01.0903 - Animal Health and Veterinary Science (2012)

Plus Technical Standards

Plus I. SAFETY, SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY, REFLECTION AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS
  Plus A. Laboratory Safety
    1. Discuss safety plan for individual facilities.
    2. Examine health risks associated with a particular skill to better form personnel safety guidelines.
    3. Apply safety/health precautions to participation in Agriscience and natural resource projects.
    4. Demonstrate recognized first aid knowledge and procedures to show how they are used by agricultural and natural resources industries.
    5. Identify and demonstrate health/safety policies and procedures for agricultural and natural resource occupations.
    6. Develop response plans to handle emergencies.
    7. Identify hazards and acquire first aid skills to promote safety.
  Plus B. Animal science safety
    1. Explain the importance of safety when working and playing with animals.
    2. List ten types of diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans.
    3. Describe how to prevent zoonotic diseases.
    4. List guidelines for safety when handling dangerous chemicals and when working with animals.
    5. Define personal protective equipment and give examples.
    6. Explain important areas of safety with machinery and tools.
    7. List safety practices in laboratory work.
    8. Practice different methods of animal restraint and know when to use them.
    9. Clean and disinfect areas.
    10. Dispose of animal waste.
    11. Demonstrate knowledge of cleaners/disinfectants.
  Plus C. Safety and sanitation methods
    1. Read an MSDS and locate important safety information.
    2. Conduct mathematical equations to determine chemical concentrations.
    3. Determine the appropriate safety precautions for a given scenario.
    4. Practice the different methods of sanitation and know when to use them.
  Plus D. Care and maintenance of the common veterinary practice facility
    1. Explain the importance of maintaining a clean, safe, and organized veterinary facility.
    2. Describe what steps must be taken to maintain a clean, safe, and organized veterinary facility.
    3. Explain what you should do when you find that a piece of equipment or some aspect of the facility needs to be repaired.
    4. Recognize and identify common safety hazards.
    5. Identify common sources of accidental injuries and what you can do to protect yourself.
    6. Explain general techniques for avoiding infection and the spread of disease among humans and animals in the practice.
    7. Explain what OSHA is and describe some of the general guidelines that must be followed in the practice.
  Plus E. Scientific Inquiry
    1. Generate new questions that can be investigated in the laboratory or field by conducting SAE Projects.
    2. Evaluate the uncertainties or validity of scientific conclusions using an understanding of sources of measurement error, the challenges of controlling variables, accuracy of data analysis, logic of argument, logic of experimental design, and/or the dependence on underlying assumptions. This can be done by utilizing the Michigan Agriscience Project Recognition Program.
    3. Be able to write a hypothesis and formulate objectives for scientific research.
    4. Conduct scientific investigations using appropriate tools and techniques (e.g., selecting an instrument that measures the desired quantity—length, volume, weight, time interval, temperature, weight gain, feed efficiency, reproductive rates, germination rates—with the appropriate level of precision).
    5. Identify patterns in data and relate them to theoretical models.
    6. Describe a reason for a given conclusion using evidence from an investigation.
    7. Predict what would happen if the variables, methods, or timing of an investigation were changed.
    8. Use empirical evidence to explain and critique the reasoning used to draw a scientific conclusion or explanation.
    9. Design and conduct a systematic scientific investigation that tests a hypothesis. Draw conclusions from data presented in charts or tables.
    10. Distinguish between scientific explanations that are regarded as current scientific consensus and the emerging questions that active researchers investigate.
  Plus F. Scientific Reflection and Social Implications
    1. Critique whether or not specific questions can be answered through scientific investigations.
    2. Identify and critique arguments about personal or societal issues based on scientific evidence.
    3. Develop an understanding of a scientific concept by accessing information from multiple sources. Evaluate the scientific accuracy and significance of the information.
    4. Evaluate scientific explanations in a peer review process or discussion format or by utilizing FFA Career Development Events.
    5. Evaluate the future career and occupational prospects of Veterinary career fields.
    6. Critique solutions to problems, given criteria and scientific constraints.
    7. Identify scientific tradeoffs in design decisions and choose among alternative solutions.
    8. Describe the distinctions between scientific theories, laws, hypotheses, and observations and explain their distinctions in the Veterinary fields.
    9. Explain the progression of ideas and explanations that leads to science theories that are part of the current scientific consensus or core knowledge.
    10. Apply science principles or scientific data to anticipate effects of technological design decisions in Veterinary resources.
    11. Identify and critique arguments about biotechnology based on scientific evidence.
Plus II. LEADERSHIP AND CAREER SUCCESS
  Plus A. Leadership, Work-based Learning and Career Development
    1. Understand the aims, purposes, history, and structure of the FFA student organization, and know the opportunities it makes available.
    2. Manage and actively engage in a career-related, supervised agricultural experience.
    3. Know the personal qualifications, interests, aptitudes, information, and skills necessary to succeed in careers.
    4. Understand the scope of career opportunities and know the requirements for education, training, and licensure.
    5. Develop a career plan that is designed to reflect career interests, pathways, and postsecondary options.
    6. Understand the role and function of professional organizations, industry associations, and organized labor in a productive society.
    7. Understand the past, present, and future trends that affect careers, such as technological developments and societal trends, and the resulting need for lifelong learning.
    8. Know important strategies for self-promotion in the hiring process, such as job applications, résumé writing, interviewing skills, and preparation of a portfolio.
Plus III. BUSINESS MANAGEMENT AND COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES
  Plus A. General Information Management
    1. Identify information management systems.
    2. Develop record keeping techniques and practices.
    3. Keep production and veterinary records.
    4. Make records analysis.
    5. Make recommendations for future projects from records.
    6. Identify and explain various risk management techniques.
  Plus B. Common veterinary practice management
    1. Identify and describe the different staff roles within a typical veterinary practice.
    2. Identify and describe the professional organizations associated with veterinary practice.
    3. Identify and describe different types of veterinary care facilities
    4. Explain what cross-training is and how it can benefit both the individual and the practice.
    5. Explain the purpose and importance of an office procedures manual and a personnel manual.
    6. Explain how to order and maintain office inventory and supplies.
  Plus C. Common administrative duties of a veterinary practice
    1. Identify the types of records found in a typical veterinary practice, including laboratory reports, radiographs, and medical records.
    2. Describe the maintenance of the various logs found within a typical veterinary practice, including those for surgery/anesthesia, laboratory tests, radiographs, and controlled substances.
    3. Describe how to admit and discharge patients, take patient histories, maintain records, and prepare appropriate release forms and certificates for signature.
    4. Describe basic concepts of records retrieval and protection of medical and business records.
    5. Identify basic filing systems and filing equipment.
    6. Explain what software is and give examples of general types of computer programs used in veterinary offices.
    7. Describe common features of veterinary practice Web sites and how they can affect the administrative function of the practice.
    8. Identify office procedures for handling veterinary medical emergencies.
  Plus D. Interaction with clients
    1. Describe a pleasing telephone personality and demonstrate how to handle the types of calls commonly received in an animal hospital
    2. Using an appointment book, efficiently schedule a veterinarian's workday.
    3. Explain how interpersonal skills apply to client and patient reception.
    4. Explain what euthanasia is and when it might be used.
    5. Identify common client reservations and concerns about euthanizing pets.
    6. Identify strategies for dealing with grief.
    7. Identify ethical rules of conduct for veterinarians and members of the veterinary staff.
    8. Explain when the veterinarian-client-patient relationship begins, the responsibilities of those involved in it, and how it can be dissolved.
  Plus E. Fee collection procedures, billing, and payroll
    1. Explain how doctors' fees and fee profiles are derived.
    2. Recognize various circumstances when credit should or should not be extended.
    3. Describe the rules and guidelines involved with extending credit on accounts receivable.
    4. Distinguish between legitimate and unadvisable reasons for adjusting or canceling a fee.
    5. Prepare billing statements and appropriately worded collection letters.
  Plus F. Veterinary math skills/techniques
    1. Correctly complete basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division problems using whole numbers, fractions, and decimals.
