plus 1. Implement queries and reports to provide access to critical system information.
        a. Create a query to extract information from a file.
        b. Create a query to extract information from multiple files.
        c. Create reports from queries.
        d. Create and use logical files.
        e. Develop a display screen for use with high-level language program.
        f. Access needed information using appropriate reference materials.
    Plus 2. Ensure that system is functioning optimally.
        a. Monitor system status and performance.
        b. Run diagnostics.
        c. Respond to system messages.
        d. Perform preventive maintenance procedures on computer and peripheral devices.
        e. Handle materials and equipment in a responsible manner.
        f. Optimize windows environment to maximize performance of desktop resources.
        g. Review automated scheduling software.
    Plus 3. Fix and document system problems.
        a. Fix recoverable problems.
        b. Restore system.
        c. Document computer system malfunction(s).
        d. Document software malfunction(s).
    Plus 4. Configure systems to provide optimal system interfaces.
        a. Define hardware-software interface issues for a computer system.
        b. Identify standards and issues related to I/O programming and design of I/O interfaces.
        c. Interface peripheral devices/controllers in the computer system (e.g., software and hardware interrupts, exceptions, Direct Memory Addressing [DMA], bus structures).
        d. Apply concepts of privileged instructions and protected mode programming.
        e. Configure peripheral device drivers (e.g., disk, display, printer, modem, keyboard, mouse, network).
        f. Apply advanced I/O concepts (e.g., disk caching, data compression, extended memory, magnetic disk/CD-ROM storage and formats).
        g. Allocate disk space, non-sharable resources, and I/O devices.
  Plus O. Provide IT support and training to maintain proper network functioning.
    Plus 1. Provide Help Desk service to computer users within the organization.
        a. Operate help desk.
        b. Employ desktop productivity tools.
        c. Support computer users.
    Plus 2. Provide training for basic computer use within the organization.
        a. Train computer users.
  Plus P. Identify and describe quality assurance concepts to develop an understanding of the requirements for quality IT products/services.
    Plus 1. Explain the history and standards of key quality management initiatives.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the historical evolution of quality assurance/total quality management (e.g., Deming, ISO 9000).
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of changes brought about by quality leaders in the world.
        c. Demonstrate knowledge of the ISO 9000 process.
        d. Demonstrate knowledge of the standards/requirements for the Baldridge award.
        e. Demonstrate knowledge of successful efforts by industry to improve quality and/or reduce costs.
    Plus 2. Explain the terminology, role and benefits of quality within an organization.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of quality management terminology.
        b. Identify the role of quality within the organization.
        c. Identify the features and benefits of quality planning.
    Plus 3. Summarize the elements of a quality management system.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the control devices used in functional areas (e.g., SPC, equipment).
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of the relationship among organizational structures, policies, procedures, and quality assurance.
        c. Identify internal and external customers.
        d. Differentiate between prevention and detection.
        e. Differentiate between variable and attribute data.
        f. Identify types of control charts.
        g. Demonstrate knowledge of how statistical techniques used to control quality (e.g., SPC, DOE, CR).
  Plus Q. Describe the use of computer forensics to prevent and solve information technology crimes and security breaches.
    Plus 1. Describe the role of computer forensic investigators.
        a. Define computer forensics.
        b. List some of the basic skills and knowledge a computer forensics specialist should possess.
        c. Identify the circumstances under which computer forensics evidence is typically used, who typically uses such evidence, and how it is used.
    Plus 2. Demonstrate the effective use of basic computer applications relating to forensics investigations.
        a. Identify and attempt to retrieve possible evidence that may exist on a computer system.
        b. List what should and should not be done with the computer and evidence during an investigation.
    Plus 3. Identify criminal activity in relationship to cyber crime, the Internet, and Internet trafficking.
        a. List common internet crimes.
        b. List some prevention actions related to cyber crime.
        c. Describe techniques to identify criminal activity.
        d. Identify how one files a complaint if a cyber crime is suspected or has occurred.