    2. Evaluate a given word problem to identify the important information that will be used in solving the problem.
    3. Correctly complete advanced ratios dealing with dosage, dilution, and weight conversions.
    4. Correctly complete word problems dealing with percent, temperature conversion, and liquid and linear measurement.
    5. Explain why solid math skills are vital to the success of any veterinary hospital.
Plus IV. ANIMAL INDUSTRY AND SOCIETY
  Plus A. Animals and people in the animal industry
    1. Identify ways animals help people.
    2. Identify trends in the animal industry.
    3. Describe the role of science in animal production.
    4. List the names of common animals based on sex classification and age.
    5. Explain the meaning of animal well-being.
    6. Identify environmental concerns associated with animal production.
  Plus B. How animals affect society
    1. Discuss the issue of animal rights vs. welfare.
    2. Explain the human/animal bond.
    3. List the ways in which animals are a part of human lives.
  Plus C. Career development in the veterinary or animal industry
    1. Explain consumers and the role of consumption in animal production.
    2. Describe the scope of animal production in the United States.
    3. Explain entrepreneurship in livestock and poultry production, and list available opportunities.
    4. Identify important areas of management in successful entrepreneurship.
    5. Understand the variety of career fields in the veterinary industry.
Plus V. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL SCIENCE
  Plus A. Behavior concepts in common animal management
    1. Identify common breeds of animals on sight.
    2. Demonstrate various methods of behavior modification.
    3. Discuss the most common types of behaviors displayed by various animal species.
    4. Explain the concept of animal husbandry and what it entails.
  Plus B. Animal nutrition and feeding
    1. Contrast feed requirements with structure of digestive system.
    2. Describe the types of feedstuffs.
    3. Explain how animals are fed.
    4. Describe how rations are formulated.
    5. Conduct a food nutrients lab to identify the presence or absence of nutrients in various animal feeds.
    6. Evaluate various food labels to determine the nutrient components and their quality.
    7. Calculate dry matter of various foods.
    8. Calculate the maintenance energy requirements for pets.
    9. Define nutrition and explain its importance in maintaining animal health.
    10. Know and explain the six basic nutrients and their function in maintaining healthy animals.
    11. Define the terms digestion, absorption, and metabolism and describe the processes.
    12. Understand and calculate an animal's energy requirements based on its use and stage of life.
    13. Understand the importance of guaranteed analysis in selecting animal feed.
    14. List the six major components of animal diets and their importance.
    15. List nutrional requirements and feeding practices of major animal breeds.
    16. Determine body condition score of an animal.
  Plus C. Animal health
    1. Explain the characteristics of a healthy animal and the signs and methods used to assess an unhealthy animal.
    2. Explain the impact of environment on animal health.
    3. List and explain the economic losses caused by poor animal health.
    4. Describe common diseases and parasites of animals.
    5. Explain how good health is maintained.
    6. Select practices for treating disease.
  Plus D. Animal reproduction and common breeding practices
    1. Explain the role of animal reproduction.
    2. Name and describe the functions of the major reproductive organs.
    3. Describe the phases of the estrous cycle.
    4. Describe the role of animal reproduction technology.
  Plus E. Common practices of biotechnology and genetics
    1. Explain biotechnology and how it is used.
    2. Explain the role of genetics in animal production and biotechnology.
    3. Distinguish between organismic biotechnology and molecular biotechnology in animals.
    4. Describe molecular biotechnology, genetic engineering and recombinant DNA processes in animals.
    5. Identify issues associated with animal biotechnology.
Plus VI. FOOD ANIMAL MANAGEMENT
  Plus A. Practices of Food Animal Production
    1. Explain the importance of food animal production.
    2. Name and identify the common food animal production.
    3. List the advantages and disadvantages of food animal production.
    4. Describe the types of food animal production systems.
    5. Describe the promotion of herd health.
    6. Understand methods of animal identification.
    7. Describe facility and equipment needs with food animal production.
    8. Describe restraining procedures and equipment used.
    9. Explain additives and withdrawal time.
    10. Discuss Quality Assurance Programs.
    11. Describe the Generally Accepted Agriculture and Management Practices (GAAMPs)
Plus VII. COMPANION ANIMAL MANAGEMENT
  Plus A. Practices dealing with Companion Animal Management
    1. List and describe the groups and breeds of companion animals
    2. Identify factors to consider in selecting a companion animals..
    3. Describe nutrition and feeding of companion animals.
    4. Describe facility and equipment needs of companion animals..
    5. Identify grooming practices with companion animals..
    6. Assess sanitation and well-being practices with companion animals..
    7. Describe restraining procedures and equipment used.
    8. Understand methods of animal identification.
    9. Describe the Generally Accepted Agriculture and Management Practices (GAAMPs)
Plus VIII. VETERINARY TERMINOLOGY
  Plus A. Common terminology
    1. Analyze veterinary terms to define their meanings.
    2. Recognize and use common Greek and Latin prefixes, suffixes, and roots.
    3. Recognize and define abbreviations commonly used in veterinary medicine.
    4. Begin to learn the terminology of anatomy in order to understand the description of body parts and their relative positions to one another.
    5. Be able to locate various anatomical areas on an animal.
    6. Understand the terms used to describe body planes.
Plus IX. COMPARATIVE ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
  Plus A. Basic cell biology and internal cellular anatomy
    1. Examine the molecular makeup of cells.
    2. Identify, understand and relate the basic structures and functions of the cell.
    3. Understand mitosis and it's clinical significance in diseases such as cancer.
    4. Detail meiosis in mammalian reproduction.
    5. Identify the component organelles in a cell on a cell model and a diagram
  Plus B. Microscopic anatomy of common tissues
    1. Define and describe different types of tissues.
    2. Identify and describe the difference between simple, stratified, and pseudostratified layers of epithelial cells
  Plus C. Integumentary system
    1. Know the specific anatomy of this system
    2. Understand the healthy/normal system.
    3. Understand the clinical signs of abnormalities in the system.
    4. Describe the fuction of this system
    5. Understand the physiology of the system
  Plus D. Musculoskeletal system
    1. Know the specific anatomy of this system
    2. Understand the healthy/normal system.
    3. Understand the clinical signs of abnormalities in the system.
    4. Describe the fuction of this system
    5. Understand the physiology of the system
  Plus E. Alimentary system
    1. Know the specific anatomy of this system
    2. Understand the healthy/normal system.
    3. Understand the clinical signs of abnormalities in the system.
    4. Describe the fuction of this system
    5. Understand the physiology of the system
  Plus F. Cardiovascular system
    1. Know the specific anatomy of this system
    2. Understand the healthy/normal system.
    3. Understand the clinical signs of abnormalities in the system.
    4. Describe the fuction of this system
    5. Understand the physiology of the system
  Plus G. Respiratory system
    1. Know the specific anatomy of this system
    2. Understand the healthy/normal system.
    3. Understand the clinical signs of abnormalities in the system.
    4. Describe the fuction of this system
    5. Understand the physiology of the system
  Plus H. Urinary system
    1. Know the specific anatomy of this system
    2. Understand the healthy/normal system.
    3. Understand the clinical signs of abnormalities in the system.
    4. Describe the fuction of this system
    5. Understand the physiology of the system
  Plus I. Reproductive system
    1. Know the specific anatomy of this system
    2. Understand the healthy/normal system.
    3. Understand the clinical signs of abnormalities in the system.
    4. Describe the fuction of this system
    5. Understand the physiology of the system
  Plus J. Neurologic system
    1. Know the specific anatomy of this system
    2. Understand the healthy/normal system.
    3. Understand the clinical signs of abnormalities in the system.
    4. Describe the fuction of this system
    5. Understand the physiology of the system
  Plus K. Endocrine system
    1. Know the specific anatomy of this system
    2. Understand the healthy/normal system.
    3. Understand the clinical signs of abnormalities in the system.
    4. Describe the fuction of this system
    5. Understand the physiology of the system
  Plus L. Lymphatic/immune system
    1. Know the specific anatomy of this system
    2. Understand the healthy/normal system.
    3. Understand the clinical signs of abnormalities in the system.
    4. Describe the fuction of this system
    5. Understand the physiology of the system
  Plus M. Opthamology/audiology system
    1. Know the specific anatomy of this system
    2. Understand the healthy/normal system.
    3. Understand the clinical signs of abnormalities in the system.
    4. Describe the fuction of this system
    5. Understand the physiology of the system
Plus X. CLINICAL PROCEDURES
  Plus A. Practices used in clinical exams
    1. Determine and record temperature, pulse, respiration and weight of patient.
    2. Evaluate an animal's general health by completing a physical exam on the animal.
    3. Correctly operate clinical examination equipment.
    4. Communicate with others to obtain a history of an animal as part of a routine physical exam.
    5. Describe the characteristics of a healthy animal and the signs and methods used to assess an unhealthy animal.
    6. Explain why a routine should be devised for all physical exams.
  Plus B. Use of a microscope
    1. Identify the parts of the microscope, their purpose, and how they work.
    2. Describe and demonstrate the proper care of the microscope.
    3. Demonstrate proper focusing technique
    4. Estimate the size of objects in a field
  Plus C. Common laboratory techniques
    1. Properly fill and read a syringe.
    2. Apply and remove different types of bandages.
    3. Properly calculate medication amounts.
    4. Properly label medications.
    5. Discuss the arguments for and against spaying and neutering.
    6. Trim nails.
    7. Obtain fecal sample and perform fecal analysis test.
    8. Demonstrate knowledge of animal first aid.
    9. Identify and prepare common medical supplies for basic procedures.
    10. Perform therapeutic bathing, basic grooming, and dipping of small animals.
    11. Clean ears
    12. Collect urine samples an perform basic urinalysis.
    13. Explain why it is vital that all laboratory tests are properly performed.
  Plus D. Principles of surgery
    1. Identify common surgical instruments.
    2. Explain the clinical significance of the basic principles of successful surgery.
    3. Explain the clinical significance of healing of lacerations by first and second intention.
    4. Understand and demonstrate aseptic technique.
    5. Practice proper aseptic gowning and gloving.
  Plus E. Principles of Pharmacology
    1. Recognize legal issues involving drugs in the workplace.
    2. Recognize general types and groups of drugs and demonstrate proper terminology.
    3. Differentiate common prescription drugs from over-the-counter and describe proper prescription label requirements.
    4. Store, safely handle and dispose of biological and therapeutic agents, pesticides, and hazardous waste.
    5. Reconstitute vaccines and know proper protocols
    6. Describe appropriate routes and methods of drug and vaccine administration.
    7. Recognize and report adverse drug reactions.
    8. Properly fill and read a syringe.
    9. Properly calculate medication amounts.
    10. Properly label medications.
Plus XI. DISEASES AND PARASITES
  Plus A. Parasitology
    1. Perform common laboratory procedures for diagnosing parasites.
    2. Describe the general clinical signs of an animal with a parasite infestation.
    3. Diagram the life cycle of internal and external major parasites.
    4. Identify presence of external parasites.
  Plus B. Principles of infectious disease, prevention, classification, zoonoses and diagnosis
    1. Explain the processes of infectious disease.
    2. Explain disease prevention.
    3. Classify diseases.
    4. List and describe zoonotic diseases.
    5. List ways in which diseases are transmitted.
    6. List the major methods used to diagnose disease.

Plus Pathway Standards

Plus I. ANIMAL SYSTEMS
  Plus A. Produce and/or manage animals in domesticated and/or natural environments using an application of knowledge regarding anatomy and physiology to enhance animal production.
    Plus 1. Explain basic functions of animal anatomy and physiology using classification systems.
        a. Describe functional differences in animal structures and body systems.
        b. Classify animals according to anatomy and physiology.
    Plus 2. State how body structures interact and affect animal health.
        a. Identify selected animal parts from a diagram or on a real animal.
        b. Identify ways that an animal’s health can be affected by anatomy/physiology problems.
    Plus 3. Analyze a subject animal to determine the nature of its health status.
        a. Perform simple procedures in evaluating an animal’s health status.
        b. Identify symptoms of diseases, illnesses, parasites, and other health-related problems.
        c. Diagnose animal ailments.
        d. Implement disease prevention and health improvement program.
        e. Identify and implement treatment options.
  Plus B. Recognize and interpret animal behaviors and execute protocols for safe handling to facilitate safety for both animals and humans.
    Plus 1. Develop a safety plan for working with a specific animal.
        a. Explain factors which serve to stimulate or discourage given types of animal behavior.
        b. Recognize the normality curve of animal behavior.
        c. Perform safe handling procedures when working with animals.
        d. Identify strengths and weaknesses of an animal safety handling plan.
        e. Operate animal facilities to insure safety of animals.
  Plus C. Provide proper nutrition using accepted protocols and processes to maintain animal performance.
    Plus 1. Examine animal developmental stages.
        a. Recognize the different phases of an animal’s life cycle.
        b. Select diets which provide the appropriate quantity of nutrients for each animal developmental stage.
    2. Explain why nutrient requirements are different throughout an animal's life cycle.
    Plus 3. Analyze feedstuffs and the animal nutrient requirement and determine if the ration is adequate.
        a. Identify the differences between good and poor quality feedstuffs.
        b. Create a balanced ration for a given animal.
    Plus 4. Assess whether the nutritional requirements of a given animal are being met by recording performance and comparing feed variations.
        a. Use different types of feedstuffs (e.g., roughage, concentrates) to create a feed ration containing the appropriate amounts of required nutrients.
        b. Use different forms of feedstuffs (e.g., pellets, cracked, rolled, ground) to create a diet that meets the needs of a specific animal.
  Plus D. Analyze and summarize factors that influence an animal’s reproductive cycle to demonstrate an understanding of the species response.
    Plus 1. Analyze the reproductive cycle based upon differences between male and female reproductive systems.
        a. Identify the parts of male and female reproductive tracts on example animals.
        b. Analyze the reproductive cycle of a given animal.
        c. Evaluate animal readiness for breeding.
    Plus 2. Compare and contrast differences in reproductive cycles from species to species.
        a. Discuss the pros and cons of breeding through natural cover and artificial insemination.
        b. Discuss the implications of genetic variation.
        c. Describe techniques of artificial insemination.
        d. Identify reproduction management practices (e.g., male to female ratios, age and weight for breeding, fertility and soundness for breeding, heat synchronization, flushing).
    Plus 3. Evaluate the breeding soundness of an animal.
        a. Describe the procedure for determining an animal’s breeding readiness.
        b. Identify and prevent problems associated with reproduction.
        c. Select animals based on breeding soundness.
  Plus E. Evaluate environmental factors affecting animal performance and implement procedures for enhancing performance to demonstrate an effective application of principles to optimize performance.
    Plus 1. Recognize optimum performance for a given animal species.
        a. Identify good performance for a given animal species.
        b. Identify reasons why some animals perform better than others.
    Plus 2. Create a program to develop an animal to its highest potential performance.
        a. Identify factors that can be manipulated to control a given animal’s performance.
        b. Generate ways to increase an animal’s performance.
    Plus 3. Assess an animal to determine if it has reached its optimum performance level.
        a. Make appropriate changes in an animal’s environment in order to achieve optimum performance.
        b. Use appropriate tools in manipulating animal performance.
    Plus 4. Develop efficient procedures to produce consistently high-quality animals, well-suited for their intended purpose.
        a. Identify a given species’ desirable production numbers (e.g., birth weight, rate of gain, age of maturity, age of sexual maturity).
        b. Evaluate desired traits (e.g., production) of animals.
        c. Evaluate the role that economics plays in animal production.
        d. Design facilities appropriate for the production of a given species of animal.
        e. Make decisions on using new techniques and methods in the production facility so that both profit and animal safety are maximized.

Plus Foundation Standards

I. ACADEMIC FOUNDATIONS: Achieve additional academic knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of career and postsecondary education opportunities within a career cluster.
Plus II. COMMUNICATIONS: Use oral and written communication skills in creating, expressing and interpreting information and ideas including technical terminology and information.
  Plus A. Use oral and written communication skills in creating, expressing and interpreting information and ideas including technical terminology to communicate technical information within AFNR.
    Plus 1. Write clearly to communicate written ideas, results and questions to all types of people.
        a. Write with effective language to produce written communications for journals, newsletters, or other informative articles.
        b. Explain aspects of the industry to people not involved in it, and discuss its components.
    Plus 2. Model the use of strategies and techniques for enhancing the clarity and effectiveness of oral communication in order to engage in dialogue with members of an example career field.
        a. Monitor different kinds of behavior in order to improve communication.
        b. Prepare presentations to explain to both large groups and individuals issues of concern to the industry.
        c. Discuss aspects of the industry competently to an audience of both professionals and people not involved in the industry.
  Plus B. Employ the use of technical information effectively to maintain and communicate records and reporting procedures commonly used in the AFNR cluster.
    Plus 1. Document work and processes using technical communication methods and protocols.
        a. Record technical information.
        b. Compose technical reports.
        c. Communicate documentation to others.
Plus III. PROBLEM-SOLVING AND CRITICAL THINKING: Solve problems using critical thinking skills (analyze, synthesize, and evaluate) independently and in teams. Solve problems using creativity and innovation.
  Plus A. Access and utilize suitable resources to identify and study public policies, issues and regulations impacting AFNR management.
    Plus 1. Review regulations and major laws to evaluate their impact on AFNR management.
        a. Describe the major impacts of AFNR legislation.
        b. Describe the major regulations impacting the management of an individual resource.
        c. Identify situations that violate regulations.
    Plus 2. Read appropriate written material to stay abreast of current issues impacting AFNR management.
        a. Identify significant issues that impact work assignment.
    Plus 3. Gather public input for AFNR management decision-making.
        a. Conduct a local survey of public perceptions and desires concerning AFNR issues.
    Plus 4. Use critical thinking skills to identify, organize alternatives, and evaluate public policy issues related to AFNR.
        a. Identify alternatives to an issue’s potential solution.
        b. Evaluate alternatives for strengths and weaknesses.
        c. Recommend a solution based on research and analysis.
Plus IV. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS: Use information technology tools specific to the career cluster to access, manage, integrate, and create information.
  Plus A. Access, manage, integrate and create information using information technology tools specific to AFNR in order to facilitate people, machines, and logistics.
    Plus 1. Use Geographic Information System/Global Positioning System (GIS/GPS) applications.
        a. Create maps.
        b. Locate people or things.
        c. Identify best route for travel.
Plus V. SYSTEMS: Understand roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment. Identify how key organizational systems affect organizational performance and the quality of products and services. Understand global context of industries and careers.
  Plus A. Examine and summarize roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, interorganizational systems, and the larger environment to understand the nature and scope of AFNR organizations and the AFNR industry.
    Plus 1. Examine company performance and goals within AFNR organizations and the AFNR industry.
        a. Examine the role and major functions of AFNR organizations to better utilize AFNR guidelines.
        b. Explain the major guidelines used by AFNR organizations to manage and improve performance.
        c. Examine economic, social and technological changes to spotlight their impact on AFNR organizations and the industry.
        d. Explain technological changes to reveal their impact on information technology and transportation.