Plus XI. NETWORK SYSTEMS PATHWAY
  Plus A. Identify and analyze customer/organizational network system needs and requirements to design a network.
    Plus 1. Gather data to identify customer/organizational requirements.
        a. Identify customer/stakeholders.
        b. Gather data to identify customer/stakeholder requirement.
        c. Develop functional requirements/specifications for high-level systems.
        d. Identify security requirements.
        e. Identify time, technology, and resource constraints.
        f. Identify physical requirements for system implementation.
        g. Identify system requirements for various types of installations.
        h. Identify new application requirements within the system.
        i. Identify environment requirements, conditions and limitations.
        j. Determine required service level.
        k. Gather information using interviewing strategies.
        l. Identify input and output requirements.
        m. Clarify specifications using questioning techniques.
        n. Identify hardware, networking, and software system functional requirements.
        o. Demonstrate knowledge of nonfunctional requirements (e.g., integrity response time, reliability, support, and documentation).
    Plus 2. Conduct needs analysis.
        a. Gather information on system objectives from users.
        b. Perform workflow analysis to determine user needs.
        c. Analyze existing procedures.
        d. Define business objectives to be achieved by the application.
        e. Determine necessary user applications (e.g. web access, email).
        f. Access needed information using company and manufacturers' references (e.g., procedural manuals, documentation, standards, work flowcharts).
    Plus 3. Develop networking requirements specifications.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the use, structure, and contents of a requirements specification document.
        b. Define system and software requirements.
        c. Develop informal specifications.
        d. Develop formal specifications.
        e. Evaluate installation requirements.
        f. Resolve conflicting requirements.
        g. Review and verify specifications with customer.
    Plus 4. Analyze requirements/specifications using current IT approaches.
        a. Analyze facilities' bandwidth requirements.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of how to use software methodologies to analyze a real-world problem.
        c. Identify site and system constraints.
  Plus B. Analyze a network system to determine if it meets specifications.
    Plus 1. Analyze the computer site environment.
        a. Identify power and power supplies.
        b. Define power conversion.
        c. Identify Structural capacities and Electrical wiring codes.
        d. Analyze facilities' capacity planning (power cable/wire conduit).
        e. Evaluate the potential effect of emerging technologies on information system software/hardware.
    Plus 2. Analyze network security systems.
        a. Identify security requirements and the need for data protection.
        b. Identify specific access levels that need to be accommodated.
        c. Match security system design to identified security requirements.
        d. Develop security plan.
    Plus 3. Evaluate the correctness and effectiveness of implementing the network system.
        a. Employ the use of prototyping to evaluate network system functionality.
  Plus C. Design a network system using technologies, tools and standards to demonstrate a basic understanding of network architecture.
    Plus 1. Demonstrate knowledge of the basics of network architecture.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics and uses of network components (e.g., hub, switches, routers, firewall).
        b. Differentiate between a physical and logical topology.
        c. Demonstrate a basic knowledge of OSI modeling.
        d. Demonstrate knowledge of LAN transmission methods and standards.
        e. Demonstrate knowledge of LAN transmission protocols.
        f. Demonstrate knowledge of various frame types and formats.
        g. Differentiate processes, services, and protocols.
    Plus 2. Demonstrate knowledge of basic network classifications and topologies.
        a. Differentiate between LANs, and WANs.
        b. Differentiate between point-to-point and point-to-multipoint network topologies.
        c. Demonstrate knowledge of packet-switching techniques.
        d. Identify basic physical and logical topologies (e.g. star, ring, bus).
        e. Demonstrate knowledge of characteristics of connection-oriented and connectionless networks.
        f. Identify emerging networks.
        g. Investigate emerging technologies.
        h. Demonstrate knowledge of electronic communications (e.g., LAN, Internet, remote database access, EDI).
        i. Demonstrate knowledge of basic telephony (analog vs. digital signals).
        j. Demonstrate knowledge of Voice over IP (VoIP) concepts.
        k. Explain convergence issues, including codec choice, jitter, wander, and connecting analog telephone adapter equipment.
        l. Describe common VoIP protocols, including Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), H.323, and Megaco/H.248.
        m. Explain the benefits of implementing convergence.