  Plus B. Identify how key organizational systems affect organizational performance and the quality of products and services to demonstrate an understanding of how AFNR systems are managed and improved.
    Plus 1. Manage and improve organizational systems to better serve customers.
        a. Evaluate customer needs to manage relationships with both internal and external customers.
        b. Develop and manage plans and budgets to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
        c. Develop plans to improve organizational performance including customer satisfaction and service/operations performance.
        d. Develop plans to maintain compliance with organizational policies and government laws and regulations.
    Plus 2. Summarize the components and maintenance requirements of each agricultural, natural resource, and environmental system.
        a. Develop management plans to improve the agricultural and natural resource systems.
        b. Determine goals and objectives for each system to manage organizational activities more effectively.
        c. Prepare and operate systems and technical tools to access, manage, integrate, evaluate and create information.
    Plus 3. Research geographical data to recognize the types of systems used in various geographical areas.
        a. Evaluate the effects of implementing practices to advance a system.
        b. Explore multi-area trends to explain how systems differ across geographical areas.
Plus VI. SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL: Understand the importance of health, safety, and environmental management systems in organizations and their importance to organizational performance and regulatory compliance. Follow organizational policies and procedures and contribute to continuous improvement in performance and compliance.
  Plus A. Maintain safe and healthful working conditions and environment that adhere to employee rights and responsibilities and employer obligations in order to promote well-being in the AFNR workplace.
    Plus 1. Assess workplace conditions with regard to safety and health.
        a. Identify the types of risk of injury/illness at work.
        b. Identify those who are susceptible to risk of injury/illness at work.
        c. Describe ways to positively impact occupational safety and health.
        d. Describe ways to positively impact occupational safety and health.
    Plus 2. Demonstrate application of rules and laws designed to promote safety and health.
        a. Identify key rights of employees related to occupational safety and health.
        b. Identify the responsibilities of employers related to occupational safety and health.
        c. Explain the role of government agencies in providing a safe workplace.
    Plus 3. Apply safety/health precautions to participation in natural resource projects.
        a. Wear personal protective equipment.
        b. Demonstrate how to avoid placing oneself in hazardous work situations.
    Plus 4. Demonstrate recognized first aid knowledge and procedures to show how they are used by natural resource industries.
        a. Complete recognized industry-level first aid training program.
    Plus 5. Identify health/safety policies and procedures for natural resource occupations.
        a. Participate in safety meetings.
        b. Describe the health and safety policies and procedures relevant to the worksite and assignment.
  Plus B. Assess and control types and sources of workplace hazards common to the AFNR industry in order to demonstrate a working understanding of key health and safety concerns.
    Plus 1. Demonstrate methods to correct common hazards.
        a. Identify and describe common hazards in the workplace.
        b. Identify and describe major sources of information about hazards in the workplace (e.g., MSDS, work procedures, exposure control plans, training materials, labels, and signage).
        c. Identify sources of combustible/flammable materials, fire and emergencies to establish a fire safe environment.
        d. Interpret safety signs and symbols.
    Plus 2. Demonstrate application of personal and group health and safety practices.
        a. Identify procedures necessary for maintaining a safe work area.
        b. Identify methods to correct common hazards.
        c. Identify methods for disposing of hazardous materials.
        d. Demonstrate principals of safe physical movement to avoid slips, trips, and spills.
        e. Inspect and use protective equipment (PPE).
  Plus C. Examine and summarize importance of health, safety, and environmental management systems in AFNR organizations to express their importance to organizational performance and regulatory compliance.
    Plus 1. Examine required regulations to maintain/improve safety, health and environmental management systems.
        a. Study appropriate resources to identify the major regulatory areas (e.g., personal protective equipment) and government laws and regulations.
        b. Examine the major system components to realize benefits of health, safety and environmental management systems in AFNR organizations.
        c. Measure or estimate benefits to explain how government agencies promote compliance and improved health, safety and environmental performance to AFNR organizations.
        d. Examine logistics, distribution and transportation organizations to explain how AFNR organizations promote improved health, safety and environmental performance.
    Plus 2. Develop a plan to maintain and improve health, safety and environmental compliance and performance.
        a. Make a personal commitment to safety, health and environmental policies and procedures.
        b. Develop plans to improve health, safety and environmental performance.
        c. Educate and orient other workers.
    Plus 3. State the importance of safety, health and environmental responsibilities in the workplace to provide operating guidelines.
        a. Establish a set of safety, health and environmental principles to ensure a high level of performance.
        b. Develop a pollution/waste prevention plan to contribute to the total productivity improvement.
    Plus 4. Examine health risks associated with a particular skill to better form personnel safety guidelines.
        a. Define what level of possible contamination or injury is considered a risk in order to set safety priorities.
        b. Assess mental and physical stresses to determine all aspects necessary to perform well and what health risks are associated with both the mental and physical aspects.
    Plus 5. Develop response plans to handle emergencies.
        a. Identify various emergency response plan requirements for a facility.
        b. Develop an emergency response plan for natural disasters.
    Plus 6. Identify hazards and acquire first aid skills to promote environmental safety.
        a. Identify general workplace safety hazards.
        b. Apply general workplace safety precautions/procedures.
        c. Acquire and maintain first aid certification.
        d. Acquire and maintain cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) certification.
        e. Respond to medical emergencies.
        f. Explain purpose of pollution control systems.
        g. Describe procedures to comply with environmental regulations.
        h. Maintain environmental health and safety facilities.
        i. Handle chemicals and safety equipment appropriately.
        j. Explain ergonomic procedures.
        k. Assess workplace safety.
        l. Assess a safety-training plan.
        m. Observe all regulatory and safety standards.
VII. LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK: Use leadership and teamwork skills in collaborating with others to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
Plus VIII. ETHICS AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES: Know and understand the importance of professional ethics and legal responsibilities.
  Plus A. Demonstrate workplace ethics specific to AFNR occupations in order to reflect effective stewardship of resources.
    Plus 1. Demonstrate evidence of interest and concern for natural resource stewardship and ethics.
        a. Explain how personal choices are related to natural resource sustainability.
    Plus 2. Exercise personal habits and actions to demonstrate workplace ethics.
        a. Explain how personal workplace actions can affect the resource.
Plus IX. EMPLOYABILITY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT: Know and understand the importance of employability skills. Explore, plan, and effectively manage careers. Know and understand the importance of entrepreneurship skills.
  Plus A. Explain written organizational policies, rules and procedures common the AFNR workplaces to ensure employees perform job functions effectively.
    Plus 1. Locate appropriate information on organizational policies in handbooks and manuals.
        a. Identify the contents of various organizational publications.
        b. Select the appropriate document(s) as reference for the situation.
    Plus 2. Discuss how specific organizational policies and rules influence a specific work situation.
        a. Locate and identify specific organizational policy, rule or procedure to assist with a given situation.
        b. Explain specific organizational policy, rule or procedure to improve a given situation.
  Plus B. Select, research and examine critical aspects of career opportunities in one or more AFNR career pathways in order to gain an understanding of the breadth of occupations within this cluster.
    Plus 1. Locate and identify career opportunities that appeal to personal career goals.
        a. Locate and interpret career information for at lest one career cluster.
        b. Identify job requirements for career pathways.
        c. Identify educational and credentialing requirements for career cluster and pathways.
    Plus 2. Match personal interest and aptitudes to selected careers.
        a. Identify personal interests and aptitudes.
        b. Identify job requirements and characteristics of selected careers.
        c. Compare personal interests and aptitudes with job requirements and characteristics of career selected.
        d. Modify career goals based on results of personal interests and aptitudes with career requirements and characteristics.
Plus X. TECHNICAL SKILLS: Use the technical knowledge and skills required to pursue the targeted careers for all pathways in the career cluster, including knowledge of design, operation, and maintenance of technological systems critical to the career cluster.
  Plus A. Use technological systems to accomplish objectives in transportation.
    Plus 1. Use technological systems to accomplish objectives in transportation.
        a. Evaluate transportation needs to explain the role and function of critical transportation-related technological systems.
        b. Measure and manage the reliability and performance of technological systems to establish use and maintenance guidelines.
        c. Manage major health, safety and environmental risks to minimize their potential impact on technological systems.
    Plus 2. Select and improve utilization of technological systems to improve production and products.
        a. Develop acceptable criteria to evaluate and select technological systems.
        b. Participate in efforts to improve the utilization and performance of technological systems.
    Plus 3. Identify technical skills needed to run an industry efficiently.
        a. Identify types of skills needed to succeed in a desired industry.
        b. Explore methods available to develop technical skills.
        c. Correctly operate the tools associated with a specific skill.
    Plus 4. Establish criteria to identify areas that have special needs for technical skills.
        a. Classify workplace occupations to determine what types of skills are considered technical skills.
        b. Evaluate processes and products to determine what areas most often use technical skills.
  Plus B. Use tools, equipment, machinery and technology to work in areas related to AFNR.
    Plus 1. Select the appropriate tool to perform a given task.
        a. Select tools and equipment.
        b. Identify standard tools, equipment, and safety procedures.
        c. Follow operating instructions.
        d. Set up/Adjust tools and equipment.
        e. Maintain tools.
        f. Store tools.
    Plus 2. Maintain the working order of natural resources and tools for efficient work use.
        a. Demonstrate how to check tool condition before use.
        b. Describe the characteristics of a tool in need of maintenance.
        c. Demonstrate how to replace tool parts and components as needed.
    Plus 3. Wear protective equipment and handle natural resource tools and equipment with skill to demonstrate safe use of tools and equipment.
        a. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).
        b. Demonstrate proper spacing distance from others when using tools.
        c. Check tools for safety before using.
        d. Store tools with appropriate safety precautions.
        e. Demonstrate the proper usage of a tool or piece of equipment.
        f. Describe regulations for the use of tools and equipment.
    Plus 4. Use tools and technology devices to assist in expanding human capacity for natural resource tasks.
        a. Use appropriate tools to assist in lifting and moving.
        b. Demonstrate use of knots, ropes, lines and attachments.
        c. Use geo-spatial and mapping techniques (GIS/GPS).
  Plus C. Compare and contrast issues affecting the AFNR industry including biotechnology, employment, safety, environmental and animal welfare to demonstrate an understanding of the trends and issues important to careers in this industry.
    Plus 1. Select solutions for different environmental issues.
        a. Identify issues affecting the industry.
        b. Research history and policies related to the issue.
        c. Identify conflicting points of view.
        d. Determine effects of the issue on the industry.
        e. Determine potential resolutions to the issue.
    2. Analyze solutions for different environmental issues.
    3. Present solutions for different environmental issues.
    4. Learn economic principles in order to apply them to natural resource systems (i.e., supply, demand and profit).
  Plus D. Envision emerging technology and globalization and project its influence on widespread markets to demonstrate an understanding of technologies and trends that will impact the AFNR industry.
    Plus 1. Examine new technologies to project their impact in the global market of technology.
        a. Convert drawings from US Standard to metric.
        b. Identify ways that global regulations impact system designs.
        c. Identify and discuss use of new technologies (such as lasers and robotics) and their impact on agricultural systems.
        d. Discuss the importance of new communication systems and how they impact ag systems.
    Plus 2. Discuss the relationship between the advancement of technology and the need for continuing education/ career development.
        a. Research and discuss emerging technologies and the skills they require.
        b. Discuss history of systems over the last century and discuss how emerging technology and career training will be essential to meet market demands.

Plus Essential Standards

Plus I. ACADEMIC FOUNDATIONS
  Plus A. Complete required training, education, and certification to prepare for employment in a particular career field.
    1. Identify training, education and certification requirements for occupational choice.
    2. Participate in career-related training and/or degree programs.
    3. Pass certification tests to qualify for licensure and/or certification in chosen occupational area.
  Plus B. Demonstrate language arts knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary education and career opportunities.
    Plus 1. Model behaviors that demonstrate active listening.
        a. Adapt language for audience, purpose, situation. (i.e. diction/structure, style).
    Plus 2. Organize oral and written information.
        a. Compose focused copy for a variety of written documents such as agendas, audio-visuals, bibliographies, drafts, forms/documents, notes, oral presentations, reports, and technical terminology.
        b. Edit copy to create focused written documents such as agendas, audio-visuals, bibliographies, drafts, forms/documents, notes, oral presentations, reports, and technical terminology.
        c. Comprehend key elements of oral and written information such as cause/effect, comparisons/contrasts, conclusions, context, purpose, charts/tables/graphs, evaluation/critiques, mood, persuasive text, sequence, summaries, and technical subject matter.
        d. Evaluate oral and written information for accuracy, adequacy/sufficiency, appropriateness, clarity, conclusions/solutions, fact/opinion, propaganda, relevancy, validity, and relationship of ideas.
        e. Identify assumptions, purpose, outcomes/solutions, and propaganda techniques.
        f. Predict potential outcomes and/or solutions based on oral and written information regarding trends.
        g. Present formal and informal speeches including discussion, information requests, interpretation, and persuasive arguments.
  Plus C. Demonstrate mathematics knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary education and career opportunities.
    1. Identify whole numbers, decimals, and fractions.
    2. Demonstrate knowledge of basic arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
    3. Demonstrate use of relational expressions such as equal to, not equal, greater than, less than, etc.
    4. Apply data and measurements to solve a problem.
    5. Analyze Mathematical problem statements for missing and/or irrelevant data.
    6. Construct charts/tables/graphs from functions and data.
    7. Analyze data when interpreting operational documents.
  Plus D. Demonstrate science knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of post-secondary and career education opportunities.
    1. Evaluate scientific constructs including conclusions, conflicting data, controls, data, inferences, limitations, questions, sources of errors, and variables.
        a. Determine the most appropriate reading strategy for identifying the overarching purpose of a text (i.e. skimming, reading for detail, reading for meaning or critical analysis).
        b. Demonstrate use of content, technical concepts and vocabulary when analyzing information and following directions.
        c. Select the reading strategy or strategies needed to fully comprehend the content within a written document (i.e., skimming, reading for detail, reading for meaning or critical analysis).
        d. Interpret information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
        e. Transcribe information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
        f. Communicate information, data, and observations to apply information learned from reading to actual practice.
    2. Apply scientific methods in qualitative and quantitative analysis, data gathering, direct and indirect observation, predictions, and problem identification.
        a. Employ verbal skills when obtaining and conveying information.
        b. Record information needed to present a report on a given topic or problem.
        c. Write internal and external business correspondence that conveys and/or obtains information effectively.
        d. Communicate with other employees to clarify workplace objectives.
        e. Communicate effectively with customers and employees to foster positive relationships.
    Plus 3. Locate, organize and reference written information from various sources to communicate with co-workers and clients/participants.
        a. Locate written information used to communicate with co-workers and customers.
        b. Organize information to use in written and oral communications.
        c. Reference the sources of information.
    Plus 4. Evaluate and use information resources to accomplish specific occupational tasks.
        a. Use informational texts, Internet web sites, and/or technical materials to review and apply information sources for occupational tasks.
        b. Evaluate the reliability of information from informational texts, Internet Web sites, and/or technical materials and resources.
    Plus 5. Use correct grammar, punctuation and terminology to write and edit documents.
        a. Compose multi-paragraph documents clearly, succinctly, and accurately.
        b. Use descriptions of audience and purpose when preparing and editing written documents.
        c. Use correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, and capitalization when preparing written documents.
    Plus 6. Develop and deliver formal and informal presentations using appropriate media to engage and inform audiences.
        a. Prepare oral presentations to provide information for specific purposes and audiences.
        b. Identify support materials that will enhance an oral presentation.
        c. Prepare support materials that will enhance an oral presentation.
        d. Deliver an oral presentation that sustains listeners' attention and interest.
        e. Align presentation strategies to the intended audience.
        f. Implement multi-media strategies for presentations.
    Plus 7. Interpret verbal and nonverbal cues/behaviors to enhance communication with co-workers and clients/participants.
        a. Interpret verbal behaviors when communicating with clients and co-workers.
        b. Interpret nonverbal behaviors when communicating with clients and co-workers.
Plus II. COMMUNICATIONS
  Plus A. Apply active listening skills to obtain and clarify information.
    1. Interpret a given verbal message/information.
    2. Respond with restatement and clarification techniques to clarify information.
  Plus B. Develop and interpret tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communications.
    1. Create tables, charts, and figures to support written and oral communications.
    2. Interpret tables, charts, and figures used to support written and oral communication.
  Plus C. Listen to and speak with diverse individuals to enhance communication skills.
    1. Apply factors and strategies for communicating with a diverse workforce.
    2. Demonstrate ability to communicate and resolve conflicts within a diverse workforce.
  Plus D. Exhibit public relations skills to increase internal and external customer/client satisfaction.
    1. Communicate effectively when developing positive customer/client relationships.
Plus III. PROBLEM-SOLVING AND CRITICAL THINKING
  Plus A. Solve problems using critical thinking skills (analyze, synthesize, and evaluate) independently and in teams. Solve problems using creativity and innovation.
    Plus 1. Employ critical thinking skills independently and in teams to solve problems and make decisions (e.g., analyze, synthesize and evaluate).
        a. Identify common tasks that require employees to use problem-solving skills.
        b. Analyze elements of a problem to develop creative solutions.
        c. Describe the value of using problem-solving and critical thinking skills to improve a situation or process.
        d. Create ideas, proposals, and solutions to problems.
        e. Evaluate ideas, proposals, and solutions to problems.
        f. Use structured problem-solving methods when developing proposals and solutions.
        g. Generate new and creative ideas to solve problems by brainstorming possible solutions.
        h. Critically analyze information to determine value to the problem-solving task.
        i. Guide individuals through the process of recognizing concerns and making informed decisions.
        j. Identify alternatives using a variety of problem-solving and critical thinking skills.
        k. Evaluate alternatives using a variety of problem-solving and critical thinking skills.