    Plus 3. Implement common network computing platforms.
        a. Identify how the four components of a network operating system (i.e., server platform, network services software, network redirection software, communications software) support network operations.
        b. Select a LAN/WAN technology that meets defined set of requirements.
    Plus 4. Implement appropriate LAN physical media.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the reasons for installing a network.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of local-area network (LAN) trends and issues.
        c. Trace the evolution of networks.
        d. Analyze current trends and development in LANs.
    Plus 5. Characterize network connectivity basis and transmission line applications.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the principles and operation of wire (coaxial, fiber optics, etc.) and wireless systems.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of the principles and operation of fiber optics, analog and digital circuits.
    Plus 6. Demonstrate knowledge of communication standards for networks.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the open system interconnection (OSI) standard (ISO Standard 7498).
        b. Identify standard high-speed networks (e.g., broadband, ISDN, SMDS, ATM, FDDI).
        c. Demonstrate knowledge of the TCP/IP protocol suite.
    Plus 7. Use WAN systems in network development.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the conversion of analog speech to digital.
        b. Relate voice, data concepts, and video to delivery of video services.
        c. Select primary and backup data circuits.
        d. Evaluate analog and digital transmission for cost performance, and reliability.
        e. Demonstrate knowledge of firewall implementation between trusted network and WAN.
        f. Configure a Virtual Private Network (VPN) to form the infrastructure of the WAN.
        g. Demonstrate knowledge of interconnecting LANs using WAN services.
    Plus 8. Implement network security systems.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge security requirements and the need for data protection.
        b. Demonstrate the knowledge of access levels that need to be accommodated.
        c. Implement security plan.
        d. Demonstrate knowledge of the role that routers, firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and VPNs play in security.
    Plus 9. Characterize the use of Network Operating Systems.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the general characteristics of network operating systems.
        b. Demonstrate knowledge of network operating systems (i.e., Windows XP, LINUX, UNIX, etc.).
        c. Demonstrate knowledge about the difference between stand-alone, peer-to-peer and client-server networks and software.
  Plus D. Perform network system installation and configuration to launch a network system.
    Plus 1. Install a network infrastructure.
        a. Evaluate installation requirements.
        b. Install information system application programs in accordance with requirements.
        c. Install appropriate operating system hardware and software and peripherals.
        d. Identify differences between stand-alone and network applications / operating systems.
        e. Access needed technical information using software help facilities.
        f. Install structured cabling.
        g. Ensure that all multi-user aspects of the application function are operational.
    Plus 2. Install a Network Operating System.
        a. Load software with minimum disruption of process flow.
        b. Resolve compatibility issues.
        c. Convert data between different software packages and between software and the OS version.
        d. Import/Export data between different software packages.
        e. Configure software appropriately for system and user application.
        f. Add capability to a software system by recording macros and storing them in the system's library.
        g. Customize a general-purpose software package (e.g., DBMS) to provide specific functionality beyond the default setting.
        h. Assemble necessary components to complement information system design.
        i. Install LAN Management software.
    3. Configure a Network Operating System.
  Plus E. Perform network administration and monitoring to maintain a network system.
    Plus 1. Monitor network performance including information management and infrastructure.
        a. Support network operating center (NOC).
        b. Monitor system status and performance.
        c. Conduct post-implementation evaluation.
        d. Identify abnormal system performance.
        e. Create a baseline of system/network performance.
        f. Identify required service level.
        g. Recognize system alerts.
        h. Recognize security problems.
        i. Recognize environmental problems.
        j. Perform remote monitoring.