    Plus 2. Employ critical thinking and interpersonal skills to resolve conflicts with staff and/or customers.
        a. Analyze situations and behaviors that affect conflict management.
        b. Determine best options/outcomes for conflict resolution using critical thinking skills.
        c. Identify with others’ feelings, needs, and concerns.
        d. Implement stress management techniques.
        e. Resolve conflicts with/for customers using conflict resolution skills.
        f. Implement conflict resolution skills to address staff issues/problems.
    Plus 3. Identify, write and monitor workplace performance goals to guide progress in assigned areas of responsibility and accountability.
        a. Write realistic performance goals, objectives and action plans.
        b. Monitor performance goals and adjust as necessary.
        c. Recognize goal achievement using appropriate rewards in the workplace.
        d. Communicate goal achievement with managers and co-workers.
    Plus 4. Conduct technical research to gather information necessary for decision-making.
        a. Align the information gathered to the needs of the audience.
        b. Gather technical information and data using a variety of resources.
        c. Analyze information and data for value to the research objectives.
        d. Evaluate information and data to determine value to research objectives.
Plus IV. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS
  Plus A. Use Personal Information Management (PIM) applications to increase workplace efficiency.
    1. Manage personal schedules and contact information.
    2. Create memos and notes.
  Plus B. Employ technological tools to expedite workflow.
    1. Use information technology tools to manage and perform work responsibilities.
  Plus C. Operate electronic mail applications to communicate within a workplace.
    1. Use email to share files and documents.
    2. Identify the functions and purpose of email systems.
    3. Use email to communicate within and across organizations.
  Plus D. Operate Internet applications to perform workplace tasks.
    1. Access and navigate Internet (e.g., use a web browser).
    2. Search for information and resources.
    3. Evaluate Internet resources for reliability and validity.
  Plus E. Operate writing and publishing applications to prepare business communications.
    1. Prepare simple documents and other business communications.
    2. Prepare reports and other business communications by integrating graphics and other non-text elements.
    3. Prepare complex multi-media publications.
  Plus F. Operate presentation applications to prepare presentations.
    1. Prepare presentations for training, sales and information sharing.
    2. Deliver presentations with supporting materials.
  Plus G. Employ spreadsheet applications to organize and manipulate data.
    1. Create a spreadsheet.
    2. Perform calculations and analyses on data using a spreadsheet.
  Plus H. Employ database applications to manage data.
    1. Manipulate data elements.
    2. Manage interrelated data elements.
    3. Analyze interrelated data elements.
    4. Generate reports showing interrelated data elements.
  Plus I. Employ collaborative/groupware applications to facilitate group work.
    1. Facilitate group work through management of shared schedule and contact information.
    2. Facilitate group work through management of shared files and online information.
    3. Facilitate group work through instant messaging or virtual meetings.
  Plus J. Employ computer operations applications to manage work tasks.
    1. Manage computer operations.
    2. Manage file storage.
    3. Compress or alter files.
  Plus K. Use computer-based equipment (containing embedded computers or processors) to control devices.
    1. Operate computer driven equipment and machines.
    2. Use installation and operation manuals.
    3. Troubleshoot computer driven equipment and machines.
    4. Access support as needed to maintain operation of computer driven equipment and machines.
Plus V. SYSTEMS
  Plus A. Describe the nature and types of business organizations to build an understanding of the scope of organizations.
    1. List the types and functions of businesses.
    2. Describe the types and functions of businesses.
    3. Explain the functions and interactions of common departments within a business.
  Plus B. Implement quality control systems and practices to ensure quality products and services.
    1. Describe quality control standards and practices common to the workplace.
Plus VI. SAFETY, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL
  Plus A. Implement personal and jobsite safety rules and regulations to maintain safe and healthful working conditions and environments.
    Plus 1. Assess workplace conditions with regard to safety and health.
        a. Align safety issues with appropriate safety standards to ensure a safe workplace/jobsite.
        b. Identify safety hazards common to workplaces.
    2. Identify safety precautions to maintain a safe worksite.
    Plus 3. Select appropriate personal protective equipment as needed for a safe workplace/jobsite.
        a. Inspect personal protective equipment commonly used for selected career pathway.
        b. Use personal protective equipment according to manufacturer rules and regulations.
    4. Employ a safety hierarchy and communication system within the workplace/jobsite.
    5. Implement safety precautions to maintain a safe worksite.
  Plus B. Complete work tasks in accordance with employee rights and responsibilities and employers obligations to maintain workplace safety and health.
    1. Identify rules and laws designed to promote safety and health in the workplace.
    2. State the rationale of rules and laws designed to promote safety and health.
  Plus C. Employ emergency procedures as necessary to provide aid in workplace accidents.
    1. Use knowledge of First Aid procedures as necessary.
    2. Use knowledge of CPR procedures as necessary.
    3. Use safety equipment as necessary.
  Plus D. Employ knowledge of response techniques to create a disaster and/or emergency response plan.
    1. Complete an assessment of an emergency and/or disaster situation.
    2. Create an emergency and/or disaster plan.
Plus VII. LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK
  Plus A. Use leadership and teamwork skills in collaborating with others to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
    Plus 1. Employ leadership skills to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.
        a. Analyze the various roles of leaders within organizations (e.g. contribute ideas; share in building an organization; act as role models to employees by adhering to company policies, procedures, and standards; promote the organization’s vision; and mentor others).
        b. Exhibit traits such as empowerment, risk, communication, focusing on results, decision-making, problem solution, and investment in individuals when leading a group in solving a problem.
        c. Exhibit traits such as compassion, service, listening, coaching, developing others, team development, and understanding and appreciating others when acting as a manager of others in the workplace.
        d. Exhibit traits such as enthusiasm, creativity, conviction, mission, courage, concept, focus, principle-centered living, and change when interacting with others in general.
        e. Consider issues related to self, team, community, diversity, environment, and global awareness when leading others.
        f. Exhibit traits such as innovation, intuition, adaptation, life-long learning and coachability to develop leadership potential over time.
        g. Analyze leadership in relation to trust, positive attitude, integrity, and willingness to accept key responsibilities in a work situation.
        h. Describe observations of outstanding leaders using effective management styles.
        i. Participate in civic and community leadership and teamwork opportunities to enhance skills.
    Plus 2. Employ organizational and staff development skills to foster positive working relationships and accomplish organizational goals.
        a. Implement organizational skills when facilitating others’ work efforts.
        b. Explain how to manage a staff that satisfies work demands while adhering to budget constraints.
        c. Describe how staff growth and development to increase productivity and employee satisfaction.
        d. Organize team involvement within a group environment.
        e. Work with others to develop and gain commitment to team goals.
        f. Distribute responsibility and work load fairly.
        g. Model leadership and teamwork qualities to aid in employee morale.
        h. Identify best practices for successful team functioning.
        i. Explain best practices for successful team functioning.
    Plus 3. Employ teamwork skills to achieve collective goals and use team members' talents effectively.
        a. Work with others to achieve objectives in a timely manner.
        b. Promote the full involvement and use of team member's individual talents and skills.
        c. Employ conflict-management skills to facilitate solutions.
        d. Demonstrate teamwork skills through working cooperatively with co-workers, supervisory staff, and others, both in and out of the organization, to achieve particular tasks.
        e. Demonstrate teamwork processes that provide team building, consensus, continuous improvement, respect for the opinions of others, cooperation, adaptability, and conflict resolution.
        f. Develop plans to improve team performance.
        g. Demonstrate commitment to and a positive attitude toward team goals.
        h. Take responsibility for shared group and individual work tasks.
        i. Assist team members in completing their work.
        j. Adapt effectively to changes in projects and work activities.
        k. Negotiate effectively to arrive at decisions.
    Plus 4. Establish and maintain effective working relationships with all levels of personnel and other departments in order to accomplish objectives and tasks.
        a. Build effective working relationships using interpersonal skills.
        b. Use positive interpersonal skills to work cooperatively with co-workers representing different cultures, genders and backgrounds.
        c. Manage personal skills to accomplish assignments.
        d. Treat people with respect.
        e. Provide constructive praise and criticism.
        f. Demonstrate sensitivity to and value for diversity.
        g. Manage stress and control emotions.
    Plus 5. Conduct and participate in meetings to accomplish work tasks.
        a. Develop meeting goals, objectives and agenda.
        b. Assign responsibilities for preparing materials and leading discussions.
        c. Prepare materials for leading discussion.
        d. Assemble and distribute meeting materials.
        e. Conduct meeting to achieve objectives within scheduled time.
        f. Demonstrate effective communication skills in meetings.
        g. Produce meeting minutes including decisions and next steps.
        h. Use parliamentary procedure, as needed, to conduct meetings.
    Plus 6. Employ mentoring skills to inspire and teach others.
        a. Use motivational techniques to enhance performance in others.
        b. Provide guidance to enhance performance in others.
Plus VIII. ETHICS AND LEGAL RESPONSIBILITIES
  Plus A. Know and understand the importance of professional ethics and legal responsibilities.
    Plus 1. Apply ethical reasoning to a variety of workplace situations in order to make ethical decisions.
        a. Evaluate alternative responses to workplace situations based on legal responsibilities and employer policies.
        b. Evaluate alternative responses to workplace situations based on personal or professional ethical responsibilities.
        c. Identify personal and long-term workplace consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors.
        d. Explain personal and long-term workplace consequences of unethical or illegal behaviors.
        e. Determine the most appropriate response to workplace situations based on legal and ethical considerations.
        f. Explain the most appropriate response to workplace situations based on legal and ethical considerations.
    Plus 2. Interpret and explain written organizational policies and procedures to help employees perform their jobs according to employer rules and expectations.
        a. Locate information on organizational policies in handbooks and manuals.
        b. Discuss how specific organizational policies and procedures influence a specific work situation.
Plus IX. EMPLOYABILITY AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT
  A. Know and understand the importance of employability skills.
  Plus B. Explore, plan, and effectively manage careers.
    Plus 1. Identify and demonstrate positive work behaviors and personal qualities needed to be employable.
        a. Demonstrate self-discipline, self-worth, positive attitude, and integrity in a work situation.
        b. Demonstrate flexibility and willingness to learn new knowledge and skills.
        c. Exhibit commitment to the organization.
        d. Identify how work varies with regard to site, from indoor confined spaces to outdoor areas, including aerial space and a variety of climatic and physical conditions.
    2. Apply communication strategies when adapting to a culturally diverse environment.
    Plus 3. Manage resources in relation to the position (i.e. budget, supplies, computer, etc).
        a. Identify positive work-qualities typically desired in each of the career cluster's pathways.
    4. Manage work roles and responsibilities to balance them with other life roles and responsibilities.
    Plus 5. Develop a personal career plan to meet career goals and objectives.
        a. Develop career goals and objectives as part of a plan for future career direction.
        b. Develop strategies to reach career objectives.
  Plus C. Demonstrate skills related to seeking and applying for employment to find and obtain a desired job.
    1. Use multiple resources to locate job opportunities.
    2. Prepare a résumé.
    3. Prepare a letter of application.
    4. Complete an employment application.
    5. Interview for employment.
    6. List the standards and qualifications that must be met in order to enter a given industry.
    7. Employ critical thinking and decision-making skills to exhibit qualifications to a potential employer.
    Plus 8. Maintain a career portfolio to document knowledge, skills and experience in a career field.
        a. Select educational and work history highlights to include in a career portfolio.
        b. Produce a record of work experiences, licenses, certifications and products.
        c. Organize electronic or physical portfolio for use in demonstrating knowledge, skills and experiences.
    Plus 9. Demonstrate skills in evaluating and comparing employment opportunities in order to accept employment positions that match career goals.
        a. Compare employment opportunities to individual needs and career plan objectives.
        b. Evaluate employment opportunities based upon individual needs and career plan objectives.
        c. Demonstrate appropriate methods for accepting or rejecting employment offers.
    Plus 10. Identify and exhibit traits for retaining employment to maintain employment once secured.
        a. Model behaviors that demonstrate reliability and dependability.
        b. Maintain appropriate dress and behavior for the job to contribute to a safe and effective workplace/jobsite.
        c. Complete required employment forms and documentation such as I-9 form, work visa, W-4 and licensures to meet employment requirements.
        d. Summarize key activities necessary to retain a job in the industry.
        e. Identify positive work behaviors and personal qualities necessary to retain employment.
    Plus 11. Identify and explore career opportunities in one or more career pathways to build an understanding of the opportunities available in the cluster.
        a. Locate and identify career opportunities that appeal to personal career goals.
        b. Match personal interest and aptitudes to selected careers.
    Plus 12. Recognize and act upon requirements for career advancement to plan for continuing education and training.
        a. Identify opportunities for career advancement.
        b. Pursue education and training opportunities to acquire skills necessary for career advancement.
        c. Examine the organization and structure of various segments of the industry to prepare for career advancement.
        d. Research local and regional labor (workforce) market and job growth information to project potential for advancement.
        e. Manage employment relations to make career advancements.
    Plus 13. Continue professional development to keep current on relevant trends and information within the industry.
        a. Use self assessment, organizational priorities, journals, Internet sites, professional associations, peers and other resources to develop goals that address training, education and self-improvement issues.
        b. Read trade magazines and journals, manufacturers’ catalogues, industry publications and Internet sites to keep current on industry trends.
        c. Participate in relevant conferences, workshops, mentoring activities and in-service training to stay current with recent changes in the field.
    Plus 14. Examine licensing, certification and credentialing requirements at the national, state and local levels to maintain compliance with industry requirements.
        a. Examine continuing education requirements related to licensing, certification, and credentialing requirements at the local, state and national levels for chosen occupation.
        b. Examine the procedures and paperwork involved in maintaining and updating licensure, certification and credentials for chosen occupation.
        c. Align ongoing licensing, certification and credentialing requirements to career plans and goals.
    Plus 15. Examine employment opportunities in entrepreneurship to consider entrepreneurship as an option for career planning.
        a. Describe the opportunities for entrepreneurship in a given industry.
Plus X. TECHNICAL SKILLS
  Plus A. Employ information management techniques and strategies in the workplace to assist in decision-making.
    1. Use information literacy skills when accessing, evaluating and disseminating information.
    2. Describe the nature and scope of information management.
    3. Maintain records to facilitate ongoing business operations.
  Plus B. Employ planning and time management skills and tools to enhance results and complete work tasks.
    1. Develop goals and objectives.
    2. Prioritize tasks to be completed.
    3. Develop timelines using time management knowledge and skills.
    4. Use project-management skills to improve workflow and minimize costs.

Plus Employment Standards

Plus I. APPLIED ACADEMIC SKILLS
  Plus A. Reading, English & Language Arts
    1. Read a technical manual and write a clear & logical report explaining the information using standared business English.
    2. Give a verbal report on reading from a technical manual.
    3. Read a case study and identify the details about the situation, define technical terms, jargon, or words with multiple meanings based on context, and summarize the conclusion.
    4. Take a verbal and written position on a topic and use correct grammar to defend it.
  Plus B. Mathematics
    1. Approach practical and workplace problems using a variety of mathematical techniques.
    2. Research how math is used in the workplace and make a presentation detailing the process.
  Plus C. Listening & Presentation Skills
    1. Use correct grammar to communicate verbally.
    2. Listen to a presentation and record important information. Report back identifying central themes and use key points to explain how the message applies to a similar situation.
  Plus D. Technology
    1. Apply technology to workplace or career situation. Include research and a written paper.
Plus II. CAREER PLANNING
  Plus A. Career Planning
    1. Organize career information and labor market trends from a variety of sources.
    2. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of working for self, others, being an employee of a large or small organization.
    3. Analyze information & preferences from work-based opportunity.
    4. Interpret information from a variety of career assessments to identify career interests and abilities.
    5. Apply a decision-making model and use career assessment information to choose a career pathway.
    6. Annually review EDP and include plan for continuing education.
Plus III. DEVELOPING AND PRESENTING INFORMATION
  Plus A. Developing and Presenting information
    1. Gather, interpret, analyze, and refine data.
    2. Analyze and synthesize information and data from muiltiple sources.
    3. Plan and transform ideas and requirements into a concept, service, or product.
    4. Assess the quality of the concept, service, or product using a predetermined standard.
    5. Develop a plan to market a new product, service, or concept which includes identifying of customers, a graphic presentation, product requirements, and costs.
    6. Practice and demonstrate presentation skils using a variety of media and interpretive data.
Plus IV. PROBLEM SOLVING
  Plus A. Problem Solving
    1. Apply a problem solving model to a workplace situation that involves setting goals, implementing and evaluating results.
    2. Identify typical problems that occur in a workplace and use a problem solving model to devise solutions, compare alternatives to past solutions, and predict their success.
Plus V. PERSONAL MANAGEMENT
  Plus A. Responsibility
    1. Demonstrate regular attendance, promptness, and staying with a task until satisfacotry completion.
    2. Complete assignments with minimum supervision and meet deadlines.
    3. Use mistakes as learning opportunities, demonstrate persistence and adaptability to change.
    4. Initiate projects and extra activities for personal satisfaction.
  Plus B. Self-Management
    1. Monitor & evaluate accurately one's progress towards a goal or completion of a project.
    2. Demonstrate health and safety practices and drug-free behavior in school & workplace setting.
    3. Obtain a driver license and demonstrate driving skills and safety and/or use public transportation.
    4. Prioritize and accomplish tasks independently.
    5. Use appropriate personal expression and relate to school and work settings.
  Plus C. Ethical Behavior
    1. Demonstrate etlhical behavior in school, work, and community situations.
    2. Describe employer-employee rights and responsibilities.
    3. Demonstrate appropriate behaviors necessary to maintaining employment.
    4. Demonstrate positive personal qualities as a group leader.
  Plus D. Respect for Self and Others
    1. View accomplishments or failures of self and others accurately and in a positive manner.
    2. Understand how to make improvements and ask for help from adults as needed.
    3. Offer encouragement and ideas to others as they work toward attaining their goals.
    4. Provide for customer needs and expectations in a helpful and courteous manner.
    5. Respect other points of view.
    6. Demonstrate customer service skills in an appropriate setting by listening, suggesting solutions, and communicating the issues at hand.