    Plus 2. Demonstrate knowledge of disaster recovery and business continuance.
        a. Differentiate between disaster recovery and business continuance.
        b. Identify the steps in a disaster recovery plan and a business resumption plan.
        c. Identify methods for avoiding common computer system disasters.
        d. Identify common backup devices.
        e. Identify the criteria for selecting a backup systems.
        f. Compare/contract streaming a file-by-file backup systems.
        g. Establish process for archiving files.
        h. Develop a disaster recovery plan.
        i. Develop a business resumption plan.
        j. Backup system.
        k. Restore system.
    Plus 3. Perform network system administration tasks.
        a. Identify principles governing software acquisition and upgrades.
        b. Manage inventory and assets.
        c. Retrieve/analyze historical data for trends analysis.
        d. Perform administration functions using LAN manager software.
        e. Respond appropriately to system messages.
        f. Choose and implement an appropriate routing protocol.
        g. Develop a logical device naming convention.
        h. Define traffic priorities.
  Plus F. Perform network maintenance and user support services to maintain a network system.
    Plus 1. Identify various methods of technical support used to maintain and support a network system.
        a. Identify support requirements.
        b. Apply information and data analysis techniques.
        c. Identify skill level needs of support personnel.
        d. Define scope of work to meet customer needs.
        e. Identify resources and risks.
        f. Evaluate present data and system configuration.
        g. Formulate a support plan.
    Plus 2. Perform technical support duties.
        a. Respond to user questions.
        b. Communicate and document technical support provided.
        c. Perform technical functions required by customer/user.
        d. Employ technical and computer tools to perform task in the most cost-effective manner.
        e. Manage working relationships with customer within support boundaries.
        f. Balance resource against customer/user needs.
        g. Manage multiple customer requirements.
        h. Participate in application and system development reviews.
    Plus 3. Apply software upgrades, service packs and patches.
        a. Analyze operational problems.
        b. Install and configure Internet software packages.
        c. Upgrade network system software.
    Plus 4. Perform standard computer backup procedures.
        a. Identify the different types of backups (differential, complete, incremental).
        b. Recognize the need for regular backup procedures.
        c. Develop backup process.
        d. Load backup software.
        e. Perform restore operation using backup software.
        f. Identify battery backup equipment.
        g. Maintain battery backup system.
        h. Install surge suppression protection.
    Plus 5. Perform network system maintenance.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of the basic elements of network maintenance.
        b. Identify available diagnostic tools used for system maintenance.
        c. Identify maintenance procedures and processes.
        d. Identify problems using diagnostic tools.
        e. Run diagnostics.
        f. Respond to system messages.
        g. Document network system malfunction(s).
        h. Fix recoverable problems.
        i. Perform preventive maintenance procedures on computer and peripheral devices.
        j. Restore system.
        k. Identify new or replacement networking components needed.
        l. Establish a preventive maintenance plan.
        m. Create maintenance plan for regular integrity checks.
        n. Identify maintenance procedures and processes.
        o. Evaluate maintenance processes and outcomes.
        p. Select most appropriate solution.
        q. Implement selected solution.
        r. Minimize impact of problems on productivity (e.g., minimize downtime).
    Plus 6. Troubleshoot network system problems.
        a. Demonstrate knowledge of basic troubleshooting steps.
        b. Identify available diagnostic tools used for system maintenance.
        c. Perform appropriate analysis to identify problem cause.
        d. Develop resolution plan.
        e. Identify possible solutions.
        f. Test identified solutions.
        g. Detect problems.
        h. Identify criticality of problem.
        i. Identify problems using diagnostic tools.
        j. Document results and solutions.
    Plus 7. Troubleshoot data communications.
        a. Isolate system faults in various types of networks, cables, data modems, and carrier systems.
        b. Determine hardware communication faults utilizing diagnostic tools.
        c. Identify network problems utilizing network management tools.