Plus VI. ORGANIZING SKILLS
  Plus A. Time
    1. Determine goals and develop an action plan to accomplish them within a given time frame.
    2. Read time charts and work schedules and perform tasks within time constraints of school or the workplace.
    3. Prioritize tasks and revise schedules as needed.
  Plus B. Money
    1. Estimate costs and prepare a detailed budget for a school-based or work-based project.
    2. Report the costs of various components of a budget and adjust budget items as needed.
    3. Understand compensation practices and financial management and explain how financial resources can be used effectively and efficiently.
  Plus C. Materials
    1. Utilize materials, tools, and processes to complete a task related to a career selection.
    2. Compile a list of materials and supplies needed in advance of an assignment.
    3. Acquire resources in a timely fashion and take responsibility for their care.
    4. Identify and prepare tools, equipment, space, and facilities appropriate for a task.
    5. Work within constraints of safety precautions and available resources.
  Plus D. Human Resources
    1. Learn cooperation and leadership in a team at school or in a workplace setting.
    2. Organize and communicate with members of a team using varied methods of communications.
    3. Recognize the individual roles of team members, delegate tasks, and give feedback on performance.
    4. Acknowledge and utilize the skills, abilities, and input of all member of a team.
Plus VII. TEAMWORK
  Plus A. Group Participation
    1. Exhibit teamwork skills including trust and loyalty to group, and demonstrate connectedness to group members, values, and culture.
    2. Take personal responsibility for influencing and accomplishing group goals.
    3. Demonstrate understanding of how effective teams operate within organization and diverse settings.
    4. Solve a career/work-related problem as a member of a team.
  Plus B. Conflict Resolution
    1. Demonstrate leadership by listening to others and asking appropriate questions to clarify a problem or issue.
    2. Summarize a problem clearly and in appropriate detail.
    3. Suggest constructive alternatives with confidence that will help resolve a conflict.
    4. Compromise and/or build consensus within a group and summarize the decision of the group while maintaining respect for minortiy viewpoints.
    5. Participate in the implementation of a group's decision and evaluate the results.
    6. Show sensitivity to others' thoughts and opinions and relate them to the resolution process.
  Plus C. Diversity
    1. Understand and respect the concerns of members of cultural, gender, age, and ability groups.
    2. Be respectful of a variety of differences of people in a work/school setting.
    3. Demonstrate ability to work with others with different backgrounds, cultures, and abilities.
  Plus D. Leadership
    1. Demonstrate leadership ability in a work or school setting.
    2. Recognize and take advantage of leadership opportunities that give direction to other team members, or that encourage other members to complete tasks.
Plus VIII. NEGOTIATION SKILL (do not delete)
  Plus A. Negotiation Skills
    1. Using correct terminology, clarify the problem or issue to be negotiated.
    2. Identify, organize, and define ideas from various sources to logically support a position and use these ideas in debate.
    3. Demonstrate objectivity in assessing other viewpoints by considering all sides of an issue, using past experience, data and logical analysis, and showing respectful behavior towards others.
    4. Responsibily challenge existing policies and procedures and identify new solutions or policy changes.
Plus IX. UNDERSTANDING SYSTEMS AND USING TECHNOLOGY
  Plus A. Understanding Systems and Using Technology
    1. Identify trends and how they affect changes within a system.
    2. Demonstrate an understanding of business systems.
    3. Compare management systems and consider how employees function and adapt to change within them.
    4. Describe the technical systems related to a career interest area.
    5. Diagnose and make necessary corrections or improvements to a technical system in a business, industry, or simulated work place setting.
    6. Describe how changes in technology have impacted business and industry, identify current trends, and recommend how a technical system might be improved.
    7. Demonstrate the use of equipment and machines to solve practical or work-based problems.
    8. Demonstrate effective use of a variety of on-line technological resources.
    9. Determine what kind of application is needed for a given task and use effectively.
    10. Use technologies as tools for communication of technical or work-related information.
    11. Use technology effectively in solving problems in an area of career interest.
    12. Understand and demonstrate basic computer hardware and software installation and maintaining efficient machines.
    13. Demonstrate ability to adapt to different software applications, comparing and contrasting specfic functions and applying them to different projects.
Plus X. EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS
  Plus A. Employability Skills
    1. Continue the EDP process which includes an annual review with student and counselor and notification of parents.
    2. Participate in work-based opportunities such as job-shadowing, mentorships, work experiences, etc.
    3. Show ability to market oneself by preparing for and completing an interview process.
    4. Accurately complete records/documents to support job applications (inquiry letters, resume, references, evaluations, follow-up letters).
    5. Use a portfolio, resume, record of attendance, certifricates, and/or transcript as self-marketing tools to demonstrate interest and competence.
    6. Apply career and labormarket information to seek and obtain employment and/or pursue educational goals.
    7. Research availability of educational programs, financial requirements, and resource and complete an application process as appropriate for career goals.
    8. Understand the need for lifelong learning in a rapidly changing job market.
Plus XI. MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS
  Plus A. Creativity and Innovation – By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Apply advanced software features (e.g. built-in thesaurus, templates, styles) to redesign the appearance of word processing documents, spreadsheets, and presentations
    2. Create a web page (e.g., Dreamweaver, iGoogle, Kompozer)
    3. Use a variety of media and formats to design, develop, publish, and present projects (e.g., newsletters, web sites, presentations, photo galleries)
  Plus B. Communication and Collaboration - By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Identify various collaboration technologies and describe their use (e.g., desktop conferencing, listserv, blog, wiki)
    2. Use available technologies (e.g., desktop conferencing, e-mail, videoconferencing, instant messaging) to communicate with others on a class assignment or project
    3. Collaborate in content-related projects that integrate a variety of media (e.g., print, audio, video, graphic, simulations, and models)
    4. Plan and implement a collaborative project using telecommunications tools (e.g., ePals, discussion boards, online groups, interactive web sites, videoconferencing)
    5. Describe the potential risks and dangers associated with online communications
    6. Use technology tools for managing and communicating personal information (e.g., finances, contact information, schedules, purchases, correspondence)
  Plus C. Research and Information Fluency – By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Develop a plan to gather information using various research strategies (e.g., interviews, questionnaires, experiments, online surveys)
    2. Identify, evaluate, and select appropriate online sources to answer content related questions
    3. Demonstrate the ability to use library and online databases for accessing information (e.g., MEL, Proquest, Infosource, United Streaming)
    4. Distinguish between fact, opinion, point of view, and inference
    5. Evaluate information found in selected online sources on the basis of accuracy and validity
    6. Evalate resources for stereotyping, prejudice, and misrepresentation
    7. Understand that using information from a single internet source might result in the reporting of erroneous facts and that multiple sources must always be researched
    8. Research examples of inappropriate use of technologies and participate in related classroom activities (e.g., debates, reports, mock trials, presentations)
  Plus D. Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making - By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Use digital resources (e.g., educational software, simulations, models) for problem solving and independent learning
    2. Analyze the capabilities and limitations of digital resources and evaluate their potential to address personal, social, lifelong learning, and career needs
    3. Devise a research question or hypothesis using information and communication technology resources, analyze the findings to make a decision based on the findings, and report the results
  Plus E. Demonstrate Digital Citizenship
    1. Identify legal and ethical issues related to the use of information and communication technologies (e.g., properly selecting and citing resources)
    2. Discuss possible long-range effects of unethical uses of technology (e.g., virus spreading, file pirating, hacking) on cultures and society
    3. Discuss and demonstrate proper netiquette in online communications
    4. Identify ways that individuals can protect their technology systems from unethical or unscrupulous users
    5. Create appropriate citations for resources when presenting research findings
    6. Discuss and adhere to fair use policies and copyright guidelines
  Plus F. Technology Operations and Concepts - By the end of Grade 12 each student will:
    1. Complete at least one online credit, or non-credit, course or online learning experience
    2. Use an online tutorial and discuss the benefits and disadvantages of this method of learning
    3. Explore career opportunities, especially those related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics and identify their related technology skill requirements
    4. Describe uses of various existing or emerging technology resources (e.g., podcasting, webcasting, videoconferencing, online file sharing, global positioning software)
    5. Identify an example of an assistive technology and describe its potential purpose and use
    6. Participate in a virtual environment as a strategy to build 21st century learning skills
    7. Assess and solve hardware and software problems by using online help or other user documentation
    8. Explain the differences between freeware, shareware, open source, and commercial software
    9. Participate in experiences associated with technology-related careers
    10. Identify common graphic, audio, and video file formats (e.g., jpeg, gif, bmp, mpeg, wav, wmv, mp3, flv, avi, pdf)
    11. Understand and discuss how assistive technologies can benefit all individuals
    12. Demonstrate how to import/export text, graphics, or audio files
    13. Proofread and edit a document using an application’s spelling and grammar checking functions